Project description:Objectives: Campylobacter jejuni is responsible for 80% of Campylobacter infections in Israel, a country with a high incidence reaching 91/100,000 population. We studied the phylogeny, diversity and prevalence of virulence factors using whole genome sequencing (WGS) of a national sample of C. jejuni clinical, food, and animal isolates collected over a 10-year period (2003-2012). Methods: C. jejuni isolates (n = 263) were subject to WGS using Illumina sequencing (PE 250bpx2). Raw reads and de novo assemblies were analyzed with the BioNumerics whole genome MLST (wgMLST) pipeline. Reads were screened for 71 virulence genes by the SRST2 script. Allelic profiles were analyzed to create minimum spanning trees and allelic core distances were investigated to determine a reliable cutoff for strain determination. Results: wgMLST analysis of 263 C. jejuni isolates indicated significant diversity among the prevalent clonal complexes (CCs) with CC-21 and CC-353 being the most diverse, and CC-574 the most clonal. Within CC-21, sequence type (ST)-1359 created a separate clade. Human, poultry and bovine isolates clustered together across the different STs. Forty four percent of studied isolates were assigned to 29 genetic clusters. Temporal and geographical relatedness were found among the minority of clusters, while most phylogenetically associated cases appeared diffuse and unassociated epidemiologically. The majority of virulence factors were highly prevalent across the dataset and not associated with genotype, source of isolation or invasiveness. Conversely, all 13 genes associated with type VI secretion system (T6SS) were lineage-related and identified in only 18% of the isolates. T6SS was detected in 95.2% of ST-1359, a common type in Israel. Conclusions: wgMLST supported the assessment that poultry and cattle are likely food sources of infection in Israel. Substantial genetic clustering among C. jejuni isolates suggested multiple point source and diffuse outbreaks that were previously unreported in Israel. The high prevalence of T6SS among ST-1359 isolates is unique to Israel, and requires further investigation. This study exemplifies the importance of studying foodborne pathogens using advanced genomic approaches across the entire spectrum of One Health.
Project description:Rapid developments in the field of whole genome sequencing (WGS) make in silico antimicrobial resistance (AMR) a target within reach. Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of foodborne infections in Israel with increasing rates of resistance. We applied WGS analysis to study the prevalence and genetic basis of AMR in 263 C. jejuni human and veterinary representative isolates retrieved from a national collection during 2003-2012. We evaluated the prediction of phenotypic AMR from genomic data. Genomes were screened by the NCBI AMRFinderPlus and the BioNumerics tools for acquired AMR genes and point mutations. The results were compared to phenotypic resistance determined by broth microdilution. The most prevalent resistant determinants were the multi-drug efflux transporter gene cmeABC (100%), the tetracycline resistance tet(O) gene (82.1%), the quinolone resistance gyrA T861 point mutation (75.7%), and the aadE streptomycin resistance gene. A variety of 12 known ? lactam resistance genes (bla OXA variants) were detected in 241 (92%) isolates, the most prevalent being bla OXA-193, bla OXA-461, and bla OXA-580 (56, 16, and 7%, respectively). Other aminoglycoside resistance genes and the macrolide resistance point mutation were rare (<1%). The overall correlation rate between WGS-based genotypic prediction and phenotypic resistance was 98.8%, sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values being 98.0, 99.3, 99.1, and 98.5%, respectively. wgMLST-based phylogeny indicated a high level of clonality and clustering among the studied isolates. Closely related isolates that were part of a genetic cluster (single linkage distance ? 15 alleles) based on wgMLST phylogeny mostly shared a homogenous AMR determinant profile. This was observed in 18 of 20 (90.0%) clusters within clonal complex-21, suggesting clonal expansion of resistant isolates. Strong association to lineage was noted for the aadE gene and the various bla OXA genes. High resistance rates to tetracycline and quinolones and a low resistance rate to macrolides were detected among the Israeli C. jejuni isolates. While a high genotypic-phenotypic correlation was found, some resistance phenotypes could not be predicted by the presence of AMR determinants, and particularly not the level of resistance. WGS-based prediction of antimicrobial resistance in C. jejuni requires further optimization in order to integrate this approach in the routine workflow of public health laboratories for foodborne surveillance.
Project description:Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) via next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies is a powerful tool for determining the relatedness of bacterial isolates in foodborne illness detection and outbreak investigations. WGS has been applied to national outbreaks (for example, Listeria monocytogenes); however, WGS has rarely been used in smaller local outbreaks. The current study demonstrates the superior resolution of genetic and evolutionary relatedness generated by WGS data analysis, compared to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The current study retrospectively applies WGS and a reference-free bioinformatic analysis to a Utah-specific outbreak of Campylobacter jejuni associated with raw milk and to a national multistate outbreak of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium associated with rotisserie chicken, both of which were characterized previously by PFGE. Together, these analyses demonstrate how a reference-free WGS workflow is not reliant on determination of a reference sequence, like WGS workflows that are based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms, or the need for curated allele databases, like multilocus sequence typing workflows.
Project description:Campylobacteriosis typically manifests as a short-lived, self-limiting gastrointestinal infection in humans, however prolonged infection can be seen in cases with underlying immunodeficiency. Public Health England received 25 isolates of Campylobacter jejuni from an individual with combined variable immunodeficiency over a period of 15 years. All isolates were typed and archived at the time of receipt. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed to examine the relatedness of the isolates and to investigate the changes in the genome that had taken place over the course of the infection. Genomic typing methods were compared to conventional phenotypic methods, and revealed that the infection was caused by a single, persistent strain of C. jejuni belonging to clonal complex ST-45, with evidence of adaptation and selection in the genome over the course of the infection. Genomic analysis of sequence variants associated with antimicrobial resistance identified the genetic background behind rRNA gene mutations causing variable levels of resistance to erythromycin. This application of WGS to examine a persistent case of campylobacteriosis provides insight into the mutations and selective pressures occurring over the course of an infection, some of which have important clinical relevance.
Project description:Campylobacter jejuni is an important zoonotic pathogen known to be resistant to a wide range of antibiotics worldwide. Campylobacter jejuni may be intrinsically resistant to antibiotics or can acquire antibiotic resistance determinants through gene transfer. However, the knowledge of molecular mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter isolates from wild birds, especially in Lithuania, is limited. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is a tool for better understanding the evolutionary and epidemiologic dynamics of C jejuni. This study describes a draft whole genome sequence of C jejuni MM26-781 isolated from a common pigeon (Columba livia) in Lithuania in 2011 and assigned to ST-6424 (CC179) sequence type. The draft genome sequence contained 1.68 Mb, comprising 1651 coding genes, 40 transfer RNAs, 1 ribosomal RNA, and 69 pseudogenes with an average G + C content of 30.4%. The RAST (Rapid Annotation using Subsystem Technology) pipeline annotated (NCTC11168) a total of 305 subsystems in the genome of C jejuni MM26-781 strain, with most of the genes associated with amino acids and derivatives related to metabolism (18.93%) and protein metabolism (14.43%). The genes and mutations related to antibiotic resistance, including gyrA and gyrB genes associated with quinolone resistance, blaOXA-448 gene (locus tag C9371_07715) associated with resistance to β-lactams, rpoB gene associated with resistance to rifamycin, vgaE gene associated with resistance to streptogramin and efflux system CmeABC (cmeA, cmeB, cmeC), efflux pump PmrA, and transcriptional regulator CmeR responsible for multidrug resistance in C jejuni MM26-781 chromosome, were identified. Also, the virulence factors, including ciaB, cadF, ceuE, pldA, motB, and bd1A genes, were identified by WGS data analysis.
Project description:Mutator strains play an important role in the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of foodborne illnesses worldwide and is increasingly resistant to clinically important antibiotics. The objective of this study was to identify the genetic basis that contributes to a mutator phenotype in Campylobacter and determine the role of this phenotype in the development of antibiotic resistance.A C. jejuni isolate (named CMT) showing a mutator phenotype was subjected to WGS analysis. Comparative genomics, site-specific reversion and mutation, and gene knockout were conducted to prove the mutator effect was caused by a single nucleotide change in the mutY gene of C. jejuni.The C. jejuni CMT isolate showed ? 100-fold higher mutation frequency to ciprofloxacin than the WT strain. Under selection by ciprofloxacin, fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants emerged readily from the CMT isolate. WGS identified a single nucleotide change (G595 ? T) in the mutY gene of the CMT isolate. Further experiments using defined mutant constructs proved its specific role in elevating mutation frequencies. The mutY point mutation also led to an ? 700-fold increase in the emergence of ampicillin-resistant mutants, indicating its broader impact on antibiotic resistance. Structural modelling suggested the G595 ? T mutation probably affects the catalytic domain of MutY and consequently abolishes the anti-mutator function of this DNA repair protein.The G595 ? T mutation in mutY abolishes its anti-mutator function and confers a mutator phenotype in Campylobacter, promoting the emergence of antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter.
Project description:Background:Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis (campylobacteriosis) in humans worldwide, and the most frequent pathogen associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and Miller-Fisher syndrome (MFS). The study was designed in order to assess similarities between genomes of Campylobacter jejuni strains, isolated from children suffering from acute diarrhea in northeastern Poland, in comparison to C. jejuni genomes stored in public databases. The analysis involved phylogeny, resistome and virulome. In addition, the Campylobacter PubMLST database was used to estimate the prevalence of the analyzed C. jejuni sequence type (STs) in other countries. Results:Campylobacter jejuni ST50, ST257 and ST51 represented 5.3%, 4.5% and 2.2% of the PubMLST records, respectively. Overall, strains representing the STs showed common resistance to tetracyclines (51.3%) and fluoroquinolones (31.8%), mediated through the tetO gene (98.2%) and point mutation (T86I) in the gyrA gene (100%). However, the latter was present in all our isolates. The major differences in virulence patterns concerned serotypes, lipooligosaccharide (LOS) classes and certain clinically relevant genes. Conclusions:Campylobacter jejuni ST50, ST51 and ST257 are among the top ten of STs isolated in Europe. WGS revealed diversity of serotypes and LOS classes in ST50 strains, that deserves further clinical and epidemiological investigations as it might be related to a risk of post-infectious neurological sequels such as Guillain-Barré syndrome. Additionally, the results implicate lower pathogenic potential and distinct transmission chains or reservoirs for C. jejuni ST51 isolates responsible for campylobacteriosis in northeastern Poland.
Project description:Campylobacter spp., especially C. jejuni, are recognized worldwide as the bacterial species that most commonly cause food-related diarrhea. C. jejuni possesses many different virulence factors, has the ability to survive in different reservoirs, and has shown among isolates the emergence of Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR). Genome association analyses of this bacterial pathogen have contributed to a better understanding of its pathogenic and AMR associated determinants. However, the epidemiological information of these bacteria in Latin American countries is scarce and no genomic information is available in public databases from isolates in these countries. Considering this, the present study is aimed to describe the genomic traits from representative Campylobacter spp. strains recovered from faecal samples of patients with acute diarrhoea from Valparaíso, Chile. Campylobacter spp. was detected from the faeces of 28 (8%) out of 350 patients with acute diarrhoea, mainly from young adults and children, and 26 (93%) of the isolates corresponded to C. jejuni. 63% of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, 25.9% to tetracycline, and 3.5% to erythromycin. Three isolates were selected for WGS on the basis of their flaA-RFLP genotype. They belonged to the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) clonal clomplex (CC) 21(PUCV-1), CC-48 (PUCV-3), and CC-353 (PUCV-2) and presented several putative virulence genes, including the Type IV and Type VI Secretion Systems, as well as AMR-associated genes in agreement with their susceptibility pattern. On the basis of the wgMLST, they were linked to strains from poultry and ruminants. These are the first genomes of Chilean C. jejuni isolates available in public databases and they provide relevant information about the C. jejuni isolates associated with human infection in this country.
Project description:Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is useful for determining clusters of human cases, investigating outbreaks, and defining the population genetics of bacteria. It also provides information about other aspects of bacterial biology, including classical typing results, virulence, and adaptive strategies of the organism. Cell culture invasion and protein expression patterns of four related multilocus sequence type 21 (ST21) C. jejuni isolates from a significant Canadian water-borne outbreak were previously associated with the presence of a CJIE1 prophage. Whole genome sequencing was used to examine the genetic diversity among these isolates and confirm that previous observations could be attributed to differential prophage carriage. Moreover, we sought to determine the presence of genome sequences that could be used as surrogate markers to delineate outbreak-associated isolates.Differential carriage of the CJIE1 prophage was identified as the major genetic difference among the four outbreak isolates. High quality single-nucleotide variant (hqSNV) and core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST) clustered these isolates within expanded datasets consisting of additional C. jejuni strains. The number and location of homopolymeric tract regions was identical in all four outbreak isolates but differed from all other C. jejuni examined. Comparative genomics and PCR amplification enabled the identification of large chromosomal inversions of approximately 93 kb and 388 kb within the outbreak isolates associated with transducer-like proteins containing long nucleotide repeat sequences. The 93-kb inversion was characteristic of the outbreak-associated isolates, and the gene content of this inverted region displayed high synteny with the reference strain.The four outbreak isolates were clonally derived and differed mainly in the presence of the CJIE1 prophage, validating earlier findings linking the prophage to phenotypic differences in virulence assays and protein expression. The identification of large, genetically syntenous chromosomal inversions in the genomes of outbreak-associated isolates provided a unique method for discriminating outbreak isolates from the background population. Transducer-like proteins appear to be associated with the chromosomal inversions. CgMLST and hqSNV analysis also effectively delineated the outbreak isolates within the larger C. jejuni population structure.
Project description:Whole genome sequencing (WGS) has been used to assess the phylogenetic relationships, virulence and metabolic differences, and the relationship between gene carriage and host or niche differentiation among populations of C. jejuni isolates. We previously characterized the presence and expression of CJIE4 prophage proteins in four C. jejuni isolates using WGS and comparative proteomics analysis, but the isolates were not assessed further. In this study we compare the closed, finished genome sequences of these isolates to the total proteome. Genomes of the four isolates differ in phage content and location, plasmid content, capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis loci, a type VI secretion system, orientation of the ~92 kb invertible element, and allelic differences. Proteins with 99% sequence identity can be differentiated using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) comparative proteomic methods. GO enrichment analysis and the type of artefacts produced in comparative proteomic analysis depend on whether proteins are encoded in only one isolate or common to all isolates, whether different isolates have different alleles of the proteins analyzed, whether conserved and variable regions are both present in the protein group analyzed, and on how the analysis is done. Several proteins encoded by genes with very high levels of sequence identity in all four isolates exhibited preferentially higher protein expression in only one of the four isolates, suggesting differential regulation among the isolates. It is possible to analyze comparative protein expression in more distantly related isolates in the context of WGS data, though the results are more complex to interpret than when isolates are clonal or very closely related. Comparative proteomic analysis produced log2 fold expression data suggestive of regulatory differences among isolates, indicating that it may be useful as a hypothesis generation exercise to identify regulated proteins and regulatory pathways for more detailed analysis.