Project description:Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. To define the HPV-associated microbial community among a high vaccination coverage population, we carried out a cross-sectional study with 345 young Swedish women. The microbial composition and its association with HPV infection, including 27 HPV types, were analyzed. Microbial alpha-diversity was found significantly higher in the HPV-infected group (especially with oncogenic HPV types and multiple HPV types), compared with the HPV negative group. The vaginal microbiota among HPV-infected women was characterized by a larger number of bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria (BVAB), Sneathia, Prevotella, and Megasphaera. In addition, the correlation analysis demonstrated that twice as many women with non-Lactobacillus-dominant vaginal microbiota were infected with oncogenic HPV types, compared with L. crispatus-dominated vaginal microbiota. The data suggest that HPV infection, especially oncogenic HPV types, is strongly associated with a non-Lactobacillus-dominant vaginal microbiota, regardless of age and vaccination status.
Project description:Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most important causative agent of cervical cancers worldwide. However, our understanding of how the vaginal microbiota might be associated with HPV infection is limited. In addition, the influence of human genetic and physiological factors on the vaginal microbiota is unclear. Studies on twins and their families provide the ideal settings to investigate the complicated nature of human microbiota. This study investigated the vaginal microbiota of 68 HPV-infected or uninfected female twins and their families using 454-pyrosequencing analysis targeting the variable region (V2-V3) of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Analysis of the vaginal microbiota from both premenopausal women and HPV-discordant twins indicated that HPV-positive women had significantly higher microbial diversity with a lower proportion of Lactobacillus spp. than HPV-negative women. Fusobacteria, including Sneathia spp., were identified as a possible microbiological marker associated with HPV infection. The vaginal microbiotas of twin pairs were significantly more similar to each other than to those from unrelated individuals. In addition, there were marked significant differences from those of their mother, possibly due to differences in menopausal status. Postmenopausal women had a lower proportion of Lactobacillus spp. and a significantly higher microbiota diversity. This study indicated that HPV infection was associated with the composition of the vaginal microbiota, which is influenced by multiple host factors such as genetics and menopause. The potential biological markers identified in this study could provide insight into HPV pathogenesis and may represent biological targets for diagnostics.
Project description:Cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) infection may increase HIV risk. Since other genital infections enhance HIV susceptibility by inducing inflammation, we assessed the impact of HPV infection and clearance on genital immunology and the cervico-vaginal microbiome. Genital samples were collected from 65 women for HPV testing, immune studies and microbiota assessment; repeat HPV testing was performed after 6 months. All participants were HIV-uninfected and free of bacterial STIs. Cytobrush-derived T cell and dendritic cell subsets were assessed by multiparameter flow cytometry. Undiluted cervico-vaginal secretions were used to determine cytokine levels by multiplex ELISA, and to assess bacterial community composition and structure by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Neither HPV infection nor clearance were associated with broad differences in cervical T cell subsets or cytokines, although HPV clearance was associated with increased Langerhans cells and HPV infection with elevated IP-10 and MIG. Individuals with HPV more frequently had a high diversity cervico-vaginal microbiome (community state type IV) and were less likely to have an L. gasseri predominant microbiome. In summary, HPV infection and/or subsequent clearance was not associated with inflammation or altered cervical T cell subsets, but associations with increased Langerhans cells and the composition of the vaginal microbiome warrant further exploration.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The vaginal microbiota may modulate susceptibility to human papillomavirus (HPV), Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Mycoplasma genitalium infections. Persistent infection with a carcinogenic HPV is a prerequisite for cervical cancer, and C. trachomatis, N. gonorrheae and M. genitalium genital infections are all associated with pelvic inflammatory disease and subsequent infertility issues. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the association between these infections and the vaginal microbiota. DATA SOURCES:The search was conducted on Medline and the Web of Science for articles published between 2000 and 2016. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA:Inclusion criteria included a measure of association for vaginal microbiota and one of the considered STIs, female population, cohort, cross-sectional and interventional designs, and the use of PCR methods for pathogen detection. METHODS:The vaginal microbiota was dichotomized into high-Lactobacillus vaginal microbiota (HL-VMB) and low-Lactobacillus vaginal microbiota (LL-VMB), using either Nugent score, Amsel's criteria, presence of clue cells or gene sequencing. A random effects model assuming heterogeneity among the studies was used for each STI considered. RESULTS:The search yielded 1054 articles, of which 39 met the inclusion criteria. Measures of association with LL-VMB ranged from 0.6 (95% CI 0.3-1.2) to 2.8 (95% CI 0.3-28.0), 0.7 (95% CI 0.4-1.2) to 5.2 (95% CI 1.9-14.8), 0.8 (95% CI 0.5-1.4) to 3.8 (95% CI 0.4-36.2) and 0.4 (95% CI 0.1-1.5) to 6.1 (95% CI 2.0-18.5) for HPV, C. trachomatis, N. gonorrhoeae and M. genitalium infections, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Although no clear trend for N. gonorrhoeae and M. genitalium infections could be detected, our results support a protective role of HL-VMB for HPV and C. trachomatis. Overall, these findings advocate for the use of high-resolution characterization methods for the vaginal microbiota and the need for longitudinal studies to lay the foundation for its integration in prevention and treatment strategies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The vaginal microbiota has been reported to be associated with HPV infection and cervical cancer. This study was performed to compare the vaginal microbiota at two timepoints in women performing self-sampling and had a persistent or transient HPV16 infection. The women were tested for 12 high-risk HPV (hrHPV) types but only women with single type (HPV16) were included to reduce confounding variables. METHODS:In total 96 women were included in this study. Of these, 26 were single positive for HPV16 in the baseline test and HPV negative in the follow-up test and 38 were single positive for HPV16 in both tests and diagnosed with CIN2+ in histology. In addition, 32 women that were negative for all 12 HPV tested were included. The samples of vaginal fluid were analyzed with the Ion 16S™ Metagenomics Kit and Ion 16S™ metagenomics module within the Ion Reporter™ software. RESULTS:K-means clustering resulted in two Lactobacillus-dominated groups, one with Lactobacillus sp. and the other specifically with Lactobacillus iners. The two remaining clusters were dominated by a mixed non-Lactobacillus microbiota. HPV negative women had lower prevalence (28%) of the non-Lactobacill dominant cluster in the baseline test, as compared to women with HPV16 infection (42%) (p value?=?0.0173). Transition between clusters were more frequent in women with persistent HPV16 infection (34%) as compared in women who cleared the HPV16 infection (19%) (p value?=?0.036). CONCLUSIONS:The vaginal microbiota showed a higher rate of transitioning between bacterial profiles in women with persistent HPV16 infection as compared to women with transient infection. This indicate an instability in the microenvironment in women with persistent HPV infection and development of CIN2+.
Project description:In this study, we evaluated the association between high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) and the vaginal microbiome. Participants were recruited in Nigeria between April and August 2012. Vaginal bacterial composition was characterized by deep sequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA gene fragments (V4) on Illumina MiSeq and HPV was identified using the Roche Linear Array® HPV genotyping test. We used exact logistic regression models to evaluate the association between community state types (CSTs) of vaginal microbiota and hrHPV infection, weighted UniFrac distances to compare the vaginal microbiota of individuals with prevalent hrHPV to those without prevalent hrHPV infection, and the Linear Discriminant Analysis effect size (LEfSe) algorithm to characterize bacteria associated with prevalent hrHPV infection. We observed four CSTs: CST IV-B with a low relative abundance of Lactobacillus spp. in 50% of participants; CST III (dominated by L. iners) in 39·2%; CST I (dominated by L. crispatus) in 7·9%; and CST VI (dominated by proteobacteria) in 2·9% of participants. LEfSe analysis suggested an association between prevalent hrHPV infection and a decreased abundance of Lactobacillus sp. with increased abundance of anaerobes particularly of the genera Prevotella and Leptotrichia in HIV-negative women (P < 0·05). These results are hypothesis generating and further studies are required.
Project description:Condyloma acuminatum (CA) is a benign epithelium hyperplasia mainly caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), which is now the second most common viral sexually transmitted infection (STI) in China. In total, 90% of CA patients are caused by the low-risk HPV 6 and 11. Aside from low-risk HPV infection there are likely other factors within the local microenvironment that contribute to CA and there has been related research before. In this study, 62 vaginal specimens were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The diversity of the vaginal microbiota was higher and the composition was different with LR-HPV infection. While the relative abundance of dominant Firmicutes was lower, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Fusobacteria phyla were significantly higher; at the genus level Gardnerella, Bifidobacterium, Sneathia, Hydrogenophilus, Burkholderia, and Atopobium were higher. This study firstly confirmed a more accurate and comprehensive understanding of the relationship between low-risk HPV infection and vaginal microbiota, in order to provide a theoretical basis for further research on the occurrence and development of CA.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the changes of vaginal microbiota during cervical carcinogenesis in women with high-risk human papillomavirus infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Vaginal microbiota was analyzed using next-generation sequencing in women with normal, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), or cervical cancer. RESULTS:A marked decrease of Lactobacillus crispatus was found in the CIN/cancer groups compared with that in the normal group. The diversity of microorganisms increased in patients with CIN or cervical cancer with HPV infection. Atopobium vaginae (OR 4.33, 95% CI 1.15-16.32), Dialister invisus (OR 4.89, 95% CI 1.20-19.94), Finegoldia magna (OR 6.00, 95% CI 1.08-33.27), Gardnerella vaginalis (OR 7.43, 95% CI 1.78-31.04), Prevotella buccalis (OR 11.00, 95% CI 2.00-60.57), and Prevotella timonensis (OR 6.00, 95% CI 1.46-24.69) were significantly associated with the risk of CIN 2/3 or cervical cancer. CONCLUSION:Women with the CIN and cervical cancer showed a high diversity in vaginal microbiota. Depletion of Lactobacillus crispatus and increased abundance of anaerobic bacteria were detected in women with cervical disease.
Project description:Changes in cervico-vaginal microbiota with Lactobacillus depletion and increased microbial diversity facilitate human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and might be involved in viral persistence and cancer development. To define the microbial Community State Types (CSTs) associated with high-risk HPV-persistence, we analysed 55 cervico-vaginal samples from HPV positive (HPV+) women out of 1029 screened women and performed pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA. A total of 17 samples from age-matched HPV negative (HPV-) women were used as control. Clearance or Persistence groups were defined by recalling women after one year for HPV screening and genotyping. A CST IV subgroup, with bacterial genera such as Gardnerella, Prevotella, Megasphoera, Atopobium, frequently associated with anaerobic consortium in bacterial vaginosis (BV), was present at baseline sampling in 43% of women in Persistence group, and only in 7.4% of women in Clearance group. Atopobium genus was significantly enriched in Persistence group compared to the other groups. Sialidase-encoding gene from Gardnerella vaginalis, involved in biofilm formation, was significantly more represented in Persistence group compared to the other groups. Based on these data, we consider the CST IV-BV as a risk factor for HPV persistence and we propose Atopobium spp and sialidase gene from G. vaginalis as microbial markers of HPV-persistence.
Project description:There have been conflicting reports of altered vaginal microbiota and infection susceptibility associated with contraception use. The objectives of this study were to determine if intrauterine contraception altered the vaginal microbiota and to compare the effects of a copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD) and a levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) on the vaginal microbiota.DNA was isolated from the vaginal swab samples of 76 women using Cu-IUD (n=36) or LNG-IUS (n=40) collected prior to insertion of intrauterine contraception (baseline) and at 6 months. A third swab from approximately 12 months following insertion was available for 69 (Cu-IUD, n=33; LNG-IUS, n=36) of these women. The V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA-encoding gene was amplified from the vaginal swab DNA and sequenced. The 16S rRNA gene sequences were processed and analyzed using the software package mothur to compare the structure and dynamics of the vaginal bacterial communities.The vaginal microbiota from individuals in this study clustered into 3 major vaginal bacterial community types: one dominated by Lactobacillus iners, one dominated by Lactobacillus crispatus and one community type that was not dominated by a single Lactobacillus species. Changes in the vaginal bacterial community composition were not associated with the use of Cu-IUD or LNG-IUS. Additionally, we did not observe a clear difference in vaginal microbiota stability with Cu-IUD versus LNG-IUS use.Although the vaginal microbiota can be highly dynamic, alterations in the community associated with the use of intrauterine contraception (Cu-IUD or LNG-IUS) were not detected over 12 months.We found no evidence that intrauterine contraception (Cu-IUD or LNG-IUS) altered the vaginal microbiota composition. Therefore, the use of intrauterine contraception is unlikely to shift the composition of the vaginal microbiota such that infection susceptibility is altered.