Project description:A direct comparison of RNAi in vitro with RNAi in vivo is being performed using RNA interference (RNAi) target sequencing (RIT-Seq) of Trypanosoma brucei to identify all genes specifically required for growth in vivo (the infectome). Assembly of the bloodstream-form T. brucei RNAi library and the RNAi target sequencing (RIT-seq) approach in African trypanosomes were reported previously in Alsford, S. et al. High-throughput phenotyping using parallel sequencing of RNA interference targets in the African trypanosome. Genome Res 21, 915-924, 264 doi:gr.115089.110 [pii] 265 10.1101/gr.115089.110 (2011) and Alsford,S et al. High-throughput decoding of antitrypanosomal drug efficacy and resistance. Nature 482, 232236 doi:10.1038/nature10771 (2012). This data is part of a pre-publication release. For information on the proper use of pre-publication data shared by the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute (including details of any publication moratoria), please see http://www.sanger.ac.uk/datasharing/
Project description:We used all five current human African trypanosomiasis drugs for genome-scale RNA interference (RNAi) target sequencing (RIT-seq) screens in Trypanosoma brucei, revealing the transporters, organelles, enzymes and metabolic pathways that function to facilitate anti-trypanosomal drug action. RIT-seq profiling links more than fifty additional genes to drug action. This data has been described in the following article [doi:10.1038/nature10771] and its further analysis can be freely submitted for publication. For information on the proper use of data shared by the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute (including information on acknowledgement), please see http://www.sanger.ac.uk/datasharing/. Protocol - Assembly of the bloodstream-form T. brucei RNAi library and the RNAi target sequencing (RIT-seq) approach were reported previously (Alsford, S. et al. High-throughput phenotyping using parallel sequencing of RNA interference targets in the African trypanosome. Genome Res 21, 915-924, 264 doi:gr.115089.110 [pii] 265 10.1101/gr.115089.110 (2011). Briefly, a tetracycline-inducible RNAi plasmid library, containing randomly sheared genomic fragments (mean ~600 bp) under the control of head-to-head T7 promoters, was targeted to a single genomic locus that had been validated for robust expression. For this study, the library was grown under inducing conditions with drug selection and genomic DNA was isolated from surviving populations. For chemical RIT-seq profiling, adapter-ligated sequencing libraries were prepared from each genomic DNA sample and used to amplify DNA fragments containing RNAi cassette-insert junctions in semi-specific PCR reactions; one primer was specific for the RNAi vector and the other for the Illumina adapter. Size-selected DNA was sequenced with 76 cycle paired-end runs on an Illumina GAII. Illumina sequencing reads containing a nine-base RNAi vector junction sequence were then mapped to the T. brucei reference genome. Where loss of function increases drug tolerance, RNAi-target sequence representation is increased relative to the otherwise susceptible population, revealing hot spots.
Project description:The protozoan parasites Trypanosoma brucei spp. are responsible for important human and livestock diseases in sub Saharan Africa. In the mammalian blood, two developmental forms of the parasite exist: proliferative ?slender? forms and transmissible ?stumpy? forms that are quiescent, awaiting uptake in a tsetse fly bloodmeal. The slender to stumpy differentiation is a density-dependent response that resembles quorum sensing in microbial systems and is crucial for the parasite life cycle, ensuring both infection chronicity and disease transmission. The response is triggered by an elusive ?stumpy induction factor? (SIF) whose intracellular signaling pathway is also completely uncharacterized. Laboratory-adapted (monomorphic) trypanosome strains cannot respond to SIF, but can generate forms with stumpy characteristics when exposed to cell permeable cAMP and AMP analogues. Exploiting this, we have used a genome-wide RNAi library screen to identify the signaling components driving stumpy formation. In separate screens, monomorphic parasites were exposed to cell permeable cAMP or AMP analogues to select cells that remained proliferative and so were unresponsive to these signals. Genome-wide ion torrent-based RNA interference Target sequencing (RIT-seq) identified a cohort of genes implicated in all steps of the signaling pathway, from purine metabolism, through signal transducers (kinases, phosphatases) to gene expression regulators. The identified genes at each step have been validated in cells naturally capable of stumpy formation, confirming their role in SIF-induced density sensing and cellular quiescence. RNA was isolated from AnTat1.1 cells grown in mice with or without doxycycline. RBP7 (Tb927.10.12100) RNAi lines were grown in mice with or without doxycycline. Since the RBP7 RNAi is leaky (six independent cell lines were analysed and all were significantly leaky), transcripts that showed elevated or reduced abundance in both RNAi induced and uninduced populations were identified in comparison to the AnTat1.1 control. A similar approach was adopted for the RBP7 over-expressing lines.
Project description:The host range of African trypanosomes is influenced by innate protective molecules in the blood of primates. A subfraction of human high-density lipoprotein (HDL) containing apolipoprotein A-I, apolipoprotein L-I, and haptoglobin-related protein is toxic to Trypanosoma brucei brucei but not the human sleeping sickness parasite Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. It is thought that T. b. rhodesiense evolved from a T. b. brucei-like ancestor and expresses a defense protein that ablates the antitrypanosomal activity of human HDL. To directly investigate this possibility, we developed an in vitro selection to generate human HDL-resistant T. b. brucei. Here we show that conversion of T. b. brucei from human HDL sensitive to resistant correlates with changes in the expression of the variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) and abolished uptake of the cytotoxic human HDLs. Complete transcriptome analysis of the HDL-susceptible and -resistant trypanosomes confirmed that VSG switching had occurred but failed to reveal the expression of other genes specifically associated with human HDL resistance, including the serum resistance-associated gene (SRA) of T. b. rhodesiense. In addition, we found that while the original active expression site was still utilized, expression of three expression site-associated genes (ESAG) was altered in the HDL-resistant trypanosomes. These findings demonstrate that resistance to human HDLs can be acquired by T. b. brucei. Keywords: Trypanosoma, VSG, antigenic switching, HDL-resistance Overall design: Bloodstream stages of the Lister strain 427 T. b. brucei (MiTat 1.2), expressing VSG221, were used in these studies. Cells were cultured in HMI-9 medium with the addition of heat inactivated fetal bovine serum (FBS) (10%) and Serum Plus (10%). T. b. brucei 427-221 is an antigenically stable line and contains a single copy of the vsg221 gene within the 221 expression site (221ES). At a cell density of approximately 1,000,000 cells/ml, T. b. brucei 427-221 were exposed to various amounts of human HDLs for 24 h in a 6 well plate. Surviving trypanosomes were counted using a hemocytometer then diluted into fresh HMI-9 medium and allowed to recover for 5-14 days. Once the cells had grown to a density of approximately 1,000,000 cells/ml, they were once again incubated with human HDLs. Each round of selection was performed with increasing concentrations of human HDLs and freezer stocks were prepared for each surviving population. Over nine months we conducted eight rounds of human HDL selection, resulting in a population of T. b. brucei that survived incubation with 800 µl of human HDLs (160 lytic U).
Project description:Gradient fractions of RNAi of XAC1 (Tb927.7.2780) in Trypanosoma brucei bloodstream forms. RNAi was induced using tetracycline and cell extracts were fractionated into polysomal and monosome-non-ribosome-associated fractions.
Project description:Cy3 and Cy5 direct labelled RNA from Bloodstream MiTat1.1 trypanosomes and Procyclic 427 Lister were hybridized onto JCVI Trypanosoma brucei oligoarrays (version2). Procyclic RNA were used as control for data analysis.