Project description:The formation of R-loops is a natural consequence of the transcription process, caused by invasion of the DNA duplex by nascent transcripts. These structures have been considered rare transcriptional by-products with potential harmful effects on genome integrity, due to the fragility of the displaced DNA coding strand. However R-loops may also possess beneficial effects as their widespread formation has been detected over CpG island promoters in human genes. Furthermore we have previously shown that R-loops are particularly enriched over G-rich terminator elements. These facilitate RNA polymerase II (Pol II) pausing prior to efficient termination. Here we reveal an unanticipated link between R-loops and RNA interference (RNAi)-dependent H3K9me2 formation over pause site termination regions of mammalian protein coding genes. We show that R-loops induce antisense transcription over these pause elements which in turn lead to the generation of double-strand RNA (dsRNA) and recruitment of Dicer, Ago1, Ago2, and G9a histone lysine methyltransferase (HKMT). Consequently an H3K9me2 repressive mark is formed and Heterochromatin Protein 1γ (HP1γ) is recruited, that reinforces Pol II pausing prior to efficient transcriptional termination. We predict that R-loops promote a chromatin architecture that defines the termination region for a substantial subset of mammalian genes. PolIIS2ph ChIP-seq and input in untreated condition and treated with BIX and RNaseH1 overexpression in HeLa cells. The 4 samples have been multiplexed, pooled and sequenced on 3 lanes of Illumina HiSeq2000.
Project description:Nucleosome remodeling results in loss of histone occupancy. To gain insight into variations in H3 occupancy in different murine cell types, chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with massive parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq) was performed to determine genome wide occupancy of H3 in ES cells, myotubes and pro-B cells. DNA was enriched by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and analyzed by Solexa sequencing. ChIP was performed using an antibody against total H3 in murine ES cells in normal culture conditions, murine ES cells treated with the TGF-beta inhibitor (SB431542, 10uM) for 24 hours, myotubes differentiated for 48 hours and pro-B cells under normal culture conditions.
Project description:X chromosome inactivation (XCI) silences most genes on one X chromosome in female mammals, but some genes escape XCI. To identify escape gene in vivo and to explore molecular mechanisms that regulate this process we analyzed the allele-specific expression and chromatin structure of X-linked genes in mouse tissues and cells with skewed XCI and distinguishable alleles based on single nucleotide polymorphisms. Using a new method to estimate allelic expression, we demonstrate a continuum between complete silencing and significant expression from the inactive X (Xi). Few genes (2-3%) escape XCI to a significant level and only a minority differs between mouse tissues, suggesting stringent silencing and escape controls. Allelic profiles of DNase I hypersensitivity and RNA polymerase II occupancy of genes on the Xi correlate with escape from XCI. Allelic binding profiles of the DNA binding protein CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) in different cell types indicate that CTCF binding at the promoter correlates with escape. Importantly, CTCF binding at the boundary between escape and silenced domains may prevent the spreading of active escape chromatin into silenced domains. Examination of CTCF and RNA PolIIS5p occupancy in mouse hybrid cells and adult tissues.
Project description:In eukaryotes, heterochromatin is characterized by numerous epigenetic marks, including DNA methylation. Spreading of these marks into nearby active genes must be avoided in order to maintain appropriate gene expression. Here, we uncover Arabidopsis Methyl-CpG-Binding Domain 7 (MBD7) and Increased DNA Methylation 3 (IDM3) as anti-silencing factors that prevent transgene repression and genome-wide DNA hypermethylation. MBD7 preferentially binds to highly methylated, CG-dense regions associated with non-CG methylation and physically associates with other anti-silencing factors, including the histone acetyltransferase IDM1, IDM2, and IDM3. IDM1 and IDM2 were previously shown to facilitate active DNA demethylation by the 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylase/lyase ROS1. Thus, MBD7 tethers the IDM proteins to methylated DNA, which enables the function of DNA demethylases that in turn establish chromatin boundaries and limit DNA methylation Using MethylC-Seq to provide single-base resolution of DNA methylation status in WT and idm3-1, mbd7-1 mutants Whole genome methylation maps of mbd7-1, idm3-1 and WT (all three are from 35S-SUC transgene background) were generated using BS-seq
Project description:Enhancers play a central role in cell-type-specific gene expression and are marked by H3K4me1/2. Active enhancers are further marked by H3K27ac. However, the methyltransferases responsible for the deposition of H3K4me1/2 on enhancers remain elusive. Furthermore, the functions of these methyltransferases on enhancers and associated cell-type-specific gene expression are poorly understood. Here, we identify MLL4 (KMT2D) as a major H3K4 mono- and di-methyltransferase in mammalian cells. Using adipogenesis and myogenesis as model systems, we show that MLL4 exhibits cell-type- and differentiation-stage-specific genomic binding and is predominantly localized on enhancers. MLL4 co-localizes with lineage-determining transcription factors (TFs) on active enhancers during differentiation. Deletion of MLL4 dramatically decreases H3K4me1/2 and H3K27ac on enhancers and leads to severe defects in cell-type-specific gene expression and cell differentiation. Finally, we provide evidence that lineage-determining TFs recruit and require MLL4 to establish enhancers critical for cell-type-specific gene expression. Together, these results identify MLL4 as an H3K4 mono-/di-methyltransferase required for enhancer activation during cell differentiation. ChIP-Seq analyses of adipogenic TF (C/EBPalpha, C/EBPbeta, and PPARgamma) and Pol II profiles at D0 (day 0) and D2 (day 2) of adipogenesis in WT (MLL3-/-) and MLL4 KO (MLL3-/-;MLL4-/-) brown preadipocytes.
Project description:This experiment was designed to detect differences in PRC2 occupancy in a human induced pluripotent cell line (MRC5) naturally deficient in MEG3 RNA after lentiviral overexpression of MEG3. MRC5 were transduced with lentiviruses for the overexpression of MEG3 lncRNA or GFP as a control. ChIP-seq was performed with EZH2 and JARID2 antibodies.
Project description:DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification associated with transcriptional repression of promoters and is essential for mammalian development. Establishment of DNA methylation is mediated by the de novo DNA methyltransferases DNMT3A and DNMT3B, whereas DNMT1 ensures maintenance of methylation through replication. Absence of these enzymes is lethal, and somatic mutations in these genes have been associated with several human diseases. How genomic DNA methylation patterns are regulated remains poorly understood, as the mechanisms that guide recruitment and activity of DNMTs in vivo are largely unknown. To gain insights into this matter we determined chromosomal binding and site-specific activity of the mammalian de novo DNA methyltransferases DNMT3A and DNMT3B. We show that both enzymes localize to methylated, CpG dense regions in mouse stem cells, yet are excluded from active promoters and enhancers. By specifically measuring sites of de novo methylation, we observe that enzymatic activity reflects chromosomal binding. De novo methylation increases with CpG density, yet is excluded from nucleosomes. Notably, we observed selective binding of DNMT3B to the bodies of transcribed genes, which leads to their preferential methylation. This targeting to transcribed sequences requires SETD2-mediated methylation of lysine 36 on histone H3 and a functional PWWP domain of DNMT3B. Together these findings reveal how sequence and chromatin cues guide de novo methyltransferase activity to ensure methylome integrity. Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing for Dnmt1,3a,3b-triple-KO ES cells expressing DNMT3A2 or DNMT3B1 and for Dnmt1,3a,3b,Setd2-KO ES cells expressing DNMT3B1
Project description:We report the genome-wide mapping of Orc1 binding-sites in mammals and their validation as active DNA-replication origins (ORIs). Orc1 sites are universally associated with transcription start sites (TSSs) of coding or non-coding RNAs. Transcription levels at the Orc1 sites directly correlate with replication timing, suggesting the existence of two classes of ORIs: those associated with moderate/high transcription levels (≥1 RNA copy/cell), replicating in early S and mapping to the TSSs of coding RNAs, and those associated with low transcription levels (<1 RNA copy/cell), replicating throughout the entire S and mapping to TSSs of non-coding RNAs. These findings are compatible with a scenario whereby TSS expression-levels influence the efficiency of Orc1 recruitment at G1 and the probability of firing during S. Identification of Orc1 binding sites in human cells
Project description:CTCF (CCCTC-binding factor) is a highly conserved 11-zinc finger DNA binding protein with tens of thousands of binding sites genome-wide. CTCF acts as a multifunctional regulator of transcription, having been previously associated with activator, repressor, and insulator activity. These diverse regulatory functions are crucial for preimplantation development and are implicated in the regulation of numerous lineage-specific genes. Despite playing a critical role in developmental gene regulation, the mechanisms that underlie developmental changes in CTCF recruitment and function are poorly understood. Our previous work suggested that differences in CTCF’s binding site sequence may affect the regulation of CTCF recruitment, as well as CTCF’s regulatory function. To investigate these two possibilities directly during a developmental process, changes in genome-wide CTCF binding and gene expression were characterized during in vitro differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells. CTCF binding sites were initially separated into three classes (named LowOc, MedOc, and HighOc) based on similarity to the consensus motif. The LowOc class, with lower-similarity to the consensus motif, is more likely to show changes in binding during differentiation. These more dynamically bound sites are enriched for motifs that confer a lower in vitro affinity for CTCF, suggesting a mechanism where sites with low-binding affinity are more amenable to developmental control. Additionally, by comparing changes in CTCF binding with changes in gene expression during differentiation, we show that LowOc and HighOc sites are associated with distinct regulatory functions. In sum, these results suggest that the regulatory control of CTCF’s binding and function is dependent in part upon specific motifs within its DNA binding site. Mouse E14 ES cells were differentiated in vitro for 4.5 days using retinoic acid. ChIP-seq for CTCF and an IgG control was performed from cells collected before and after differentiation. For undifferentiated cells, data were generated in two biological replicates.
Project description:We performed ATAC-sequencing in LSK cells (Lin(neg)/c-Kit(+)/Sca-1(+)) from shRNA mice carrying an shRNA for either Renilla or Stag2. ATAC-sequencing control (Renilla) and Stag2 knockdown cells.