Project description:BACKGROUND: The forkhead box/winged helix family members FOXA1, FOXA2, and FOXA3 are of high importance in development and specification of the hepatic linage and the continued expression of liver-specific genes. RESULTS: Here, we present a genome-wide location analysis of FOXA1 and FOXA3 binding sites in HepG2 cells through chromatin immunoprecipitation with detection by sequencing (ChIP-seq) studies and compare these with our previous results on FOXA2. We found that these factors often bind close to each other in different combinations and consecutive immunoprecipitation of chromatin for one and then a second factor (ChIP-reChIP) shows that this occurs in the same cell and on the same DNA molecule, suggestive of molecular interactions. Using co-immunoprecipitation, we further show that FOXA2 interacts with both FOXA1 and FOXA3 in vivo, while FOXA1 and FOXA3 do not appear to interact. Additionally, we detected diverse patterns of trimethylation of lysine 4 on histone H3 (H3K4me3) at transcriptional start sites and directionality of this modification at FOXA binding sites. Using the sequence reads at polymorphic positions, we were able to predict allele specific binding for FOXA1, FOXA3, and H3K4me3. Finally, several SNPs associated with diseases and quantitative traits were located in the enriched regions. CONCLUSIONS: We find that ChIP-seq can be used not only to create gene regulatory maps but also to predict molecular interactions and to inform on the mechanisms for common quantitative variation.
Project description:The human K562 chronic myeloid leukemia cell line has long served as an experimental paradigm for functional genomic studies. To systematically and functionally annotate the human genome, the ENCODE consortium generated hundreds of functional genomic data sets, such as chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to sequencing (ChIP-seq). While ChIP-seq analyses have provided tremendous insights into gene regulation, spatiotemporal insights were limited by a resolution of several hundred base pairs. ChIP-exonuclease (ChIP-exo) is a refined version of ChIP-seq that overcomes this limitation by providing higher precision mapping of protein-DNA interactions. To study the interplay of transcription initiation and chromatin, we profiled the genome-wide locations for RNA polymerase II (Pol II), the histone variant H2A.Z, and the histone modification H3K4me3 using ChIP-seq and ChIP-exo. In this Data Descriptor, we present detailed information on parallel experimental design, data generation, quality control analysis, and data validation. We discuss how these data lay the foundation for future analysis to understand the relationship between the occupancy of Pol II and nucleosome positions at near base pair resolution.
Project description:FOXA1 is a pioneer factor that binds to enhancer regions that are enriched in H3K4 mono- and dimethylation (H3K4me1 and H3K4me2). We performed a FOXA1 rapid immunoprecipitation mass spectrometry of endogenous proteins (RIME) screen in ER?-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells and found histone-lysine N-methyltransferase (MLL3) as the top FOXA1-interacting protein. MLL3 is typically thought to induce H3K4me3 at promoter regions, but recent findings suggest it may contribute to H3K4me1 deposition. We performed MLL3 chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) in breast cancer cells, and MLL3 was shown to occupy regions marked by FOXA1 occupancy and H3K4me1 and H3K4me2. MLL3 binding was dependent on FOXA1, indicating that FOXA1 recruits MLL3 to chromatin. MLL3 silencing decreased H3K4me1 at enhancer elements but had no appreciable impact on H3K4me3 at enhancer elements. We propose a mechanism whereby the pioneer factor FOXA1 recruits the chromatin modifier MLL3 to facilitate the deposition of H3K4me1 histone marks, subsequently demarcating active enhancer elements.
Project description:Standard cell culture guidelines often use media supplemented with antibiotics to prevent cell contamination. However, relatively little is known about the effect of antibiotic use in cell culture on gene expression and the extent to which this treatment could confound results. To comprehensively characterize the effect of antibiotic treatment on gene expression, we performed RNA-seq and ChIP-seq for H3K27ac on HepG2 cells, a human liver cell line commonly used for pharmacokinetic, metabolism and genomic studies, cultured in media supplemented with penicillin-streptomycin (PenStrep) or vehicle control. We identified 209 PenStrep-responsive genes, including transcription factors such as ATF3 that are likely to alter the regulation of other genes. Pathway analyses found a significant enrichment for "xenobiotic metabolism signaling" and "PXR/RXR activation" pathways. Our H3K27ac ChIP-seq identified 9,514 peaks that are PenStrep responsive. These peaks were enriched near genes that function in cell differentiation, tRNA modification, nuclease activity and protein dephosphorylation. Our results suggest that PenStrep treatment can significantly alter gene expression and regulation in a common liver cell type such as HepG2, advocating that antibiotic treatment should be taken into account when carrying out genetic, genomic or other biological assays in cultured cells.
Project description:Understanding how chromatin modification regulates development and disease can be limited by available material. Despite recent progress, balancing high-quality and reliable mapping using chromatin-immunoprecipitation-based deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) remains a challenge. We report two techniques, recovery via protection (RP)-ChIP-seq and favored amplification RP-ChIP-seq (FARP-ChIP-seq), that provide reproducible mapping in as few as 500 cells. RP-ChIP-seq allows detection of age-associated epigenetic changes in a single mouse lens, whereas FARP-ChIP-seq accurately maps histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) and H3K27me3 in long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs), short-term HSCs (ST-HSCs), and multi-potent progenitors (MPPs) from one mouse. These datasets not only highlight genes that may be involved in lens aging but also indicate a lack of H3K4me3/H3K27me3 bivalency on hematopoietic genes in HSCs.
Project description:Many of the type 2 diabetes loci identified through genome-wide association studies localize to non-protein-coding intronic and intergenic regions and likely contain variants that regulate gene transcription. The CDC123/CAMK1D type 2 diabetes association signal on chromosome 10 spans an intergenic region between CDC123 and CAMK1D and also overlaps the CDC123 3'UTR. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the association signal, we used open chromatin, histone modifications and transcription factor ChIP-seq data sets from type 2 diabetes-relevant cell types to identify SNPs overlapping predicted regulatory regions. Two regions containing type 2 diabetes-associated variants were tested for enhancer activity using luciferase reporter assays. One SNP, rs11257655, displayed allelic differences in transcriptional enhancer activity in 832/13 and MIN6 insulinoma cells as well as in human HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells. The rs11257655 risk allele T showed greater transcriptional activity than the non-risk allele C in all cell types tested. Using electromobility shift and supershift assays we demonstrated that the rs11257655 risk allele showed allele-specific binding to FOXA1 and FOXA2. We validated FOXA1 and FOXA2 enrichment at the rs11257655 risk allele using allele-specific ChIP in human islets. These results suggest that rs11257655 affects transcriptional activity through altered binding of a protein complex that includes FOXA1 and FOXA2, providing a potential molecular mechanism at this GWAS locus.
Project description:Much effort has been devoted to understand how chromatin modification regulates development and disease. Despite recent progress, however, it remains difficult to obtain high-quality epigenomic maps using chromatin-immunoprecipitation-coupled deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) in samples with low-cell numbers. Here, we present an Atlantis dsDNase-based technology, aFARP-ChIP-seq, that provides accurate profiling of genome-wide histone modifications in as few as 100 cells. By mapping histone lysine trimethylation (H3K4me3) and acetylation (H3K27Ac) in group I innate lymphoid cells (ILC1) sorted from different tissues in parallel, aFARP-ChIP-seq uncovers putative active promoter and enhancer landscapes of several tissue-specific Natural Killer cells (NK) and ILC1. aFARP-ChIP-seq is also highly effective in mapping transcription factor binding sites in small number of cells. Thus, aFARP-ChIP-seq offers multiplexing mapping of both epigenome and transcription factor binding sites using a small number of cells.
Project description:Recent study has identified the cis-regulatory elements in the mouse genome as well as their genomic localizations. Recent discoveries have shown the enrichment of H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) binding as an active promoter and the presence of H3 lysine 4 monomethylation (H3K4me1) outside promoter regions as a mark for an enhancer. In this work, we further identified highly expressed genes by H3K4me3 mark or by both H3K4me3 and H3K4me1 marks in mouse liver using ChIP-Seq and RNA-Seq. We found that in mice, the liver carries embryonic stem cell-related functions while the embryonic stem cell also carries liver-related functions. We also identified novel genes in RNA-Seq experiments for mouse liver and for mouse embryonic stem cells. These genes are not currently in the Ensemble gene database at NCBI.
Project description:Model-based analysis of ChIP-seq (MACS) is a computational algorithm that identifies genome-wide locations of transcription/chromatin factor binding or histone modification from ChIP-seq data. MACS consists of four steps: removing redundant reads, adjusting read position, calculating peak enrichment and estimating the empirical false discovery rate (FDR). In this protocol, we provide a detailed demonstration of how to install MACS and how to use it to analyze three common types of ChIP-seq data sets with different characteristics: the sequence-specific transcription factor FoxA1, the histone modification mark H3K4me3 with sharp enrichment and the H3K36me3 mark with broad enrichment. We also explain how to interpret and visualize the results of MACS analyses. The algorithm requires ?3 GB of RAM and 1.5 h of computing time to analyze a ChIP-seq data set containing 30 million reads, an estimate that increases with sequence coverage. MACS is open source and is available from http://liulab.dfci.harvard.edu/MACS/.
Project description:Human liver cancer is the cancer commonly seen clinically. The transcription of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is a critical step for cells, and epigenetic marks such as post-translational histone modifications have been involved in the regulation of rDNA transcription. But less is known about the pathogenesis of the liver cancers concerning the rDNA transcription regulation. Here we aligned the ChIP-seq data of histone modification markers and CTCF to the human genome assembly which contains a single rDNA repeat in human liver cancer cell and validated their distribution with ChIP-QPCR. Human liver cancer cell possesses a higher enrichment of H3K4me1 and H3K27me3 at ~28?kb within the intergenic spacer (IGS) of rDNA and a higher enrichment of H3K4me3 and H3K27ac upstream of TSS. Furtherly, we studied whether UBF could affect histone modification markers and CTCF at rDNA in human liver cancer cell. UBF depletion leads to a decrease of gene activation mark H3K4me3 across the rDNA promoter. And other histone modification marks and CTCF were not altered after UBF depletion. Taken together, our data showed a high resolution map of histone modification marks at rDNA in human liver cancer cell and provide novel evidence to decipher chromatin-mediated regulation of rDNA in liver cancer.