Project description:In previous studies, Lactobacillus plantarum ZJ316 showed probiotic properties, such as antimicrobial activity against various pathogens and the capacity to significantly improve pig growth and pork quality. The purpose of this study was to reveal the genes potentially related to its genetic adaptation and probiotic profiles based on comparative genomic analysis.The genome sequence of L. plantarum ZJ316 was compared with those of eight L. plantarum strains deposited in GenBank. BLASTN, Mauve, and MUMmer programs were used for genome alignment and comparison. CRISPRFinder was applied for searching the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs).We identified genes that encode proteins related to genetic adaptation and probiotic profiles, including carbohydrate transport and metabolism, proteolytic enzyme systems and amino acid biosynthesis, CRISPR adaptive immunity, stress responses, bile salt resistance, ability to adhere to the host intestinal wall, exopolysaccharide (EPS) biosynthesis, and bacteriocin biosynthesis.Comparative characterization of the L. plantarum ZJ316 genome provided the genetic basis for further elucidating the functional mechanisms of its probiotic properties. ZJ316 could be considered a potential probiotic candidate.
Project description:In this study, Lactobacillus plantarum strain DHCU70 isolated from dahi, a fermented milk product and L. plantarum strain DKP1 isolated from kinema, a fermented soybean food of India, respectively were evaluated for their bacteriocin production and probiotic properties. Both strains of L. plantarum (DHCU70 and DKP1) were found to have potent antimicrobial activity against Kocuria rhizophila ATCC 9341. Bacteriocin produced by L. plantarum strains DHCU70 and DKP1 did not exhibit inhibition of cell wall, DNA and fatty acids biosynthesis mechanisms as evaluated by whole cell reporter assays. We characterized the bacteriocin encoding genes in L. plantarum strains DHCU70 and DKP1 by whole genome sequence which consisted of a single and circular chromosome with genome size of 3.38 Mb (GC content of 44.3%) and 3.39 Mb, respectively and a GC content of 44.3%. L. plantarum DHCU70 has 3252 number of protein encoding genes comprising 89 number of RNA genes (69tRNA, 16rRNA, 4nc RNA) whereas L. plantarum DKP1 has total of 3277 number of protein encoding genes with 89 number. of RNA genes (69tRNA, 16S rRNA, 4nc RNA). Analysis revealed the presence of 20.5 kb long and 23 numbers of plantaricin encoding locus (pln locus) for production of antimicrobial compound. BAGEL analysis has shown that the pln locus of both the strains of L. plantarum showed maximum sequence similarity with plantaricin NC8 of L. plantarum NC8, originally isolated from grass silage. Annotated whole genome sequence of both strains DHCU70 and DKP1 was analyzed for the presence of probiotic marker genes. The probiotic properties of these strains of were also evaluated in vitro. Due to the presence of genes responsible for antimicrobial activity and probiotic properties, both strains of L. plantarum may be considered as a suitable probiotic candidate in food industry.
Project description:Certain probiotic species of lactic acid bacteria, especially Lactobacillus plantarum, regulate bacteriocin synthesis through quorum sensing (QS) systems. In this study, we aimed to investigate the luxS-mediated molecular mechanisms of QS during bacteriocin synthesis by L. plantarum KLDS1.0391. In the absence of luxS, the 'spot-on-the-lawn' method showed that the bacteriocin production by L. plantarum KLDS1.0391 significantly decreased upon co-cultivation with L. helveticus KLDS1.9207 (P?<?0.01) but did not change significantly when mono-cultivated. Furthermore, liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry analysis showed that, as a response to luxS deletion, L. plantarum KLDS1.0391 altered the expression level of proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, fatty acid synthesis and metabolism, and the two-component regulatory system. In particular, the sensor histidine kinase AgrC (from the two-component system, LytTR family) was expressed differently between the luxS mutant and the wild-type strain during co-cultivation, whereas no significant differences in proteins related to bacteriocin biosynthesis were found upon mono-cultivation. In summary, we found that the production of bacteriocin was regulated by carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, fatty acid synthesis and metabolism, and the two-component regulatory system. Furthermore, our results demonstrate the role of luxS-mediated molecular mechanisms in bacteriocin production.
Project description:Lactobacillus plantarum 10CH is a bacteriocin-producing potential probiotic lactic acid bacterium (LAB) strain isolated from cheese. Its complete nucleotide sequence shows a single circular chromosome of 3.3 Mb, with a G+C content of 44.51%, a 25-gene plantaricin bacteriocin gene cluster, and the absence of recognized virulence factors.
Project description:Lactobacillus plantarum (widespread member of the genus Lactobacillus) is one of the most studied species extensively used in food industry as probiotic microorganism and/or microbial starter. The exploitation of Lb. plantarum strains with their long history in food fermentation forms an emerging field and design of added-value foods. Lb. plantarum strains were also used to produce new functional (traditional/novel) foods and beverages with improved nutritional and technological features. Lb. plantarum strains were identified from many traditional foods and characterized for their systematics and molecular taxonomy, enzyme systems (?-amylase, esterase, lipase, ?-glucosidase, ?-glucosidase, enolase, phosphoketolase, lactase dehydrogenase, etc.), and bioactive compounds (bacteriocin, dipeptides, and other preservative compounds). This review emphasizes that the Lb. plantarum strains with their probiotic properties can have great effects against harmful microflora (foodborne pathogens) to increase safety and shelf-life of fermented foods.
Project description:There is an increasing consumer demand for minimally processed, preservative free and microbiologically safe food. These factors, combined with risks of antibiotic resistance, have led to interest in bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as natural food preservatives and as potential protein therapeutics. We previously reported the discovery of plantacyclin B21AG, a circular bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus plantarum B21. Here, we describe the cloning and functional expression of the bacteriocin gene cluster in the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. Genome sequencing demonstrated that the bacteriocin is encoded on a 20 kb native plasmid, designated as pB21AG01. Seven open reading frames (ORFs) putatively involved in bacteriocin production, secretion and immunity were cloned into an E. coli/Lactobacillus shuttle vector, pTRKH2. The resulting plasmid, pCycB21, was transformed into L. plantarum WCFS1. The cell free supernatants (CFS) of both B21 and WCFS1 (pCycB21) showed an antimicrobial activity of 800 AU/mL when tested against WCFS1 (pTRKH2) as the indicator strain, showing that functional expression of plantacyclin B21AG had been achieved. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that the relative copy number of pB21AG01 was 7.60 ± 0.79 in L. plantarum B21 whilst pCycB21 and pTRKH2 was 0.51 ± 0.05 and 25.19 ± 2.68 copies respectively in WCFS1. This indicates that the bacteriocin gene cluster is located on a highly stable low copy number plasmid pB21AG01 in L. plantarum B21. Inclusion of the native promoter for the bacteriocin operon from pB21AG01 results in similar killing activity being observed in both the wild type and recombinant hosts despite the lower copy number of pCycB21.
Project description:Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely known for their probiotic activities for centuries. These bacteria synthesise some secretory proteinaceous toxins, bacteriocins, which help destroy similar or interrelated bacterial strains. This study was aimed at characterising bacteriocins extracted from Lactobacillus spp. found in yoghurt and assessing their bactericidal effect on foodborne bacteria. Twelve isolated Lactobacillus spp. were examined to produce bacteriocins by the organic solvent extraction method. Bacteriocins produced by two of these strains, Lactobacillus helveticus (BLh) and Lactobacillus plantarum (BLp), showed the most significant antimicrobial activity, especially against Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii. Analysis of SDS-PAGE showed that L. plantarum and L. helveticus bacteriocins have a molecular weight of ~10?kDa and ~15?kDa, respectively. L. plantarum (BLp) bacteriocin was heat stable while L. helveticus (BLh) bacteriocin was heat labile. Both bacteriocins have shown activity at acidic pH. Exposure to a UV light enhances the activity of the BLh; however, it had negligible effects on the BLp. Different proteolytic enzymes confirmed the proteinaceous nature of both the bacteriocins. From this study, it was concluded that bacteriocin extracts from L. helveticus (BLh) can be considered a preferable candidate against foodborne pathogens as compared to L. plantarum (BLp). These partially purified bacteriocins should be further processed to attain purified product that could be useful for food spoilage and preservation purposes.
Project description:Worldwide interest in the use of functional foods containing probiotic bacteria such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium for health promotion and disease prevention has increased significantly. Probiotics have demonstrated beneficial properties including strengthening the body's natural defense system, inhibiting the growth of pathogenic bacteria, and regulating mental activity, but their effects on the human vagina have not been fully elucidated. The primary purpose of our study was to isolate Lactobacillus strains from old yogurt, a traditional dairy product, and investigate their probiotic potential with respect to the human vaginal system. Four Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) strains, named ZX1, ZX2, ZX27, and ZX69, were isolated from the yogurt samples. Simultaneously, we used a commercial Lactobacillus strain (Lactobacillus delbrueckii DM8909) as a control strain. We tested the antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus isolates against Escherichia coli and Gardnerella vaginalis by agar spot and well diffusion tests. Then, we tested the antibiotic susceptibility of the 5 strains by using the minimal inhibitory concentration method. We attempted to detect possible bacteriocin genes by PCR sequencing technique. Using a chemically defined medium simulating genital tract secretions, we found that the selected Lactobacillus strains could alter the expression of known virulence genes in Gardnerella vaginalis. Bacteriocins derived from these isolated strains had potent antibacterial activity against G. vaginalis and E. coli, with the most effective activity observed in the case of ZX27. In addition, all strains including the L. delbrueckii DM8909 were positive for the presence of the plantaricin cluster of genes described in L. plantarum C11. The tested stains possessed the pln gene indicating that one of the antibacterial agents was plantaricin. We assume that the production of antimicrobial substances such as bacteriocins induce G. vaginalis to upregulate antimicrobial resistance genes. The new isolated strains have bacteriocin-related genes and can change the antimicrobial resistance gene transcription of G. vaginalis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The underlying mechanisms by which probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) enhance the health of the consumer have not been fully elucidated. Verification of probiotic modes of action can be achieved by using single- or multiple-gene knockout analyses of bacterial mutants in in vitro or in vivo models. We developed a novel system based on an inducible toxin counter-selection system, allowing for rapid and efficient isolation of LAB integration or deletion mutants. The Lactococcus lactis nisin A inducible promoter was used for expression of the Escherichia coli mazF toxin gene as counter-selectable marker. RESULTS:The flippase (FLP)/flippase recognition target (FRT) recombination system and an antisense RNA transcript were used to create markerless chromosomal gene integrations/deletions in LAB. Expression of NisR and NisK signalling proteins generated stable DNA integrations and deletions. Large sequences could be inserted or deleted in a series of steps, as demonstrated by insertion of the firefly bioluminescence gene and erythromycin resistance marker into the bacteriocin operons or adhesion genes of Lactobacillus plantarum 423 and Enterococcus mundtii ST4SA. CONCLUSIONS:The system was useful in the construction of L. plantarum 423 and E. mundtii ST4SA bacteriocin and adhesion gene mutants. This provides the unique opportunity to study the role of specific probiotic LAB genes in complex environments using reverse genetics analysis. Although this work focuses on two probiotic LAB strains, L. plantarum 423 and E. mundtii ST4SA, the system developed could be adapted to most, if not all, LAB species.
Project description:Probiotics are dietary supplements containing viable, non-pathogenic microorganisms that interact with the gastrointestinal microflora and directly with the immune system. The possible health effects of probiotics include modulating the immune system and exerting antibacterial, anticancer, and anti-mutagenic effects. The purpose of this study was to isolate, identify, and characterize novel strains of probiotics from the faeces of Korean infants. Various assays were conducted to determine the physiological features of candidate probiotic isolates, including Gram staining, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, tolerance assays to stimulated gastric juice and bile salts, adherence ability assays, antibiotic susceptibility testing, and assays of immunomodulatory effects. Based on these morphological and biochemical characteristics, five potential probiotic isolates (Enterococcus faecalis BioE EF71, Lactobacillus fermentum BioE LF11, Lactobacillus plantarum BioE LPL59, Lactobacillus paracasei BioE LP08, and Streptococcus thermophilus BioE ST107) were selected. E. faecalis BioE EF71 and L. plantarum BioE LPL59 showed high tolerance to stimulated gastric juice and bile salts, and S. thermophilus BioE ST107 as well as these two strains exhibited stronger adherence ability than reference strain Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. All five strains inhibited secretion of lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-? in RAW264.7 macrophages in vitro. L. fermentum BioE LF11, L. plantarum BioE LPL59, and S. thermophilus BioE ST107 enhanced the production of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Overall, our findings demonstrate that the five novel strains have potential as safe probiotics and encouraged varying degrees of immunomodulatory effects.