Project description:The features of Mycoplasma in human organ such lung and urinary tract are enigmatic. Here, the role of M. hominis in regard to biofilm formation of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strain CFT073 was investigated. Although M. hominis were inferred to not impact on UPEC bacterial fitness including growth and productions of signaling molecules as autoinducer-2 (AI-2) and indole, we found that the presence of M. hominis dramatically decreased biofilm formation of UPEC CFT073 as well as slightly repressed attachment and cytotoxicity of that. Importantly, this activity was observed on UPEC strain specifically, not enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) strain that exists on intestine. Whole-transcriptome profiling and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed PhoPQ system and anti-termination protein (encoded by ybcQ) participates on the reduction of biofilm formation by M. hominis (corroborated by qRT-PCR). Furthermore, collaborating with previous report that toxin-antitoxin (TA) system involved in biofilm formation, M. hominis increased on the transcriptions of toxin genes including hha (toxin gene in Hha-TomB TA system) and pasT (toxin part in PasT-PasI TA system). Hence, we propose that one possible role of M. hominis is to influence bacterial biofilm formation in urinary tract. Only fourteen genes were induced (2.5-fold) by the presence of M. hominis in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) biofilm cells. Among upregulated genes, ybcQ (encodes anti-termination protein Q homolog) and phoP/phoQ (encode DNA-binding response regulators in two-component regulatory system), were induced by the presence of M. hominis. Two-condition experiment, UPEC CFT073 alone vs. UPEC CFT073 with Mycoplasma hominis PG21 (10^5 ccu/ml). For preparing the total RNA, UPEC CFT073 cells were grown at 37°C in biofilm cells on glass wool with or without M. hominis for 24 h.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Anti-human leukocyte antigen donor-specific antibodies (anti-HLA DSAs) are recognized as a major barrier to patients' access to organ transplantation and the major cause of graft failure. The capacity of circulating anti-HLA DSAs to activate complement has been suggested as a potential biomarker for optimizing graft allocation and improving the rate of successful transplantations. METHODS AND FINDINGS:To address the clinical relevance of complement-activating anti-HLA DSAs across all solid organ transplant patients, we performed a meta-analysis of their association with transplant outcome through a systematic review, from inception to January 31, 2018. The primary outcome was allograft loss, and the secondary outcome was allograft rejection. A comprehensive search strategy was conducted through several databases (Medline, Embase, Cochrane, and Scopus). A total of 5,861 eligible citations were identified. A total of 37 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Studies reported on 7,936 patients, including kidney (n = 5,991), liver (n = 1,459), heart (n = 370), and lung recipients (n = 116). Solid organ transplant recipients with circulating complement-activating anti-HLA DSAs experienced an increased risk of allograft loss (pooled HR 3.09; 95% CI 2.55-3.74, P = 0.001; I2 = 29.3%), and allograft rejection (pooled HR 3.75; 95% CI: 2.05-6.87, P = 0.001; I2 = 69.8%) compared to patients without complement-activating anti-HLA DSAs. The association between circulating complement-activating anti-HLA DSAs and allograft failure was consistent across all subgroups and sensitivity analyses. Limitations of the study are the observational and retrospective design of almost all included studies, the higher proportion of kidney recipients compared to other solid organ transplant recipients, and the inclusion of fewer studies investigating allograft rejection. CONCLUSIONS:In this study, we found that circulating complement-activating anti-HLA DSAs had a significant deleterious impact on solid organ transplant survival and risk of rejection. The detection of complement-activating anti-HLA DSAs may add value at an individual patient level for noninvasive biomarker-guided risk stratification. TRIAL REGISTRATION:National Clinical Trial protocol ID: NCT03438058.
Project description:A temporal lobe abscess was diagnosed in a 57-year-old man. A urethral catheter had been inserted 12?days earlier, just prior to clot evacuation of a subacute haematoma secondary to an arterio-venous malformation. Fever persisted despite debridement and treatment with meropenem and vancomycin. Gram stains of operative samples showed no bacteria. Extended cultures grew pinpoint colonies after 5?days. Meanwhile, sequencing of bacterial 16S rDNA from operative specimens had identified Mycoplasma hominis; the bacterial colonies were subsequently similarly identified. The patient responded promptly following addition of oral doxycycline 100?mg two times per day. There is a growing literature of similar cases. Transient bacteraemia, following urinary catheterisation, with seeding of existing sites of inflammation is the proposed explanation. Urethral carriage of M. hominis is 15% and catheterisation is a common procedure. Mycoplasma hominis maybe more common than appreciated, especially as the need for extended cultures makes a correct diagnosis less likely.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Mycoplasma hominis is associated with genito-urinary tract infection and adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, whether the species is a true pathogen or part of the genito-urinary tracts natural flora remains unclear. CASE PRESENTATION:A 41-year-old pregnant woman was admitted to our hospital at 38 weeks and 5 days of gestation owing to premature rupture of the membranes. The patient delivered by caesarean section. Subsequently, the patient complained of lower abdominal pain and had persistent fever. Enhanced computed tomography revealed pelvic abscesses. Gram staining of pus from the abscess and vaginal secretions indicated presence of polymorphonuclear leucocytes but no pathogens. Cultures on blood agar showed growth of pinpoint-sized colonies in an anaerobic environment within 48 h. Although administration of carbapenem and metronidazole was ineffective and we could not fully drain the abscess, administration of clindamycin led to clinical improvement. The isolates 16S rRNA gene and yidC gene sequences exhibited identity with those of M. hominis. CONCLUSION:Physicians should consider M. hominis in cases of pelvic abscesses where Gram staining yields negative results, small colonies are isolated from the abscess and treatment with ?-lactam antibiotics is ineffective.
Project description:Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) has significant potential in the diagnosis and monitoring of clinical conditions. However, accurately and easily distinguishing the relative proportion of DNA molecules in a mixture derived from two different sources (i.e., donor and recipient tissues after transplantation) is challenging. In human cellular transplantation, there is currently no useable method to detect in vivo engraftment, and blood-based non-invasive tests for allograft rejection in solid organ transplantation are either non-specific or absent. Elevated levels of donor cfDNA have been shown to correlate with solid organ rejection, but complex methodology limits implementation of this promising biomarker. We describe a cost-effective method to quantify donor cfDNA in recipient plasma using a panel of high-frequency single nucleotide polymorphisms, next-generation (semiconductor) sequencing, and a novel mixture model algorithm. In vitro, our method accurately and rapidly determined donor:recipient DNA admixture. For in vivo testing, donor cfDNA was serially quantified in an infant with a urea cycle disorder after receiving six daily infusions of donor liver cells. Donor cfDNA isolated from 1 to 2?ml of recipient plasma was detected as late as 24?weeks after infusion suggesting engraftment. The percentage of circulating donor cfDNA was also assessed in pediatric and adult heart transplant recipients undergoing routine endomyocardial biopsy with levels observed to be stable over time and generally measuring <1% in cases without moderate or severe cellular rejection. Unlike existing non-invasive methods used to define the proportion of donor cfDNA in solid organ transplant patients, our assay does not require sex mismatch, donor genotyping, or whole-genome sequencing and potentially has broad application to detect cellular engraftment or allograft injury after transplantation.
Project description:Transplantation activity is increasing, leading to a growing number of patients at risk for toxoplasmosis. We reviewed toxoplasmosis prevention practices, prevalence, and outcomes for hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) and solid organ transplant (SOT; heart, kidney, or liver) patients in Europe. We collected electronic data on the transplant population and prevention guidelines/regulations and clinical data on toxoplasmosis cases diagnosed during 2010-2014. Serologic pretransplant screening of allo-hematopoietic stem cell donors was performed in 80% of countries, screening of organ donors in 100%. SOT recipients were systematically screened in 6 countries. Targeted anti-Toxoplasma chemoprophylaxis was heterogeneous. A total of 87 toxoplasmosis cases were recorded (58 allo-HSCTs, 29 SOTs). The 6-month survival rate was lower among Toxoplasma-seropositive recipients and among allo-hematopoietic stem cell and liver recipients. Chemoprophylaxis improved outcomes for SOT recipients. Toxoplasmosis remains associated with high mortality rates among transplant recipients. Guidelines are urgently needed to standardize prophylactic regimens and optimize patient management.
Project description:BACKGROUND:HIV+ to HIV+ solid organ transplants in the United States are now legally permitted. Currently, these transplants must adhere to the HIV Organ Policy Equity (HOPE) Act Safeguards and Research Criteria that require the provision of an independent recipient advocate, a novel requirement for solid organ transplant programs. The objective of this study was to understand the experiences of the first advocates serving in this role. METHODS:We conducted semi-structured interviews with 15 HOPE independent recipient advocates (HIRAs) from 12 institutions. RESULTS:All HIRAs had a professional degree and experience in transplantation or infectious diseases. HIRAs' encounters with potential recipients varied in length, modality, and timing. The newness of the role and the lack of guidance were associated with unease among some HIRAs. Some questioned whether their role was redundant to others involved in transplantation and research since some potential recipients experienced informational fatigue. CONCLUSIONS:HOPE independent recipient advocates are ensuring the voluntariness of potential participants' decision to accept an HIV-infected organ. Many suggested additional guidance would be helpful and alleviate unease. Concerns about potential role redundancy raise the question of whether the HIRA requirement may be inadvertently increasing burden for potential recipients. Future work that captures the experiences of potential recipients is warranted.
Project description:Both Mycoplasma hominis and Trichomonas vaginalis utilize arginine as an energy source via the arginine dihydrolase (ADH) pathway. It has been previously demonstrated that M. hominis forms a stable intracellular relationship with T. vaginalis; hence, in this study we examined the interaction of two localized ADH pathways by comparing T. vaginalis strain SS22 with the laboratory-generated T. vaginalis strain SS22-MOZ2 infected with M. hominis MOZ2. The presence of M. hominis resulted in an approximately 16-fold increase in intracellular ornithine and a threefold increase in putrescine, compared with control T. vaginalis cultures. No change in the activity of enzymes of the ADH pathway could be demonstrated in SS22-MOZ2 compared with the parent SS22, and the increased production of ornithine could be attributed to the presence of M. hominis. Using metabolic flow analysis it was determined that the elasticity of enzymes of the ADH pathway in SS22-MOZ2 was unchanged compared with the parent SS22; however, the elasticity of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in SS22 was small, and it was doubled in SS22-MOZ2 cells. The potential benefit of this relationship to both T. vaginalis and M. hominis is discussed.
Project description:Invasive mold infections represent an increasing source of morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant recipients. Whereas there is a large literature regarding invasive molds infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplants, data in solid organ transplants are scarcer. In this comprehensive review, we focused on invasive mold infection in the specific population of solid organ transplant. We highlighted epidemiology and specific risk factors for these infections and we assessed the main clinical and imaging findings by fungi and by type of solid organ transplant. Finally, we attempted to summarize the diagnostic strategy for detection of these fungi and tried to give an overview of the current prophylaxis treatments and outcomes of these infections in solid organ transplant recipients.
Project description:Background:We analyzed the prevalence, etiology, and risk factors of culture-positive preservation fluid and their impact on the management of solid organ transplant recipients. Methods:From July 2015 to March 2017, 622 episodes of adult solid organ transplants at 7 university hospitals in Spain were prospectively included in the study. Results:The prevalence of culture-positive preservation fluid was 62.5% (389/622). Nevertheless, in only 25.2% (98/389) of the cases were the isolates considered "high risk" for pathogenicity. After applying a multivariate regression analysis, advanced donor age was the main associated factor for having culture-positive preservation fluid for high-risk microorganisms. Preemptive antibiotic therapy was given to 19.8% (77/389) of the cases. The incidence rate of preservation fluid-related infection was 1.3% (5 recipients); none of these patients had received preemptive therapy. Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients with high-risk culture-positive preservation fluid receiving preemptive antibiotic therapy presented both a lower cumulative incidence of infection and a lower rate of acute rejection and graft loss compared with those who did not have high-risk culture-positive preservation fluid. After adjusting for age, sex, type of transplant, and prior graft rejection, preemptive antibiotic therapy remained a significant protective factor for 90-day infection. Conclusions:The routine culture of preservation fluid may be considered a tool that provides information about the contamination of the transplanted organ. Preemptive therapy for SOT recipients with high-risk culture-positive preservation fluid may be useful to avoid preservation fluid-related infections and improve the outcomes of infection, graft loss, and graft rejection in transplant patients.