Project description:The goal of the experiment was to understand the role of IL-18 in Alzheimers disease. Gene expression was examined in the hippocampus of wild type mice and the APP/PS1 mice (which are a mouse model for Alzheimers disease) that either encoded IL-18 or had the IL-18 gene knocked out.
Project description:With the criterion of 2-fold cutoff, 7 miRNAs were upregulated and 7 miRNAs were downregulated in APP/PS1 hippocampal tissues compared with WT hippocampal tissues Microarray analysis of miRNAs was performed on pooled hippocampal tissues from WT (n=16) and APP/PS1 mice (n=16) at E14
Project description:Increasing evidence emphasizes the protective role of Eph receptors in synaptic function in the pathological development of Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, their roles in the regulation of hippocampal astrocytes remain largely unknown. Here, we directly investigated the function of astroglial EphB2 on synaptic plasticity in APP/PS1 mice. Using cell isolation and transgene technologies, we first isolated hippocampal astrocytes and evaluated the expression levels of ephrinB ligands and EphB receptors. Then, we stereotaxically injected EphB2-Flox-AAV into the hippocampus of GFAP-cre/APP/PS1 mice and further evaluated hippocampal synaptic plasticity and astroglial function. Interestingly, astrocytic EphB2 expression was significantly increased in APP/PS1 mice in contrast to its expression profile in neurons. Moreover, depressing this astroglial EphB2 upregulation enhanced hippocampal synaptic plasticity, which results from harmful D-serine release. These results provide evidence of the different expression profiles and function of EphB2 between astrocytes and neurons in AD pathology.
Project description:General theory of declarative memory formation posits a cortical-hippocampal dialog during which hippocampal ripple oscillations support information transfer and long-term consolidation of hippocampus dependent memories. Brain dementia, as Alzheimer disease (AD), is accompanied by memory loss and inability to form new memories. A large body of work has shown variety of mechanisms acting at cellular and molecular levels which can putatively play an important role in the impairment of memory formation. However, far less is known about changes occurring at the network-level activity patterns that support memory processing. Using freely moving APP/PS1 mice, a model of AD, we undertook a study to unravel the alterations of the activity of hippocampal and cortical circuits during generation of ripples in the transgenic and wild-type mice undergoing encoding and consolidation of spatial information. We report that APP/PS1 animals are able to consolidate spatial memory despite a major deficit of hippocampal ripples occurrence rate and learning dependent dynamics. We propose that these impairments may be compensated by an increase of the occurrence of cortical ripples and reorganization of cortical-hippocampal interaction.
Project description:The complement cascade not only is an innate immune response that enables removal of pathogens but also plays an important role in microglia-mediated synaptic refinement during brain development. Complement C3 is elevated in Alzheimer's disease (AD), colocalizing with neuritic plaques, and appears to contribute to clearance of A? by microglia in the brain. Previously, we reported that C3-deficient C57BL/6 mice were protected against age-related and region-specific loss of hippocampal synapses and cognitive decline during normal aging. Furthermore, blocking complement and downstream iC3b/CR3 signaling rescued synapses from A?-induced loss in young AD mice before amyloid plaques had accumulated. We assessed the effects of C3 deficiency in aged, plaque-rich APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice (APP/PS1;C3 KO). We examined the effects of C3 deficiency on cognition, A? plaque deposition, and plaque-related neuropathology at later AD stages in these mice. We found that 16-month-old APP/PS1;C3 KO mice performed better on a learning and memory task than did APP/PS1 mice, despite having more cerebral A? plaques. Aged APP/PS1;C3 KO mice also had fewer microglia and astrocytes localized within the center of hippocampal A? plaques compared to APP/PS1 mice. Several proinflammatory cytokines in the brain were reduced in APP/PS1;C3 KO mice, consistent with an altered microglial phenotype. C3 deficiency also protected APP/PS1 mice against age-dependent loss of synapses and neurons. Our study suggests that complement C3 or downstream complement activation fragments may play an important role in A? plaque pathology, glial responses to plaques, and neuronal dysfunction in the brains of APP/PS1 mice.
Project description:Sleep, in addition to its brain restorative processes, plays an important role in memory transfer from its temporary store in the hippocampus to the more permanent storage in the neocortex. Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects memory and sleep. The aim of this study was to explore disturbances in global and local synchrony patterns between brain regions in the APP/PS1 mouse model of the AD during natural sleep. We used 8 male APPswe/PS1dE9 mice and 6 wild-type littermates, aged 5-6 months, with multiple electrode bundles implanted into cortical regions, thalamus and hippocampus. We measured video-EEG in freely moving animals and analyzed synchrony during NREM vs REM sleep. Global synchrony between medial frontal cortex and hippocampus measured with magnitude-squared coherence was slightly decreased in delta range during NREM stage of sleep in APP/PS1 mice. In contrast, local hippocampal synchrony measured with cross-frequency coupling remained intact. Ripple structure or frequency did not differ between the genotypes. However, the coupling of the spindle-band power peak in the medial prefrontal cortex to hippocampal ripples was significantly decreased compared to wild-type animals. The delicate timing of hippocampal ripples, frontal delta, and corticothalamic spindle oscillations may be the first sign of impaired memory in amyloid plaque-forming transgenic mice.
Project description:To assess the consequences of locus ceruleus (LC) degeneration and subsequent noradrenaline (NA) deficiency in early Alzheimer's disease (AD), mice overexpressing mutant amyloid precursor protein and presenilin-1 (APP/PS1) were crossed with Ear2(-/-) mice that have a severe loss of LC neurons projecting to the hippocampus and neocortex. Testing spatial memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation revealed an impairment in APP/PS1 Ear2(-/-) mice, whereas APP/PS1 or Ear2(-/-) mice showed only minor changes. These deficits were associated with distinct synaptic changes including reduced expression of the NMDA 2A subunit and increased levels of NMDA receptor 2B in APP/PS1 Ear2(-/-) mice. Acute pharmacological replacement of NA by L-threo-DOPS partially restored phosphorylation of ?-CaMKII and spatial memory performance in APP/PS1 Ear2(-/-) mice. These changes were not accompanied by altered APP processing or amyloid ? peptide (A?) deposition. Thus, early LC degeneration and subsequent NA reduction may contribute to cognitive deficits via CaMKII and NMDA receptor dysfunction independent of A? and suggests that NA supplementation could be beneficial in treating AD.
Project description:Epileptic activity without visible convulsions is common in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may contribute adversely to the disease progress and symptoms. Transgenic mice with amyloid plaque pathology also display epileptic seizures, but those are too infrequent to assess the effect of anti-epileptic treatments. Besides spontaneous seizures, these mice also display frequent epileptic spiking in epidural EEG recordings, and these have provided a means to test potential drug treatment to AD-related epilepsy. However, the origin of EEG spikes in transgenic AD model mice has remained elusive, which makes it difficult to relate electrophysiology with underlying pathology at the cellular and molecular level. Using multiple cortical and subcortical electrodes in freely moving APP/PS1 transgenic mice and their wild-type littermates, we identified several types of epileptic spikes among over 15 800 spikes visible with cortical screw electrodes based on their source localization. Cortical spikes associated with muscle twitches, cortico-hippocampal spikes, and spindle and fast-spindle associated spikes were present equally often in both APP/PS1 and wild-type mice, whereas pure cortical spikes were slightly more common in APP/PS1 mice. In contrast, spike-wave discharges, cortico-hippocampal spikes with after hyperpolarization and giant spikes were seen almost exclusively in APP/PS1 mice but only in a subset of them. Interestingly, different subtypes of spikes responded differently to anti-epileptic drugs ethosuximide and levetiracetam. From the translational point most relevant may be the giant spikes generated in the hippocampus that reached an amplitude up to ± 5 mV in the hippocampal channel. As in AD patients, they occurred exclusively during sleep. Further, we could demonstrate that a high number of giant spikes in APP/PS1 mice predicts seizures. These data show that by only adding a pair of hippocampal deep electrodes and EMG to routine cortical epidural screw electrodes and by taking into account underlying cortical oscillations, one can drastically refine the analysis of cortical spike data. This new approach provides a powerful tool to preclinical testing of potential new treatment options for AD related epilepsy.
Project description:Degeneration of the locus coeruleus (LC), the major noradrenergic nucleus in the brain, occurs early and is ubiquitous in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Experimental lesions to the LC exacerbate AD-like neuropathology and cognitive deficits in several transgenic mouse models of AD. Because the LC contains multiple neuromodulators known to affect amyloid ? toxicity and cognitive function, the specific role of noradrenaline (NA) in AD is not well understood.To determine the consequences of selective NA deficiency in an AD mouse model, we crossed dopamine ?-hydroxylase (DBH) knockout mice with amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin-1 (PS1) mice overexpressing mutant APP and PS1. Dopamine ?-hydroxylase (-/-) mice are unable to synthesize NA but otherwise have normal LC neurons and co-transmitters. Spatial memory, hippocampal long-term potentiation, and synaptic protein levels were assessed.The modest impairments in spatial memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation displayed by young APP/PS1 or DBH (-/-) single mutant mice were augmented in DBH (-/-)/APP/PS1 double mutant mice. Deficits were associated with reduced levels of total calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2A and increased N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B levels and were independent of amyloid ? accumulation. Spatial memory performance was partly improved by treatment with the NA precursor drug L-threo-dihydroxyphenylserine.These results indicate that early LC degeneration and subsequent NA deficiency in AD may contribute to cognitive deficits via altered levels of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and suggest that NA supplementation could be beneficial in early AD.
Project description:Voltage-gated sodium channels beta 2 (Nav?2, encoded by SCN2B) is a substrate of ?-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and regulates cell surface expression of channels in neurons. Previous studies reported enhanced Nav?2 processing by BACE1 in Alzheimer's disease (AD) model and patients. We investigated whether changes in Nav?2 expression affect neuronal seizure and amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing in an AD mouse model. Our study used eight-month-old APP/presenilin 1 (PS1) mice and transgenic Nav?2 knockdown [by 61% vs. wild type (WT)] APP/PS1 mice (APP/PS1/Nav?2-kd), with age-matched WT and Nav?2 knockdown (Nav?2-kd) mice as controls. We found that Nav?2 knockdown in APP/PS1 mice partially reversed the abnormal Nav?2 cleavage and the changes in intracellular and total Nav1.1? expression. It also restored sodium currents density in hippocampal neurons and neuronal activity, as indicated by EEG tracing; improved Morris water maze performance; and shifted APP amyloidogenic metabolism towards non-amyloidogenic processing. There were no differences in these indicators between WT and Nav?2-kd mice. These results suggest Nav?2 knockdown may be a promising strategy for treating AD.