Project description:In acidic forest soils, availability of inorganic nutrients is a tree-growth-limiting factor. A hypothesis to explain sustainable forest development proposes that tree roots select soil microbes involved in central biogeochemical processes, such as mineral weathering, that may contribute to nutrient mobilization and tree nutrition. Here we showed, by combining soil analyses with cultivation-dependent analyses of the culturable bacterial communities associated with the widespread mycorrhizal fungus Scleroderma citrinum, a significant enrichment of bacterial isolates with efficient mineral weathering potentials around the oak and beech mycorrhizal roots compared to bulk soil. Such a difference did not exist in the rhizosphere of Norway spruce. The mineral weathering ability of the bacterial isolates was assessed using a microplaque assay that measures the pH and the amount of iron released from biotite. Using this microplate assay, we demonstrated that the bacterial isolates harboring the most efficient mineral weathering potential belonged to the Burkholderia genus. Notably, previous work revealed that oak and beech harbored very similar pHs in the 5- to 10-cm horizon in both rhizosphere and bulk soil environments. In the spruce rhizosphere, in contrast, the pH was significantly lower than that in bulk soil. Because the production of protons is one of the main mechanisms responsible for mineral weathering, our results suggest that certain tree species have developed indirect strategies for mineral weathering in nutrient-poor soils, which lie in the selection of bacterial communities with efficient mineral weathering potentials.
Project description:Pyrosequencing-based analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed a significant correlation between apatite dissolution and the abundance of betaproteobacteria on apatite surfaces, suggesting a role for the bacteria belonging to this phylum in mineral weathering. Notably, the cultivation-dependent approach demonstrated that the most efficient mineral-weathering bacteria belonged to the betaproteobacterial genus Burhkolderia.
Project description:To date, several bacterial species have been described as mineral-weathering agents which improve plant nutrition and growth. However, the possible relationships between mineral-weathering potential, taxonomic identity, and metabolic ability have not been investigated thus far. In this study, we characterized a collection of 61 bacterial strains isolated from Scleroderma citrinum mycorrhizae, the mycorrhizosphere, and the adjacent bulk soil in an oak forest. The ability of bacteria to weather biotite was assessed with a new microplate bioassay that measures the pH and the quantity of iron released from this mineral. We showed that weathering bacteria occurred more frequently in the vicinity of S. citrinum than in the bulk soil. Moreover, the weathering efficacy of the mycorrhizosphere bacterial isolates was significantly greater than that of the bulk soil isolates. All the bacterial isolates were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as members of the genera Burkholderia, Collimonas, Pseudomonas, and Sphingomonas, and their carbon metabolism was characterized by the BIOLOG method. The most efficient isolates belonged to the genera Burkholderia and Collimonas. Multivariate analysis resulted in identification of three metabolic groups, one of which contained mainly bacterial isolates associated with S. citrinum and exhibiting high mineral-weathering potential. Therefore, our results support the hypothesis that by its carbon metabolism this fungus selects in the bulk soil reservoir a bacterial community with high weathering potential, and they also address the question of functional complementation between mycorrhizal fungi and bacteria in the ectomycorrhizal complex for the promotion of tree nutrition.
Project description:Bacteria play important roles in mineral weathering, soil formation, and element cycling. However, little is known about the interaction between silicate minerals and rhizobia. In this study, Rhizobium yantingense H66 (a novel mineral-weathering rhizobium) and Rhizobium etli CFN42 were compared with respect to potash feldspar weathering, mineral surface adsorption, and metabolic activity during the mineral weathering process. Strain H66 showed significantly higher Si, Al, and K mobilization from the mineral and higher ratios of cell numbers on the mineral surface to total cell numbers than strain CFN42. Although the two strains produced gluconic acid, strain H66 also produced acetic, malic, and succinic acids during mineral weathering in low- and high-glucose media. Notably, higher Si, Al, and K releases, higher ratios of cell numbers on the mineral surface to total cell numbers, and a higher production of organic acids by strain H66 were observed in the low-glucose medium than in the high-glucose medium. Scanning electron microscope analyses of the mineral surfaces and redundancy analysis showed stronger positive correlations between the mineral surface cell adsorption and mineral weathering, indicated by the dissolved Al and K concentrations. The results showed that the two rhizobia behaved differently with respect to mineral weathering. The results suggested that Rhizobium yantingense H66 promoted potash feldspar weathering through increased adsorption of cells to the mineral surface and through differences in glucose metabolism at low and high nutrient concentrations, especially at low nutrient concentrations.This study reported the potash feldspar weathering, the cell adsorption capacity of the mineral surfaces, and the metabolic differences between the novel mineral-weathering Rhizobium yantingense H66 and Rhizobium etli CFN42 under different nutritional conditions. The results showed that Rhizobium yantingense H66 had a greater ability to weather the mineral in low- and high-glucose media, especially in the low-glucose medium. Furthermore, Rhizobium yantingense H66 promoted mineral weathering through the increased adsorption of cells to the mineral surface and through increased organic acid production. Our results allow us to better comprehend the roles of different rhizobia in silicate mineral weathering, element cycling, and soil formation in various soil environments, providing more insight into the geomicrobial contributions of rhizobia to these processes.
Project description:The access and recycling of the base cations are essential processes for the long-lasting functioning of forest ecosystems. While the role of soil bacterial communities has been demonstrated in mineral weathering and tree nutrition, our understanding of the link between the availability of base cations and the functioning of these communities remains limited. To fill this gap, we developed a microcosm approach to investigate how an increase in key base cations (potassium or magnesium) impacted the taxonomic and functional structures of the bacterial communities. During a 2-month period after fertilization with available potassium or magnesium, soil properties, global functions (metabolic potentials and respiration) as well as mineral weathering bioassays and 16S rRNA amplicon pyrosequencing were monitored. Our analyses showed no or small variations in the taxonomic structure, total densities and global functions between the treatments. In contrast, a decrease in the frequency and effectiveness of mineral weathering bacteria was observed in the fertilized treatments. Notably, quantitative PCR targeting specific genera known for their mineral weathering ability (i.e., Burkholderia and Collimonas) confirmed this decrease. These new results suggest that K and Mg cation availability drives the distribution of the mineral weathering bacterial communities in forest soil.
Project description:Bacteria play important roles in mineral weathering and soil formation. However, few reports of mineral weathering bacteria inhabiting subsurfaces of soil profiles have been published, raising the question of whether the subsurface weathering bacteria are fundamentally distinct from those in surface communities. To address this question, we isolated and characterized mineral weathering bacteria from two contrasting soil profiles with respect to their role in the weathering pattern evolution, their place in the community structure, and their depth-related changes in these two soil profiles. The effectiveness and pattern of bacterial mineral weathering were different in the two profiles and among the horizons within the respective profiles. The abundance of highly effective mineral weathering bacteria in the Changshu profile was significantly greater in the deepest horizon than in the upper horizons, whereas in the Yanting profile it was significantly greater in the upper horizons than in the deeper horizons. Most of the mineral weathering bacteria from the upper horizons of the Changshu profile and from the deeper horizons of the Yanting profile significantly acidified the culture media in the mineral weathering process. The proportion of siderophore-producing bacteria in the Changshu profile was similar in all horizons except in the Bg2 horizon, whereas the proportion of siderophore-producing bacteria in the Yanting profile was higher in the upper horizons than in the deeper horizons. Both profiles existed in different highly depth-specific culturable mineral weathering community structures. The depth-related changes in culturable weathering communities were primarily attributable to minor bacterial groups rather than to a change in the major population structure.
Project description:In this study, the mineral-weathering bacterium Pseudomonas azotoformans F77, which was isolated from the soil of a debris flow area, was evaluated for its weathering activity under direct contact with biotite or without contact. Then, biotite-weathering behaviors of strain F77, mutants that had been created by deleting the gcd and adh genes (which are involved in gluconic acid metabolism and pilus formation, respectively), and the double mutant F77?gcd?adh were compared. The relative gene expression levels of F77 and its mutants F77?gcd and F77?adh were also analyzed in the presence of biotite. Direct contact with biotite increased Fe and Al release from the mineral in the presence of F77. All strains had similar abilities to release Fe and Al from the mineral except for F77?gcd and F77?adh Mobilized Fe and Al concentrations were decreased by up to 72, 26, and 87% in the presence of F77?gcd, F77?adh, and F77?gcd?adh, respectively, compared to levels observed in the presence of F77 during the mineral-weathering process. Gluconic acid production was decreased for F77?gcd and F77?gcd?adh, while decreased cell attachment on the mineral surface was observed for F77?adh, compared to findings for F77. The F77 genes involved in pilus formation and gluconic acid metabolism showed increased expression levels in the presence of biotite. The results of this study showed important roles for the genes involved in gluconic acid metabolism and pilus formation in mineral weathering by F77 and demonstrated the distinctive effect of these genes on mineral weathering by F77.IMPORTANCE Bacteria play important roles in mineral weathering and soil formation, although the molecular mechanisms underlying the interactions between bacteria and silicate minerals are poorly understood. In this study, the interactions between biotite and the highly effective mineral-weathering bacterium P. azotoformans F77 were characterized. Our results showed that the genes involved in gluconic acid metabolism and pilus formation play important roles in mineral weathering by F77. The presence of biotite could promote the expression of these genes in F77, and a distinctive effect of these genes on mineral weathering by F77 was observed in this study. Our results provide new knowledge and promote better understanding regarding the interaction between silicate minerals and mineral-weathering bacteria, as well as the molecular mechanisms involved in these processes.
Project description:Although minerals represent important soil constituents, their impact on the diversity and structure of soil microbial communities remains poorly documented. In this study, pure mineral particles with various chemistries (i.e., obsidian, apatite, and calcite) were considered. Each mineral type was conditioned in mesh bags and incubated in soil below different tree stands (beech, coppice with standards, and Corsican pine) for 2.5 years to determine the relative impacts of mineralogy and mineral weatherability on the taxonomic and functional diversities of mineral-associated bacterial communities. After this incubation period, the minerals and the surrounding bulk soil were collected to determine mass loss and to perform soil analyses, enzymatic assays, and cultivation-dependent and -independent analyses. Notably, our 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing analyses revealed that after the 2.5-year incubation period, the mineral-associated bacterial communities strongly differed from those of the surrounding bulk soil for all tree stands considered. When focusing only on minerals, our analyses showed that the bacterial communities associated with calcite, the less recalcitrant mineral type, significantly differed from those that colonized obsidian and apatite minerals. The cultivation-dependent analysis revealed significantly higher abundances of effective mineral-weathering bacteria on the most recalcitrant minerals (i.e., apatite and obsidian). Together, our data showed an enrichment of Betaproteobacteria and effective mineral-weathering bacteria related to the Burkholderia and Collimonas genera on the minerals, suggesting a key role for these taxa in mineral weathering and nutrient cycling in nutrient-poor forest ecosystems.IMPORTANCE Forests are usually developed on nutrient-poor and rocky soils, while nutrient-rich soils have been dedicated to agriculture. In this context, nutrient recycling and nutrient access are key processes in such environments. Deciphering how soil mineralogy influences the diversity, structure, and function of soil bacterial communities in relation to the soil conditions is crucial to better understanding the relative role of the soil bacterial communities in nutrient cycling and plant nutrition in nutrient-poor environments. The present study determined in detail the diversity and structure of bacterial communities associated with different mineral types incubated for 2.5 years in the soil under different tree species using cultivation-dependent and -independent analyses. Our data showed an enrichment of specific bacterial taxa on the minerals, specifically on the most weathered minerals, suggesting that they play key roles in mineral weathering and nutrient cycling in nutrient-poor forest ecosystems.
Project description:The principal nutrient source for forest trees derives from the weathering of soil minerals which results from water circulation and from plant and microbial activity. The main objectives of this work were to quantify the respective effects of plant- and root-associated bacteria on mineral weathering and their consequences on tree seedling growth and nutrition. That is why we carried out two column experiments with a quartz-biotite substrate. The columns were planted with or without pine seedlings and inoculated or not with three ectomycorrhizosphere bacterial strains to quantify biotite weathering and pine growth and to determine how bacteria improve pine growth. We showed that the pine roots significantly increased biotite weathering by a factor of 1.3 for magnesium and 1.7 for potassium. We also demonstrated that the inoculation of Burkholderia glathei PML1(12) significantly increased biotite weathering by a factor of 1.4 for magnesium and 1.5 for potassium in comparison with the pine alone. In addition, we observed a significant positive effect of B. glathei PMB1(7) and PML1(12) on pine growth and on root morphology (number of lateral roots and root hairs). We demonstrated that PML1(12) improved pine growth when the seedlings were supplied with a nutrient solution which did not contain the nutrients present in the biotite. No improvement of pine growth was observed when the seedlings were supplied with all the nutrients necessary for pine growth. We therefore propose that the growth-promoting effect of B. glathei PML1(12) mainly resulted from the improved plant nutrition via increased mineral weathering.
Project description:Dryland xeric conditions exert a deterministic effect on microbial communities, forcing life into refuge niches. Deposited rocks can form a lithic niche for microorganisms in desert regions. Mineral weathering is a key process in soil formation and the importance of microbial-driven mineral weathering for nutrient extraction is increasingly accepted. Advances in geobiology provide insight into the interactions between microorganisms and minerals that play an important role in weathering processes. In this study, we present the examination of the microbial diversity in dryland rocks from the Tsauchab River banks in Namibia. We paired culture-independent 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing with culture-dependent (isolation of bacteria) techniques to assess the community structure and diversity patterns. Bacteria isolated from dryland rocks are typical of xeric environments and are described as being involved in rock weathering processes. For the first time, we extracted extra- and intracellular DNA from rocks to enhance our understanding of potentially rock-weathering microorganisms. We compared the microbial community structure in different rock types (limestone, quartz-rich sandstone and quartz-rich shale) with adjacent soils below the rocks. Our results indicate differences in the living lithic and sublithic microbial communities.