Project description:Staphylococcus lugdunensis is an opportunistic pathogen related to Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The genome sequence of S. lugdunensis strain N920143 has been compared with other staphylococci, and genes were identified that could promote survival of S. lugdunensis on human skin and pathogenesis of infections. Staphylococcus lugdunensis lacks virulence factors that characterize S. aureus and harbours a smaller number of genes encoding surface proteins. It is the only staphylococcal species other than S. aureus that possesses a locus encoding iron-regulated surface determinant (Isd) proteins involved in iron acquisition from haemoglobin.
Project description:Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a member of the coagulase-negative staphylococci and commonly found as part of the human skin flora. It is a significant cause of catheter-related bacteremia and also causes serious infections like native valve endocarditis in previously healthy individuals. We report the complete genome sequence of this medically important bacterium.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Staphylococcus lugdunensis is an unusually virulent coagulase-negative staphylococcus that has rarely been implicated in central nervous system infections. CASE PRESENTATION: Two children hospitalized in the Neurosurgery Unit developed ventriculitis caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus lugdunensis following placement of external ventriculostomy drains. The causative organisms were identified by molecular studies. The patients recovered without significant sequelae after high doses of intrathecal vancomycin. CONCLUSION: Distinguishing Staphylococcus lugdunensis from other coagulase-negative staphylococcus species is crucial because it carries a substantial risk for severe central nervous system infections displayed by patients with implanted cerebrospinal fluid devices. Clinicians should not underestimate the importance of the isolation of this species from cerebrospinal fluid specimens.
Project description:Symptoms of Staphylococcus lugdunensis infection are often similar to those of Staphylococcus aureus infection, including skin and soft-tissue lesions, bacteremia and infective endocarditis. Despite the severity of these infections, S. lugdunensis is regarded as a less important pathogen than drug-resistant S. aureus. To investigate its ability to cause infectious diseases, a methicillin-resistant S. lugdunensis (MRSL) strain JICS135 was isolated from a patient with bacteremia and subjected to whole genome sequencing. Similar to most strains of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), this MRSL strain possessed the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) located close to the origin of replication. However, the SCCmec in this MRSL strain, with three ccr complexes, was structurally unique and currently untypable. Moreover, the SCCmec of this MRSL strain was found to carry two genes encoding microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMM)-like proteins accompanied by glycosyl transferases, one of which may have been derived from S. aureus and the other from S. epidermidis, indicating that this MRSL evolved to carry virulence factors from other staphylococci. The emergence of this strain, the first MRSL strain whose genome has been sequenced completely, may be of public concern.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Staphylococcus lugdunensis belongs to the CoNS group, but is regarded to be more virulent than most other CoNS. It is also remarkably susceptible to antibiotics, including penicillin G. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate different methods for penicillin susceptibility testing, to assess penicillin susceptibility rates among S. lugdunensis and to describe the clinical presentation including antibiotic treatment. METHODS:Clinical isolates of S. lugdunensis were tested for penicillin susceptibility using disc diffusion according to CLSI (10?U disc) and EUCAST (1?U disc), assessment of zone-edge appearance, nitrocefin test and Etest for MIC determination. PCR of the blaZ gene was used as a reference method. RESULTS:Of the 112 isolates included in the study, 67% were susceptible to penicillin G according to blaZ PCR. The EUCAST disc diffusion test had 100% sensitivity, whereas the CLSI method had one very major error with a false-susceptible isolate. When zone-edge appearance was included in the assessment, the false-susceptible isolate was correctly classified as resistant. Foreign-body infection was the most common focus of infection, affecting 49% of the participants. Only 4% of the patients were treated with penicillin G. CONCLUSIONS:Penicillin susceptibility is common in S. lugdunensis and the disc diffusion method according to EUCAST had a higher sensitivity than that of CLSI. Assessment of zone-edge appearance could increase the sensitivity of the disc diffusion test. Penicillin susceptibility testing and treatment should be considered in S. lugdunensis infections.
Project description:Competitive quorum sensing (QS) antagonism offers a novel strategy for attenuating current multidrug resistant staphylococcal infections. To this end, a series of 10 truncated analogues based on the parent autoinducing peptides (AIPs) of Staphylococcus lugdunensis (groups I and II) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (groups I-III) were sequentially assessed against a newly developed Staphylococcus lugdunensis group I QS reporter strain. The truncated analogues based upon Staphylococcus lugdunensis AIP-1 (1) and AIP-2 (2) displayed respective IC50 values of 0.2 ± 0.01 ?M and 0.3 ± 0.01 ?M, while the truncated analogue of the Staphylococcus epidermidis AIP-1 (3) elicited an IC50 value of 2.7 ± 0.1 ?M. These findings demonstrate the potential of cognate and "crosstalk" competitive quorum sensing inhibition using truncated AIPs as a means of attenuating staphylococcal infections in species beyond Staphylococcus aureus.
Project description:Staphylococcus lugdunensis is the only coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species with a locus encoding iron-regulated surface determinant (Isd) proteins. In Staphylococcus aureus, the Isd proteins capture heme from hemoglobin and transfer it across the wall to a membrane-bound transporter, which delivers it into the cytoplasm, where heme oxygenases release iron. The Isd proteins of S. lugdunensis are expressed under iron-restricted conditions. We propose that S. lugdunensis IsdB and IsdC proteins perform the same functions as those of S. aureus. S. lugdunensis IsdB is the only hemoglobin receptor within the isd locus. It specifically binds human hemoglobin with a dissociation constant (K(d)) of 23 nM and transfers heme on IsdC. IsdB expression promotes bacterial growth in an iron-limited medium containing human hemoglobin but not mouse hemoglobin. This correlates with weak binding of IsdB to mouse hemoglobin in vitro. Unlike IsdB and IsdC, the proteins IsdJ and IsdK are not sorted to the cell wall in S. lugdunensis. In contrast, IsdJ expressed in S. aureus and Lactococcus lactis is anchored to peptidoglycan, suggesting that S. lugdunensis sortases may differ in signal recognition or could be defective. IsdJ and IsdK are present in the culture supernatant, suggesting that they could acquire heme from the external milieu. The IsdA protein of S. aureus protects bacteria from bactericidal lipids due to its hydrophilic C-terminal domain. IsdJ has a similar region and protected S. aureus and L. lactis as efficiently as IsdA but, possibly due to its location, was less effective in its natural host.
Project description:A 12-year-old child developed meningitis 6 days after a third ventriculostomy by endoscopy. A coagulase-negative Staphylococcus sp. was isolated in pure culture from the cerebrospinal fluid and was definitely identified as Staphylococcus lugdunensis after the 16S ribosomal DNA gene and rpoB gene were sequenced. This report describes the first case of S. lugdunensis meningitis.
Project description:Staphylococcus lugdunensis is often found as part of the normal flora of human skin but has the potential to cause serious infections even in healthy individuals. It remains unclear what factors enable S. lugdunensis to transition from a skin commensal to an invasive pathogen. Analysis of the complete genome reveals a putative iron-regulated surface determinant (Isd) system encoded within S. lugdunensis. In other bacteria, the Isd system permits the utilization of host heme as a source of nutrient iron to facilitate bacterial growth during infection. In this study, we establish that S. lugdunensis expresses an iron-regulated IsdG-family heme oxygenase that binds and degrades heme. Heme degradation by IsdG results in the release of free iron and the production of the chromophore staphylobilin. IsdG-mediated heme catabolism enables the use of heme as a sole source of iron, establishing IsdG as a pathophysiologically relevant heme oxygenase in S. lugdunensis. Together these findings offer insight into how S. lugdunensis fulfills its nutritional requirements while invading host tissues and establish the S. lugdunensis Isd system as being involved in heme-iron utilization.
Project description:Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CoNS) with unusual pathogenicity resembling that of S. aureus. Unlike other CoNS, S. lugdunensis remains susceptible to most antibiotics. The resistance to penicillin varies widely (range, 15-87% worldwide), whereas methicillin resistance is still rare. We aimed to evaluate treatment options for infections caused by S. lugdunensis and more specifically to investigate whether penicillin G could be a better treatment choice than oxacillin. Susceptibility testing was performed using the disc diffusion method for penicillin G, cefoxitin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, clindamycin, gentamicin, norfloxacin, fusidic acid, rifampicin, and fosfomycin. Isolates susceptible to penicillin G were further tested with a gradient test for penicillin G and oxacillin. Of the 540 clinical isolates tested, 74.6% were susceptible to penicillin G. Among these penicillin-susceptible isolates, the MIC50 and MIC90 values for penicillin G were threefold lower than that for oxacillin. A majority of the isolates were susceptible to all other antibiotics tested. Breakpoints for fosfomycin have not yet been defined, and so no conclusions could be drawn. Two isolates were resistant to cefoxitin and carried the mecA gene; whole-genome sequencing revealed that both harbored the SCCmec element type IVa(2B). S. lugdunensis isolated in Sweden were susceptible to most tested antibiotics. Penicillin G may be a more optimal treatment choice than oxacillin. Although carriage of the mecA gene is rare among S. lugdunensis, it does occur.