Project description:There are dozens of recognized indigenous dog breeds in China. However, these breeds have not had extensive studies to describe their population structure, genomic linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns, and selection signatures. Here, we systematically surveyed the genomes of 157 unrelated dogs that were from 15 diverse Chinese dog breeds. Canine 170K SNP chips were used to compare the genomic structures of Chinese and Western dogs. The genotyping data of 170K SNP chips in Western dogs were downloaded from the LUPA (a European initiative of canine genome project) database. Chinese indigenous dogs had lower LD and shorter accumulative runs of homozygosity (ROH) in the genome. The genetic distances between individuals within each Chinese breed were larger than those within Western breeds. Chinese indigenous and Western dog breeds were clearly differentiated into two separate clades revealed by the PCA and NJ-tree. We found evidence for historical introgression of Western dogs into Chinese Kazakhstan shepherd and Mongolia Xi dogs. We suggested that Greenland sledge dog, Papillon, and European Eurasier have Chinese dog lineages. Selection sweep analysis identified genome-wide selection signatures of each Chinese breed and three breed groups. We highlighted several genes including EPAS1 and DNAH9 that show signatures of natural selection in Qinghai-Tibetan plateau dogs and are likely important for genetic adaptation to high altitude. Comparison of our findings with previous reports suggested RBP7, NMNAT1, SLC2A5, and H6PD that exhibit signatures of natural selection in Chinese mountain hounds as promising candidate genes for the traits of endurance and night vision, and NOL8, KRT9, RORB, and CAMTA1 that show signals of selection in Xi dogs might be candidate genes influencing dog running speed. The results about genomic and population structures, and selection signatures of Chinese dog breeds reinforce the conclusion that Chinese indigenous dogs with great variations of phenotypes are important resources for identifying genes responsible for complex traits.
Project description:Rapid and cost effective production of large-scale genome data through next-generation sequencing has enabled population-level studies of various organisms to identify their genotypic differences and phenotypic consequences. This is also used to study indigenous animals with historical and economical values, although they are less studied than model organisms. The objective of this study was to perform functional and evolutionary analysis of Korean bob-tailed native dog Donggyeong with distinct tail and agility phenotype using whole-genome sequencing data by using population and comparative genomics approaches. Based on the uniqueness of non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms obtained from next-generation sequencing data, Donggyeong dog-specific genes/proteins and their functions were identified by comparison with 12 other dog breeds and six other related species. These proteins were further divided into subpopulation-specific ones with different tail length and protein interaction-level signatures were investigated. Finally, the trajectory of shaping protein interactions of subpopulation-specific proteins during evolution was uncovered. This study expands our knowledge of Korean native dogs. Our results also provide a good example of using whole-genome sequencing data for population-level analysis in closely related species.
Project description:There is increasing evidence that several genes are associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D); genome-wide association investigations and whole-genome re?sequencing investigations offer a useful approach for the identification of genes involved in common human diseases. To further investigate which polymorphisms confer susceptibility to T2D, the present study screened for high?contribution susceptibility gene variants Chinese patients with T2D using whole?genome re?sequencing with DNA pooling. In total, 100 Chinese individuals with T2D and 100 healthy Chinese individuals were analyzed using whole?genome re?sequencing using DNA pooling. To minimize the likelihood of systematic bias in sampling, paired?end libraries with an insert size of 500 bp were prepared for in T2D in all samples, which were then subjected to whole?genome sequencing. Each library contained four lanes. The average sequencing depth was 35.70. In the present study, 1.36 GB of clean sequence data were generated, and the resulting calculated T2D genome consensus sequence covered 99.88% of the hg19 sequence. A total of 3,974,307 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified, of which 99.88% were in the dbSNP database. The present study also found 642,189 insertions and deletions, 5,590 structure variants (SVs), 4,713 copy number variants (CNVs) and 13,049 single nucleotide variants. A total of 1,884 somatic CNVs and 74 somatic SVs were significantly different between the cases and controls. Therefore, the present study provided validation of whole?genome re?sequencing using the DNA pooling approach. It also generated a whole-genome re-sequencing genotype database for future investigations of T2D.
Project description:The Chinese indigenous pig breeds in the Taihu Lake region are the most prolific pig breeds in the world. In this study, we investigated the genetic diversity and population structure of six breeds, including Meishan, Erhualian, Mi, Fengjing, Shawutou and Jiaxing Black, in this region using whole-genome SNP data. A high SNP with proportions of polymorphic markers ranging from 0.925 to 0.995 was exhibited by the Chinese indigenous pigs in the Taihu Lake region. The allelic richness and expected heterozygosity also were calculated and indicated that the genetic diversity of the Meishan breed was the greatest, whereas that of the Fengjing breed was the lowest. The genetic differentiation, as indicated by the fixation index, exhibited an overall mean of 0.149. Both neighbor-joining tree and principal components analysis were able to distinguish the breeds from each other, but structure analysis indicated that the Mi and Erhualian breeds exhibited similar major signals of admixture. With this genome-wide comprehensive survey of the genetic diversity and population structure of the indigenous Chinese pigs in the Taihu Lake region, we confirmed the rationality of the current breed classification of the pigs in this region.
Project description:Recently, the world's first transgenic dogs were produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer. However, cellular senescence is a major limiting factor for producing more advanced transgenic dogs. To overcome this obstacle, we rejuvenated transgenic cells using a re-cloning technique. Fibroblasts from post-mortem red fluorescent protein (RFP) dog were reconstructed with in vivo matured oocytes and transferred into 10 surrogate dogs. One puppy was produced and confirmed as a re-cloned dog. Although the puppy was lost during birth, we successfully established a rejuvenated fibroblast cell line from this animal. The cell line was found to stably express RFP and is ready for additional genetic modification.
Project description:The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses are heritable lysosomal storage diseases characterized by progressive neurological impairment and the accumulation of autofluorescent storage granules in neurons and other cell types. Various forms of human neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis have been attributed to mutations in at least 13 different genes. So far, mutations in the canine orthologs of 7 of these genes have been identified in DNA from dogs with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. The identification of new causal mutations could lead to the establishment of canine models to investigate the pathogenesis of the corresponding human neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses and to evaluate and optimize therapeutic interventions for these fatal human diseases.We obtained blood and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded brain sections from a rescue dog that was reported to be a young adult Chinese Crested. The dog was euthanized at approximately 19 months of age as a consequence of progressive neurological decline that included blindness, anxiety, and cognitive impairment. A diagnosis of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis was made based on neurological signs, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, and fluorescence microscopic and electron microscopic examination of brain sections. We isolated DNA from the blood and used it to generate a whole genome sequence with 33-fold average coverage. Among the 7.2 million potential sequence variants revealed by aligning the sequence reads to the canine genome reference sequence was a homozygous single base pair deletion in the canine ortholog of one of 13 known human NCL genes: MFSD8:c.843delT. MFSD8:c.843delT is predicted to cause a frame shift and premature stop codon resulting in a truncated protein, MFSD8:p.F282Lfs13*, missing its 239 C-terminal amino acids. The MFSD8:c.843delT allele is absent from the whole genome sequences of 101 healthy canids or dogs with other diseases. The genotyping of archived DNA from 1478 Chinese Cresteds did not identify any additional MFSD8:c.843delT homozygotes and found only one heterozygote.We conclude that the neurodegenerative disease of the Chinese Crested rescue dog was neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis and that homozygosity for the MFSD8:c.843delT sequence variant was very likely to be the molecular-genetic cause of the disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Whole genome re-sequencing data from dogs and wolves are now commonly used to study how natural and artificial selection have shaped the patterns of genetic diversity. Single nucleotide polymorphisms, microsatellites and variants in mitochondrial DNA have been interrogated for links to specific phenotypes or signals of domestication. However, copy number variation (CNV), despite its increasingly recognized importance as a contributor to phenotypic diversity, has not been extensively explored in canids. RESULTS:Here, we develop a new accurate probabilistic framework to create fine-scale genomic maps of segmental duplications (SDs), compare patterns of CNV across groups and investigate their role in the evolution of the domestic dog by using information from 34 canine genomes. Our analyses show that duplicated regions are enriched in genes and hence likely possess functional importance. We identify 86 loci with large CNV differences between dogs and wolves, enriched in genes responsible for sensory perception, immune response, metabolic processes, etc. In striking contrast to the observed loss of nucleotide diversity in domestic dogs following the population bottlenecks that occurred during domestication and breed creation, we find a similar proportion of CNV loci in dogs and wolves, suggesting that other dynamics are acting to particularly select for CNVs with potentially functional impacts. CONCLUSIONS:This work is the first comparison of genome wide CNV patterns in domestic and wild canids using whole-genome sequencing data and our findings contribute to study the impact of novel kinds of genetic changes on the evolution of the domestic dog.
Project description:The dog roundworm <i>Toxocara canis</i> (Nematoda: Toxocaridae) is an important zoonotic parasitic nematode and cause toxocariasis in human with a worldwide distribution. Herein, the complete mitochondrial genome of a representative of this nematode from USA was determined through next generation sequencing platform. The whole genome was 14,309?bp in size and encoded 12 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and 2 ribosomal RNAs. Phylogeny showed that although <i>T. canis</i> from USA and Australia were more closely related to each other than to that from Chinese, three <i>T. canis</i> isolates clustered together and formed paraphyletic relationships with <i>T. cati</i> and <i>T. malayensis</i>, supporting them as sister species among the family Toxocaridae. These cumulative mitochondrial DNA data should contribute to a better understanding of the phylogenetic relationship of this species.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Once a canine rabies-free status has been achieved, there is little guidance available on vaccination standards to maintain that status. In areas with risk of reintroduction, it may be practical to continue vaccinating portions of susceptible dogs to prevent re-establishment of canine rabies. METHODS:We used a modified version of RabiesEcon, a deterministic mathematical model, to evaluate the potential impacts and cost-effectiveness of preventing the reintroduction of canine rabies through proactive dog vaccination. We analyzed four scenarios to simulate varying risk levels involving the reintroduction of canine rabies into an area where it is no longer present. In a sensitivity analysis, we examined the influences of reintroduction frequency and intensity, the density of susceptible dog population, dog birth rate, dog life expectancy, vaccine efficacy, rate of loss of vaccine immunity, and the basic reproduction number (R0). RESULTS:To prevent the re-establishment of canine rabies, it is necessary to vaccinate 38% to 56% of free-roaming dogs that have no immunity to rabies. These coverage levels were most sensitive to adjustments in R0 followed by the vaccine efficacy and the rate of loss of vaccine immunity. Among the various preventive vaccination strategies, it was most cost-effective to continue dog vaccination at the minimum coverage required, with the average cost per human death averted ranging from $257 to $398 USD. CONCLUSIONS:Without strong surveillance systems, rabies-free countries are vulnerable to becoming endemic when incursions happen. To prevent this, it may be necessary to vaccinate at least 38% to 56% of the susceptible dog population depending on the risk of reintroduction and transmission dynamics.
Project description:Population genetic studies of dogs have so far mainly been based on analysis of mitochondrial DNA, describing only the history of female dogs. To get a picture of the male history, as well as a second independent marker, there is a need for studies of biallelic Y-chromosome polymorphisms. However, there are no biallelic polymorphisms reported, and only 3200 bp of non-repetitive dog Y-chromosome sequence deposited in GenBank, necessitating the identification of dog Y chromosome sequence and the search for polymorphisms therein. The genome has been only partially sequenced for one male dog, disallowing mapping of the sequence into specific chromosomes. However, by comparing the male genome sequence to the complete female dog genome sequence, candidate Y-chromosome sequence may be identified by exclusion.The male dog genome sequence was analysed by Blast search against the human genome to identify sequences with a best match to the human Y chromosome and to the female dog genome to identify those absent in the female genome. Candidate sequences were then tested for male specificity by PCR of five male and five female dogs. 32 sequences from the male genome, with a total length of 24 kbp, were identified as male specific, based on a match to the human Y chromosome, absence in the female dog genome and male specific PCR results. 14437 bp were then sequenced for 10 male dogs originating from Europe, Southwest Asia, Siberia, East Asia, Africa and America. Nine haplotypes were found, which were defined by 14 substitutions. The genetic distance between the haplotypes indicates that they originate from at least five wolf haplotypes. There was no obvious trend in the geographic distribution of the haplotypes.We have identified 24159 bp of dog Y-chromosome sequence to be used for population genetic studies. We sequenced 14437 bp in a worldwide collection of dogs, identifying 14 SNPs for future SNP analyses, and giving a first description of the dog Y-chromosome phylogeny.