Project description:Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is a gene complex known for its exceptional diversity across populations, importance in organ and blood stem cell transplantation, and associations of specific alleles with various diseases. We constructed a Japanese reference panel of class I HLA genes (ToMMo HLA panel), comprising a distinct set of HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, and HLA-H alleles, by single-molecule, real-time (SMRT) sequencing of 208 individuals included in the 1070 whole-genome Japanese reference panel (1KJPN). For high-quality allele reconstruction, we developed a novel pipeline, Primer-Separation Assembly and Refinement Pipeline (PSARP), in which the SMRT sequencing and additional short-read data were used. The panel consisted of 139 alleles, which were all extended from known IPD-IMGT/HLA sequences, contained 40 with novel variants, and captured more than 96.5% of allelic diversity in 1KJPN. These newly available sequences would be important resources for research and clinical applications including high-resolution HLA typing, genetic association studies, and analyzes of cis-regulatory elements.
Project description:The high-throughput department of DKMS Life Science Lab encounters novel human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles on a daily basis. To characterise these alleles, we have developed a system to sequence the whole gene from 5'- to 3'-UTR for the HLA loci A, B, C, DQB1 and DPB1 for submission to the European Molecular Biology Laboratory - European Nucleotide Archive (EMBL-ENA) and the IPD-IMGT/HLA Database. Our workflow is based on a dual redundant sequencing strategy. Using shotgun sequencing on an Illumina MiSeq instrument and single molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing on a PacBio RS II instrument, we are able to achieve highly accurate HLA full-length consensus sequences. Remaining conflicts are resolved using the R package DR2S (Dual Redundant Reference Sequencing). Given the relatively high throughput of this strategy, we have developed the semi-automated web service TypeLoader, to aid in the submission of sequences to the EMBL-ENA and the IPD-IMGT/HLA Database. In the IPD-IMGT/HLA Database release 3.24.0 (April 2016; prior to the submission of the sequences described here), only 5.2% of all known HLA alleles have been fully characterised together with intronic and UTR sequences. So far, we have applied our strategy to characterise and submit 1056 HLA alleles, thereby more than doubling the number of fully characterised alleles. Given the increasing application of next generation sequencing (NGS) for full gene characterisation in clinical practice, extending the HLA database concomitantly is highly desirable. Therefore, we propose this dual redundant sequencing strategy as a workflow for submission of novel full-length alleles and characterisation of sequences that are as yet incomplete. This would help to mitigate the predominance of partially known alleles in the database.
Project description:Allele-level resolution data at primary HLA typing is the ideal for most histocompatibility testing laboratories. Many high-throughput molecular HLA typing approaches are unable to determine the phase of observed DNA sequence polymorphisms, leading to ambiguous results. The use of higher resolution methods is often restricted due to cost and time limitations. Here we report on the feasibility of using Pacific Biosciences' Single Molecule Real-Time (SMRT) DNA sequencing technology for high-resolution and high-throughput HLA typing. Seven DNA samples were typed for HLA-A, -B and -C. The results showed that SMRT DNA sequencing technology was able to generate sequences that spanned entire HLA Class I genes that allowed for accurate allele calling. Eight novel genomic HLA class I sequences were identified, four were novel alleles, three were confirmed as genomic sequence extensions and one corrected an existing genomic reference sequence. This method has the potential to revolutionize the field of HLA typing. The clinical impact of achieving this level of resolution HLA typing data is likely to considerable, particularly in applications such as organ and blood stem cell transplantation where matching donors and recipients for their HLA is of utmost importance.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sulforaphane is a natural isothiocyanate available from cruciferous vegetables with multiple characteristics including antioxidant, antitumor and anti-inflammatory effect. Single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing has been used for long-read de novo assembly of plant genome. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism related to glucosinolates biosynthesis in Chinese kale using combined NGS and SMRT sequencing. RESULTS:SMRT sequencing produced 185,134 unigenes, higher than 129,325 in next-generation sequencing (NGS). NaCl (75?mM), methyl jasmonate (MeJA, 40??M), selenate (Se, sodium selenite 100??M), and brassinolide (BR, 1.5??M) treatment induced 6893, 13,287, 13,659 and 11,041 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Chinese kale seedlings comparing with control. These genes were associated with pathways of glucosinolates biosynthesis, including phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis, cysteine and methionine metabolism, and glucosinolate biosynthesis. We found NaCl decreased sulforaphane and glucosinolates (indolic and aliphatic) contents and downregulated expression of cytochrome P45083b1 (CYP83b1), S-alkyl-thiohydroximatelyase or carbon-sulfur lyase (SUR1) and UDP-glycosyltransferase 74B1 (UGT74b1). MeJA increased sulforaphane and glucosinolates contents and upregulated the expression of CYP83b1, SUR1 and UGT74b1; Se increased sulforaphane; BR increased expression of CYP83b1, SUR1 and UGT74b1, and increased glucosinolates contents. The desulfoglucosinolate sulfotransferases ST5a_b_c were decreased by all treatments. CONCLUSIONS:We confirmed that NaCl inhibited the biosynthesis of both indolic and aliphatic glucosinolates, while MeJA and BR increased them. MeJA and BR treatments, conferred the biosynthesis of glucosinolates, and Se and MeJA contributed to sulforaphane in Chinese kale via regulating the expression of CYP83b1, SUR1 and UGT74b1.
Project description:This study was aimed at generating the full-length transcriptome of flea beetle Agasicles hygrophila (Selman and Vogt) using single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing. Four developmental stages of A. hygrophila, including eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults were harvested for isolating total RNA. The mixed samples were used for SMRT sequencing to generate the full-length transcriptome. Based on the obtained transcriptome data, alternative splicing event, simple sequence repeat (SSR) analysis, coding sequence prediction, transcript functional annotation, and lncRNA prediction were performed. Total 9.45?Gb of clean reads were generated, including 335,045 reads of insert (ROI) and 158,085 full-length non-chimeric (FLNC) reads. Transcript clustering analysis of FLNC reads identified 40,004 consensus isoforms, including 31,015 high-quality ones. After removing redundant reads, 28,982 transcripts were obtained. Total 145 alternative splicing events were predicted. Additionally, 12,753 SSRs and 16,205 coding sequences were identified based on SSR analysis. Furthermore, 24,031 transcripts were annotated in eight functional databases, and 4,198 lncRNAs were predicted. This is the first study to perform SMRT sequencing of the full-length transcriptome of A. hygrophila. The obtained transcriptome may facilitate further exploration of the genetic data of A. hygrophila and uncover the interactions between this insect and the ecosystem.
Project description:Hematopoietic cells are continuously replenished from progenitor cells that reside in the bone marrow. To evaluate molecular changes during this process, we analyzed the transcriptomes of freshly harvested human bone marrow progenitor (lineage-negative) and differentiated (lineage-positive) cells by single-molecule real-time (SMRT) full-length RNA-sequencing. This analysis revealed a ~5-fold higher number of transcript isoforms than previously detected and showed a distinct composition of individual transcript isoforms characteristic for bone marrow subpopulations. A detailed analysis of messenger RNA (mRNA) isoforms transcribed from the ANXA1 and EEF1A1 loci confirmed their distinct composition. The expression of proteins predicted from the transcriptome analysis was evaluated by mass spectrometry and validated previously unknown protein isoforms predicted e.g., for EEF1A1. These protein isoforms distinguished the lineage negative cell population from the lineage positive cell population. Finally, transcript isoforms expressed from paralogous gene loci (e.g., CFD, GATA2, HLA-A, B, and C) also distinguished cell subpopulations but were only detectable by full-length RNA sequencing. Thus, qualitatively distinct transcript isoforms from individual genomic loci separate bone marrow cell subpopulations indicating complex transcriptional regulation and protein isoform generation during hematopoiesis.
Project description:Although NGS technologies fuel advances in high-throughput HLA genotyping methods for identification and classification of HLA genes to assist with precision medicine efforts in disease and transplantation, the efficiency of these methods are impeded by the absence of adequately-characterized high-frequency HLA allele reference sequence databases for the highly polymorphic HLA gene system. Here, we report on producing a comprehensive collection of full-length HLA allele sequences for eight classical HLA loci found in the Japanese population. We augmented the second-generation short read data generated by the Ion Torrent technology with long amplicon spanning consensus reads delivered by the third-generation SMRT sequencing method to create reference grade high-quality sequences of HLA class I and II gene alleles resolved at the genomic coding and non-coding level. Forty-six DNAs were obtained from a reference set used previously to establish the HLA allele frequency data in Japanese subjects. The samples included alleles with a collective allele frequency in the Japanese population of more than 99.2%. The HLA loci were independently amplified by long-range PCR using previously designed HLA-locus specific primers and subsequently sequenced using SMRT and Ion PGM sequencers. The mapped long and short-reads were used to produce a reference library of consensus HLA allelic sequences with the help of the reference-aware software tool LAA for SMRT Sequencing. A total of 253 distinct alleles were determined for 46 healthy subjects. Of them, 137 were novel alleles: 101 SNVs and/or indels and 36 extended alleles at a partial or full-length level. Comparing the HLA sequences from the perspective of nucleotide diversity revealed that HLA-DRB1 was the most divergent among the eight HLA genes, and that the HLA-DPB1 gene sequences diverged into two distinct groups, DP2 and DP5, with evidence of independent polymorphisms generated in exon 2. We also identified two specific intronic variations in HLA-DRB1 that might be involved in rheumatoid arthritis. In conclusion, full-length HLA allele sequencing by third-generation and second-generation technologies has provided polymorphic gene reference sequences at a genomic allelic resolution including allelic variations assigned up to the field-4 level for a stronger foundation in precision medicine and HLA-related disease and transplantation studies.
Project description:The white-backed planthopper Sogatella furcifera is an economically important rice pest distributed throughout Asia. It damages rice crops by sucking phloem sap, resulting in stunted growth and plant virus transmission. We aimed to obtain the full-length transcriptome data of S. furcifera using PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing. Total RNA extracted from S. furcifera at various developmental stages (egg, larval, and adult stages) was mixed and used to generate a full-length transcriptome for SMRT sequencing. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) identification, full-length coding sequence prediction, full-length non-chimeric (FLNC) read detection, simple sequence repeat (SSR) analysis, transcription factor detection, and transcript functional annotation were performed. A total of 12,514,449 subreads (15.64 Gbp, clean reads) were generated, including 630,447 circular consensus sequences and 388,348 FLNC reads. Transcript cluster analysis of the FLNC reads revealed 251,109 consensus reads including 29,700 high-quality reads. Additionally, 100,360 SSRs and 121,395 coding sequences were identified using SSR analysis and ANGEL software, respectively. Furthermore, 44,324 lncRNAs were annotated using four tools and 1,288 transcription factors were identified. In total, 95,495 transcripts were functionally annotated based on searches of seven different databases. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the full-length transcriptome of the white-backed planthopper obtained using SMRT sequencing. The acquired transcriptome data can facilitate further studies on the ecological and viral-host interactions of this agricultural pest.
Project description:Phage-display selection of immunoglobulin (IG) or antibody single chain Fragment variable (scFv) from combinatorial libraries is widely used for identifying new antibodies for novel targets. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has recently emerged as a new method for the high throughput characterization of IG and T cell receptor (TR) immune repertoires both in vivo and in vitro. However, challenges remain for the NGS sequencing of scFv from combinatorial libraries owing to the scFv length (>800?bp) and the presence of two variable domains [variable heavy (VH) and variable light (VL) for IG] associated by a peptide linker in a single chain. Here, we show that single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing with the Pacific Biosciences RS II platform allows for the generation of full-length scFv reads obtained from an in vivo selection of scFv-phages in an animal model of atherosclerosis. We first amplified the DNA of the phagemid inserts from scFv-phages eluted from an aortic section at the third round of the in vivo selection. From this amplified DNA, 450,558 reads were obtained from 15 SMRT cells. Highly accurate circular consensus sequences from these reads were generated, filtered by quality and then analyzed by IMGT/HighV-QUEST with the functionality for scFv. Full-length scFv were identified and characterized in 348,659 reads. Full-length scFv sequencing is an absolute requirement for analyzing the associated VH and VL domains enriched during the in vivo panning rounds. In order to further validate the ability of SMRT sequencing to provide high quality, full-length scFv sequences, we tracked the reads of an scFv-phage clone P3 previously identified by biological assays and Sanger sequencing. Sixty P3 reads showed 100% identity with the full-length scFv of 767?bp, 53 of them covering the whole insert of 977?bp, which encompassed the primer sequences. The remaining seven reads were identical over a shortened length of 939?bp that excludes the vicinity of primers at both ends. Interestingly these reads were obtained from each of the 15 SMRT cells. Thus, the SMRT sequencing method and the IMGT/HighV-QUEST functionality for scFv provides a straightforward protocol for characterization of full-length scFv from combinatorial phage libraries.
Project description:The cytochrome P450-2D6 (CYP2D6) enzyme metabolizes ?25% of common medications, yet homologous pseudogenes and copy number variants (CNVs) make interrogating the polymorphic CYP2D6 gene with short-read sequencing challenging. Therefore, we developed a novel long-read, full gene CYP2D6 single molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing method using the Pacific Biosciences platform. Long-range PCR and CYP2D6 SMRT sequencing of 10 previously genotyped controls identified expected star (*) alleles, but also enabled suballele resolution, diplotype refinement, and discovery of novel alleles. Coupled with an optimized variant-calling pipeline, CYP2D6 SMRT sequencing was highly reproducible as triplicate intra- and inter-run nonreference genotype results were completely concordant. Importantly, targeted SMRT sequencing of upstream and downstream CYP2D6 gene copies characterized the duplicated allele in 15 control samples with CYP2D6 CNVs. The utility of CYP2D6 SMRT sequencing was further underscored by identifying the diplotypes of 14 samples with discordant or unclear CYP2D6 configurations from previous targeted genotyping, which again included suballele resolution, duplicated allele characterization, and discovery of a novel allele and tandem arrangement. Taken together, long-read CYP2D6 SMRT sequencing is an innovative, reproducible, and validated method for full-gene characterization, duplication allele-specific analysis, and novel allele discovery, which will likely improve CYP2D6 metabolizer phenotype prediction for both research and clinical testing applications.