Project description:Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the second most lethal urinary cancer. RCC is frequently asymptomatic and it is already metastatic at diagnosis. There is an urgent necessity for RCC specific biomarkers selection for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. In present study, we applied liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based metabolomics to analyze urine samples of 100 RCC, 34 benign kidney tumors and 129 healthy controls. Differential metabolites were analyzed to investigate if urine metabolites could differentiate RCC from non-RCC. A panel consisting of 9 metabolites showed the best predictive ability for RCC from the health controls with an area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.905 for the training dataset and 0.885 for the validation dataset. Separation was observed between the RCC and benign samples with an AUC of 0.816. RCC clinical stages (T1 and T2 vs. T3 and T4) could be separated using a panel of urine metabolites with an AUC of 0.813. One metabolite, N-formylkynurenine, was discovered to have potential value for RCC diagnosis from non-RCC subjects with an AUC of 0.808. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that tryptophan metabolism was an important pathway in RCC. Our data concluded that urine metabolomics could be used for RCC diagnosis and would provide candidates for further targeted metabolomics analysis of RCC.
Project description:Trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2/ErbB-2), has become the mainstay of treatment for HER2-positive breast cancer. Nevertheless, its exact mechanism of action has not been fully elucidated. Although several studies suggest that Fc receptor-expressing immune cells are involved in trastuzumab therapy, the relative contribution of lymphocyte-mediated cellular cytotoxicity and antitumor cytokines remains unknown. We report here that anti-ErbB-2 mAb therapy is dependent on the release of type I and type II IFNs but is independent of perforin or FasL. Our study thus challenges the notion that classical antibody-dependent, lymphocyte-mediated cellular cytotoxicity is important for trastuzumab. We demonstrate that anti-ErbB-2 mAb therapy of experimental tumors derived from MMTV-ErbB-2 transgenic mice triggers MyD88-dependent signaling and primes IFN-γ-producing CD8+ T cells. Adoptive cell transfer of purified T cell subsets confirmed the essential role of IFN-γ-producing CD8+ T cells. Notably, anti-ErbB-2 mAb therapy was independent of IL-1R or IL-17Ra signaling. Finally, we investigated whether immunostimulatory approaches with antibodies against programmed death-1 (PD-1) or 41BB (CD137) could be used to capitalize on the immune-mediated effects of trastuzumab. We demonstrate that anti-PD-1 or anti-CD137 mAb can significantly improve the therapeutic activity of anti-ErbB-2 mAb in immunocompetent mice.
Project description:BACKGROUND: It is widely recognised that sorafenib inhibits a range of molecular targets in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In this study, we aim to use patient-derived RCC xenografts to delineate the angiogenic and non-angiogenic molecular targets of sorafenib therapy for advanced RCC (aRCC). METHODS: We successfully generated three patient RCC-derived xenografts in severe combined immunodeficient mice, consisting of three different RCC histological subtypes: conventional clear cell, poorly differentiated clear cell RCC with sarcomatoid changes, and papillary RCC. This study also used clear cell RCC cells (786-0/EV) harbouring mutant VHL to investigate the clonogenic survival of cells transfected with survivin sense and antisense oligonucleotides. RESULTS: All three xenografts retain their original histological characteristics. We reported that sorafenib inhibited all three RCC xenograft lines regardless of histological subtypes in a dose-dependant manner. Sorafenib-induced growth suppression was associated with not only inhibition of angiogenic targets p-PDGFR-?, p-VEGFR-2, and their downstream signalling pathways p-Akt and p-ERK, cell cycle, and anti-apoptotic proteins that include cyclin D1, cyclin B1, and survivin but also upregulation of proapoptotic Bim. Survivin knockdown by survivin-specific antisense-oligonucleotides inhibited colony formation and induced cell death in clear cell RCC cells. CONCLUSION: This study has shed light on the molecular mechanisms of sorafenib in RCC. Inhibition of non-angiogenic molecules by sorafenib could contribute in part to its anti-tumour activities observed in vivo, in addition to its anti-angiogenic effects.
Project description:Introduction:Renal cell cancer (RCC) syndrome is linked to Krebs cycle compartments and their coding genes' alterations like succinate dehydrogenase genes (SDHx). Here we present a systematic review of the SDH genes' mutations and their impact on both RCC diagnosis and prognosis. Methods:This systematic review includes any study in which tissue samples of RCC are considered in correlation with the SDHx mutations, microsatellite instability (MSI), and protein expression. For this purpose, a systematic search of MEDLINE (PubMed), Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science databases was conducted and finally 5384 articles were recruited. All studies' content was checked to find the related ones which were 145 articles, which with data extraction were limited to nineteen. Results:The final selected nineteen studies investigating the SDHx role in RCC tumor genesis were included, among which fifteen were mutation analysis, three were just SDHx protein expression, and two were MSI and mutation analysis studies. A total of 432 RCC patients were reported by SDH mutations, and 64 patients with MSI and SDH expression change were reported in 514 surgically resected renal epithelial tumors. The most common mutation was the single nucleotide variant rs772551056 (c.137G>A) of SDHB. For SDHC, c.380A>G presented in 48 RCC patients, and for SDHA a novel germline mutation c.2T>C: p.M1T in an occasional case of gastrointestinal stromal tumor intricate with RCC. Conclusion:RCC as an aggressive type of kidney cancer needs some biomarkers to be diagnosed exactly. It was shown recently that the succinate dehydrogenase gene variations can provide this diagnostic and prognostic biomarker. For this purpose, SDHB rs772551056 associated with its protein expression alterations can be taken into account. It is possible that a novel mutation of SDHA (c.2T>C: p.M1T) can provide evidence of GIST associated with RCC as well.
Project description:Renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) harboring the t(6;11)(p21;q12) translocation were first described in 2001 and recently recognized by the 2013 International Society of Urological Pathology Vancouver Classification of Renal Neoplasia. Although these RCCs are known to label for melanocytic markers HMB45 and Melan A and the cysteine protease cathepsin K by immunohistochemistry (IHC), a comprehensive IHC profile has not been reported. We report 10 new t(6;11) RCCs, all confirmed by break-apart TFEB fluorescence in situ hybridization. A tissue microarray containing 6 of these cases and 7 other previously reported t(6;11) RCCs was constructed and immunolabeled for 21 different antigens. Additional whole sections of t(6;11) RCC were labeled with selected IHC markers. t(6;11) RCC labeled diffusely and consistently for cathepsin K and Melan A (13 of 13 cases) and almost always at least focally for HMB45 (12 of 13 cases). They labeled frequently for PAX8 (14 of 23 cases), CD117 (10 of 14 cases), and vimentin (9 of 13 cases). A majority of cases labeled at least focally for cytokeratin Cam5.2 (8 of 13 cases) and CD10 and RCC marker antigen (10 of 14 cases each). In contrast to a prior study's findings, only a minority of cases labeled for Ksp-cadherin (3 of 19 cases). The median H score (product of intensity score and percentage labeling) for phosphorylated S6, a marker of mTOR pathway activation, was 101, which is high relative to most other RCC subtypes. In summary, IHC labeling for PAX8, Cam5.2, CD10, and RCC marker antigen supports classification of the t(6;11) RCC as carcinomas despite frequent negativity for broad-spectrum cytokeratins and EMA. Labeling for PAX8 distinguishes the t(6;11) RCC from epithelioid angiomyolipoma, which otherwise shares a similar immunoprofile. CD117 labeling is more frequent in the t(6;11) RCC compared with the related Xp11 translocation RCC. Increased pS6 expression suggests a possible molecular target for the uncommon t(6;11) RCCs that metastasize.
Project description:Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common kidney malignancy with poor prognosis. Recently, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been demonstrated as important regulators in multiple cancers including RCC. LOC653786 is a lncRNA, but its role in cancer remains unclear. In this study, we for the first time found that LOC653786 was upregulated in RCC tissues and cell lines, and this lncRNA promoted growth and cell cycle progression of RCC cells. Moreover, we showed that LOC653786 elevated the expression of forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) and its downstream target genes cyclin D1 and cyclin B1 in RCC cells. Reporter assay revealed that LOC653786 enhanced the transcriptional activity of FOXM1 gene promoter. Additionally, knockdown of FOXM1 attenuated the LOC653786-enhanced growth and cell cycle progression of RCC cells. Meanwhile, silencing of LOC653786 suppressed RCC cell growth and cell cycle progression, which was alleviated by overexpression of FOXM1. The in vivo experiments in nude mice showed knockdown of LOC653786 repressed xenograft tumor growth and FOXM1 expression. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that LOC653786 accelerates growth and cell cycle progression of RCC cells via upregulating FOXM1, suggesting that the 'LOC653786/FOXM1' pathway may serve as a novel target for RCC treatment.
Project description:Early studies suggested that the androgen receptor (AR) might play important roles to promote the renal cell carcinoma (RCC) progression; however, the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. Here we demonstrated the higher YBX1 expression with lower C1QBP expression in human RCC clinical tissues, and the intensity of C1QBP was negatively correlated with the YBX1 nuclear expression. Mechanism dissection found C1QBP could interact with YBX1 to suppress the YBX1 activation via altering the YBX1 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation in RCC cells. The consequences of such suppression of YBX1 might then result in suppressing the RCC cell migration and invasion that involved altering the AR-modulated MMP9 signals. Interruption of this newly identified C1QBP?YBX1?AR?MMP9-suppressed RCC cell invasion pathway via targeting YBX1 or AR partially reversed the RCC cell invasion. Importantly, results from in vivo mouse model with orthotopic implantation of RCC OSRC2 cells into the left renal capsule also confirmed in vitro cell line studies showing targeting YBX1 could suppress RCC cell invasion via regulation of AR/MMP9 signals. Collectively, these data suggest that C1QBP could regulate YBX1 to suppress the AR-enhanced RCC cell invasion. Targeting this newly identified C1QBP/YBX1/AR/MMP9 signal pathway may provide a new potential therapy to better suppress RCC metastasis.
Project description:Complement inhibitors expressed on tumor cells provide an evasion mechanism against mAb therapy and may modulate the development of an acquired antitumor immune response. Here we investigate a strategy to amplify mAb-targeted complement activation on a tumor cell, independent of a requirement to target and block complement inhibitor expression or function, which is difficult to achieve in vivo. We constructed a murine fusion protein, CR2Fc, and demonstrated that the protein targets to C3 activation products deposited on a tumor cell by a specific mAb, and amplifies mAb-dependent complement activation and tumor cell lysis in vitro. In syngeneic models of metastatic lymphoma (EL4) and melanoma (B16), CR2Fc significantly enhanced the outcome of mAb therapy. Subsequent studies using the EL4 model with various genetically modified mice and macrophage-depleted mice revealed that CR2Fc enhanced the therapeutic effect of mAb therapy via both macrophage-dependent Fc?R-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, and by direct complement-mediated lysis. Complement activation products can also modulate adaptive immunity, but we found no evidence that either mAb or CR2Fc treatment had any effect on an antitumor humoral or cellular immune response. CR2Fc represents a potential adjuvant treatment to increase the effectiveness of mAb therapy of cancer.
Project description:Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a common kidney cancer worldwide. Even though current treatments show promising therapeutic effectiveness, metastatic RCC still has limited therapeutic options so that novel treatments were urgently needed. Here, we identified that MUC12 was overexpressed in RCC patients and served as poor prognostic factor for RCC progression. Overexpression of MUC12 increased RCC cell growth and cell invasion while deficiency of MUC12 exerted opposite effects on RCC cells. Mechanistic dissection demonstrated that MUC12-mediated RCC cell growth and cell invasion were dependent of TGF-?1 signalling because they could be blocked in the presence of TGF-?1 inhibitor. Moreover, the regulation of TGF-?1 by MUC12 relied on the transactivation of c-Jun. MUC12 promoted the recruitment of c-Jun on the promoter of TGF-?1, leading to its transcription. Importantly, knockdown of c-Jun also attenuated MUC12-mediated TGF-?1 induction and RCC cell invasion. In summary, our study defines the role of MUC12 in RCC progression and provides rational to develop novel targeted therapy to battle against RCC.
Project description:PD-1/PD-L1 immunotherapy is viewed as having clinical benefits in advanced cancers but is effective in only a few patients, suggesting that an efficient combination approach is needed to improve efficacy. Immunohistochemistry analysis indicated that PD-L1 expression was correlated with the E6 expression in tumors from 122 lung cancer patients. The poorest survival occurred in PD-L1-positive/E6-positive tumor. PD-L1 expression was increased by the expression of E6, but not the E7, oncoprotein in lung and cervical cancer cells. PD-L1 expression was responsible for E6-mediated colony formation and soft agar growth. Therefore, PD-L1 secreted from tumor cells may directly promote tumor progression, particularly in E6-positive tumors. Immune deficiency nude mice were used to test the possibility that combining anti-PD-L1 mAb with Lm-LLO-E6 vaccine could have a higher antitumor activity compared with anti-PD-L1 mAb or Lm-LLO-E6 vaccine alone. A greater antitumor activity was obtained with anti-PD-L1 mAb + Lm-LLO-E6 vaccine than with anti-PD-L1 mAb or Lm-LLO-E6 alone in subcutaneous and metastatic tumors induced by TL-1 and SiHa cells. The longest survival time for nude mice was observed in the anti-PD-L1 mAb + Lm-LLO-E6 vaccine group. In conclusion, an anti-PD-L1 mAb + Lm-LLO-E6 vaccine may be an efficient treatment for suppression of tumor growth and metastasis induced by HPV-infected cells.