Project description:Reduced antimicrobial susceptibility due to resistance and tolerance has become a serious threat to human health. An approach to overcome this reduced susceptibility is the use of antibiotic adjuvants, also known as potentiators. These are compounds that have little or no antibacterial effect on their own but increase the susceptibility of bacterial cells towards antimicrobial agents. Baicalin hydrate, previously described as a quorum sensing inhibitor, is such a potentiator that increases the susceptibility of Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315 biofilms towards tobramycin. The goal of the present study is to elucidate the molecular mechanisms behind the potentiating activity of baicalin hydrate and related flavonoids. We first determined the effect of multiple flavonoids on susceptibility of B. cenocepacia J2315 towards tobramycin. Increased antibiotic susceptibility was most pronounced in combination with apigenin 7-O-glucoside and baicalin hydrate. For baicalin hydrate, also other B. cepacia complex strains and other antibiotics were tested. The potentiating effect was only observed for aminoglycosides and was both strain- and aminoglycoside-dependent. Subsequently, gene expression was compared between baicalin hydrate treated and untreated cells, in the presence and absence of tobramycin. This revealed that baicalin hydrate affected cellular respiration, resulting in increased reactive oxygen species production in the presence of tobramycin. We subsequently showed that baicalin hydrate has an impact on oxidative stress via several pathways including oxidative phosphorylation, glucarate metabolism and by modulating biosynthesis of putrescine. Furthermore, our data strongly suggest that the influence of baicalin hydrate on oxidative stress is unrelated to quorum sensing. Our data indicate that the potentiating effect of baicalin hydrate is due to modulating the oxidative stress response, which in turn leads to increased tobramycin-mediated killing.
Project description:Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315 biofilms were described to have an increased susceptibility towards tobramycin when baicalin hydrate was added to the treatment. The goal of this transcriptomic analysis is to elucidate the effect of baicalin hydrate on gene expression levels when added to tobramycin treatment. Therefore, biofilms were grown for 24 hours and treated for another 24 hours with either tobramycin (TOB) (1024ug/ml), baicalin hydrate (BH) (250uM) or a combination of both. Also, an untreated control (physiological saline) was included. This experiment was repeated twice, so three biological replicates per treatment were included for RNAsequencing.
Project description:Baicalin is a multi-purpose flavonoid known for its anticancer properties, but its application is hindered by its low water solubility and bioavailability. Polymeric nanocapsules were proposed in this work as a promising system for enhancing baicalin delivery, and potentiating its anticancer properties. The characterization of nanocapsules was augmented with chemometric analysis, and the selected formulations were tested on two breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231), with mechanistic anticancer elucidation using MTT assay, confocal microscopy uptake, flow cytometry, mechanism of cell death, reactive oxygen species production, caspase 3/7 activity and death biomarker expression using quantitative real time PCR. Results showed that baicalin nanocapsules displayed favorable pharmaceutical properties; with the formulation variables affecting their properties elucidated using chemometric factorial analysis. Nanocapsules enhanced the anticancer activity of baicalin up to 216 times for MCF-7 cells and 31 times for MDA-MB-231 after 24 hr incubation. Cellular internalization of the fluorescently labeled nanocapsules was confirmed after 4 hr incubation for both cell lines. Apoptosis was the dominant cell death mechanism, with significant up-regulation of P53 in baicalin nanocapsules treated cells. Data here presented drive to further preclinical studies to investigate the delivery of baicalin polymeric nanocapsules and their anti-cancer activity.
Project description:In this study, the effects of Baicalin on the hyperglycemia-induced cardiovascular malformation during embryo development were investigated. Using early chick embryos, an optimal concentration of Baicalin (6??M) was identified which could prevent hyperglycemia-induced cardiovascular malformation of embryos. Hyperglycemia-enhanced cell apoptosis was reduced in embryos and HUVECs in the presence of Baicalin. Hyperglycemia-induced excessive ROS production was inhibited when Baicalin was administered. Analyses of SOD, GSH-Px, MQAE and GABAA suggested Baicalin plays an antioxidant role in chick embryos possibly through suppression of outwardly rectifying Cl(-) in the high-glucose microenvironment. In addition, hyperglycemia-enhanced autophagy fell in the presence of Baicalin, through affecting the ubiquitin of p62 and accelerating autophagy flux. Both Baicalin and Vitamin C could decrease apoptosis, but CQ did not, suggesting autophagy to be a protective function on the cell survival. In mice, Baicalin reduced the elevated blood glucose level caused by streptozotocin (STZ). Taken together, these data suggest that hyperglycemia-induced embryonic cardiovascular malformation can be attenuated by Baicalin administration through suppressing the excessive production of ROS and autophagy. Baicalin could be a potential candidate drug for women suffering from gestational diabetes mellitus.
Project description:Baicalin is a flavonoid compound purified from the medicinal plant Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi and has been reported to stimulate surfactant protein (SP)-A gene expression in human lung epithelial cell lines (H441). The aims of this study were to determine whether maternal baicalin treatment could increase lung surfactant production and induce lung maturation in fetal rats. This study was performed with timed pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats. One-day baicalin group mothers were injected intraperitoneally with baicalin (5?mg/kg/day) on Day 18 of gestation. Two-day baicalin group mothers were injected intraperitoneally with baicalin (5?mg/kg/day) on Days 17 and 18 of gestation. Control group mothers were injected with vehicle alone on Day 18 of gestation. On Day 19 of gestation, fetuses were delivered by cesarean section. Maternal treatment with 2-day baicalin significantly increased saturated phospholipid when compared with control group and total phospholipid in fetal lung tissue when compared with control and 1-day baicalin groups. Antenatal treatment with 2-day baicalin significantly increased maternal growth hormone when compared with control group. Fetal lung SP-A mRNA expression and maternal serum corticosterone levels were comparable among the three experimental groups. Maternal baicalin treatment increases pulmonary surfactant phospholipids of fetal rat lungs and the improvement was associated with increased maternal serum growth hormone. These results suggest that antenatal baicalin treatment might accelerate fetal rat lung maturation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Baicalin, the main metabolic component of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has various pharmacological properties including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic, anti-bactericidal and anti-viral. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-Marek's disease virus (MDV) activities of baicalin in CEF cells. RESULTS:Here, we showed that baicalin could inhibit viral mRNA, protein levels and overall plaque formation in a time-dependent manner. We also found that baicalin could consistently inhibit MDV replication and directly affect the virus infectivity. Moreover, baicalin treatment has no effect on expression level of antiviral cytokine and inflammatory cytokines in MDV infected CEFs. CONCLUSIONS:These results demonstrate that baicalin could be a potential drug against MDV infection.
Project description:Baicalin, a flavonoid derived from Scutellaria baicalensis, is the main metabolite of baicalein released following administration in different animal models and human. We previously reported the antiviral activity of baicalein against dengue virus (DENV). Here, we examined the anti-DENV properties of baicalin in vitro, and described the inhibitory potentials of baicalin at different steps of DENV-2 (NGC strain) replication. Our in vitro antiviral experiments showed that baicalin inhibited virus replication at IC50 = 13.5 ± 0.08 μg/ml with SI = 21.5 following virus internalization by Vero cells. Baicalin exhibited virucidal activity against DENV-2 extracellular particles at IC50 = 8.74 ± 0.08 μg/ml and showed anti-adsorption effect with IC50 = 18.07 ± 0.2 μg/ml. Our findings showed that baicalin as the main metabolite of baicalein exerting in vitro anti-DENV activity. Further investigations on baicalein and baicalin to deduce its antiviral therapeutic effects are warranted.
Project description:Baicalin, a flavonoid compound from the root of the herb Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, has been widely used to treat patients with inflammatory disease. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of baicalin in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rat models of cerebral artery occlusion were established and then randomly and equally divided into three groups: ischemia (cerebral ischemia and reperfusion), valproic acid (cerebral ischemia and reperfusion + three intraperitoneal injections of valproic acid; positive control), and baicalin (cerebral ischemia and reperfusion + intraperitoneal injection of baicalin for 21 days). Neurological deficits were assessed using the postural reflex test and forelimb placing test at 3, 7, 14, and 21 days after ischemia. Rat cerebral infarct volume was measured using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining method. Pathological change of ischemic brain tissue was assessed using hematoxylin-eosin staining. In the baicalin group, rat neurological function was obviously improved, cerebral infarct volume was obviously reduced, and the pathological impairment of ischemic brain tissue was obviously alleviated compared to the ischemia group. Cerebral infarct volume was similar in the valproic acid and baicalin groups. These findings suggest that baicalin has a neuroprotective effect on cerebral ischemia.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a human and other animal pathogen that contributes to the primary etiology of nosocomial pneumonia, a disease with high mortality rates and costs. Treatment of multidrug-resistant S. aureus infection is extremely challenging, and new therapeutic strategies beyond antibiotic treatment are needed. Anti-virulence agents that specifically target the molecular determinants of virulence may be a novel method for treating drug-resistant nosocomial infections. Sortase B (SrtB) is a crucial virulence factor in S. aureus and plays an important role during infection. In this study, we find that baicalin suppresses the activity of SrtB. Minimum inhibitory concentration and growth curve assays confirmed that baicalin has no anti-S. aureus properties. We performed live/dead, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), adherence, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to confirm that baicalin reduced human alveolar epithelial A549 cell injury caused by S. aureus, reduced the adherence of S. aureus to A549 cells, and significantly attenuated the inflammatory response of mouse macrophage J774 cells to S. aureus. Additionally, we were able to elucidate the binding mechanics and identify the interacting sites of baicalin and SrtB via a molecular dynamics simulation, site-directed mutagenesis, and fluorescence spectroscopy quenching. Finally, we confirmed that baicalin directly binds to the active center of SrtB, and the residues Asn92 and Tyr128 perform an important function in the interaction of SrtB and baicalin. Taken together, these data indicate that baicalin is a promising candidate to combat S. aureus infections.
Project description:Osteoclasts (OC) are critical cells responsible for many bone diseases such as osteoporosis. It is of great interest to identify agents that can regulate the activity of OC to treat osteolytic bone diseases. In this study, we found that baicalin exerted a two-way regulatory effect on OC in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro and in vivo. In detail, baicalin at a low concentration (below 1 ?mol/L) enhanced OC differentiation and bone resorption, but baicalin at a high concentration (above 2 ?mol/L) exhibited inhibitory effects on OC. We demonstrated that baicalin at low concentrations enhanced the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (ERK) signalling pathway and activated c-Fos and NFATc1 expression, and thus enhanced gene expression, OC differentiation and bone resorption. However, baicalin at higher levels not only suppressed ERK phosphorylation and c-fos and NFATc1 expression, but also altered the expression of apoptosis-related proteins, and therefore inhibiting OC function. This dual effect was further verified in an LPS-induced mouse calvarial osteolysis model, evidenced by enhanced osteolysis at a lower concentration but reduced bone loss at a higher concentration. Overall, our findings indicate that baicalin exerts dose-dependent effects on OC formation and function. Therefore, caution should be applied when using baicalin to treating OC-related bone diseases.