Project description:Female Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, harbor a symbiotic bacterial community in a reproductive organ, the accessory nidamental gland (ANG). This community is known to be stable over several generations of wild-caught bobtail squid but has, to date, been examined for only one population in Maunalua Bay, Oahu, HI. This study assessed the ANG and corresponding egg jelly coat (JC) bacterial communities for another genetically isolated host population from Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI, using 16S amplicon sequencing. The bacterial communities from the ANGs and JCs of the two populations were found to be similar in richness, evenness, phylogenetic diversity, and overall community composition. However, the Kaneohe Bay samples formed their own subset within the Maunalua Bay ANG/JC community. An Alteromonadaceae genus, BD2-13, was significantly higher in relative abundance in the Kaneohe Bay population, and several Alphaproteobacteria taxa also shifted in relative abundance between the two groups. This variation could be due to local adaptation to differing environmental challenges, to localized variability, or to functional redundancy among the ANG taxa. The overall stability of the community between the populations further supports a crucial functional role that has been hypothesized for this symbiosis. IMPORTANCE In this study, we examined the reproductive ANG symbiosis found in two genetically isolated populations of the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes. The stability of the community reported here provides support for the hypothesis that this symbiosis is under strong selective pressure, while the observed differences suggest that some level of local adaptation may have occurred. These two host populations are frequently used interchangeably as source populations for research. Euprymna scolopes is an important model organism and offers the opportunity to examine the interplay between a binary and a consortial symbiosis in a single model host. Understanding the inherent natural variability of this association will aid in our understanding of the conservation, function, transmission, and development of the ANG symbiosis.
Project description:Phaeobacter gallaeciensis strain ANG1 represents the dominant member of the bacterial consortium within the reproductive accessory nidamental gland (ANG) of the squid Euprymna scolopes. We present a 4.59-Mb assembly of its genome, which may provide clues as to how it benefits its host.
Project description:Microbial consortia confer important benefits to animal and plant hosts, and model associations are necessary to examine these types of host/microbe interactions. The accessory nidamental gland (ANG) is a female reproductive organ found among cephalopod mollusks that contains a consortium of bacteria, the exact function of which is unknown. To begin to understand the role of this organ, the bacterial consortium was characterized in the Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, a well-studied model organism for symbiosis research. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of the ANG revealed dense bacterial assemblages of rod- and coccus-shaped cells segregated by morphology into separate, epithelium-lined tubules. The host epithelium was morphologically heterogeneous, containing ciliated and nonciliated cells with various brush border thicknesses. Hemocytes of the host's innate immune system were also found in close proximity to the bacteria within the tubules. A census of 16S rRNA genes suggested that Rhodobacterales, Rhizobiales, and Verrucomicrobia bacteria were prevalent, with members of the genus Phaeobacter dominating the consortium. Analysis of 454-shotgun sequencing data confirmed the presence of members of these taxa and revealed members of a fourth, Flavobacteria of the Bacteroidetes phylum. 16S rRNA fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that many ANG tubules were dominated by members of specific taxa, namely, Rhodobacterales, Verrucomicrobia, or Cytophaga-Flavobacteria-Bacteroidetes, suggesting symbiont partitioning to specific host tubules. In addition, FISH revealed that bacteria, including Phaeobacter species from the ANG, are likely deposited into the jelly coat of freshly laid eggs. This report establishes the ANG of the invertebrate E. scolopes as a model to examine interactions between a bacterial consortium and its host.
Project description:The accessory nidamental gland (ANG) of the female Hawaiian bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, houses a consortium of bacteria including members of the Flavobacteriales, Rhizobiales, and Verrucomicrobia but is dominated by members of the Roseobacter clade (Rhodobacterales) within the Alphaproteobacteria. These bacteria are deposited into the jelly coat of the squid's eggs, however, the function of the ANG and its bacterial symbionts has yet to be elucidated. In order to gain insight into this consortium and its potential role in host reproduction, we cultured 12 Rhodobacterales isolates from ANGs of sexually mature female squid and sequenced their genomes with Illumina sequencing technology. For taxonomic analyses, the ribosomal proteins of 79 genomes representing both roseobacters and non-roseobacters along with a separate MLSA analysis of 33 housekeeping genes from Roseobacter organisms placed all 12 isolates from the ANG within two groups of a single Roseobacter clade. Average nucelotide identity analysis suggests the ANG isolates represent three genera (Leisingera, Ruegeria, and Tateyamaria) comprised of seven putative species groups. All but one of the isolates contains a predicted Type VI secretion system, which has been shown to be important in secreting signaling and/or effector molecules in host-microbe associations and in bacteria-bacteria interactions. All sequenced genomes also show potential for secondary metabolite production, and are predicted to be involved with the production of acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) and/or siderophores. An AHL bioassay confirmed AHL production in three tested isolates and from whole ANG homogenates. The dominant symbiont, Leisingera sp. ANG1, showed greater viability in iron-limiting conditions compared to other roseobacters, possibly due to higher levels of siderophore production. Future comparisons will try to elucidate novel metabolic pathways of the ANG symbionts to understand their putative role in host development.
Project description:To successfully colonize and persist within a host niche, bacteria must properly regulate their gene expression profiles. The marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri establishes a mutualistic symbiosis within the light organ of the Hawaiian squid, Euprymna scolopes. Here, we show that the repressor NagC of V. fischeri directly regulates several chitin- and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-utilization genes that are co-regulated during productive symbiosis. We also demonstrate that repression by NagC is relieved in the presence of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine-6-phosphate, the intracellular form of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. We find that gene repression by NagC is critical for efficient colonization of E. scolopes. Further, our study shows that NagC regulates genes that affect the normal dynamics of host colonization.
Project description:Microbes have been critical drivers of evolutionary innovation in animals. To understand the processes that influence the origin of specialized symbiotic organs, we report the sequencing and analysis of the genome of Euprymna scolopes, a model cephalopod with richly characterized host-microbe interactions. We identified large-scale genomic reorganization shared between E. scolopes and Octopus bimaculoides and posit that this reorganization has contributed to the evolution of cephalopod complexity. To reveal genomic signatures of host-symbiont interactions, we focused on two specialized organs of E. scolopes: the light organ, which harbors a monoculture of Vibrio fischeri, and the accessory nidamental gland (ANG), a reproductive organ containing a bacterial consortium. Our findings suggest that the two symbiotic organs within E. scolopes originated by different evolutionary mechanisms. Transcripts expressed in these microbe-associated tissues displayed their own unique signatures in both coding sequences and the surrounding regulatory regions. Compared with other tissues, the light organ showed an abundance of genes associated with immunity and mediating light, whereas the ANG was enriched in orphan genes known only from E. scolopes Together, these analyses provide evidence for different patterns of genomic evolution of symbiotic organs within a single host.
Project description:The Toll/NF-kappaB pathway is a common, evolutionarily conserved innate immune pathway that modulates the responses of animal cells to microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs). Because MAMPs have been implicated as critical elements in the signaling of symbiont-induced development, an expressed sequence tag library from the juvenile light organ of Euprymna scolopes was used to identify members of the Toll/NF-kappaB pathway. Full-length transcripts were identified by using 5' and 3' RACE PCR. Seven transcripts critical for MAMP-induced triggering of the Toll/NF-kappaB phosphorylation cascade have been identified, including receptors, signal transducers, and a transcription factor. Further investigations should elucidate the role of the Toll/NF-kappaB pathway in the initiation of the beneficial symbiosis between E. scolopes and Vibrio fischeri.