Project description:We compared the transcriptional profiles of 12 E. coli O157:H7 isolates grown to stationary phase in LB broth. These isolates possess the same two enzyme PFGE profile and are related temporally or geographically to the above outbreak. These E. coli O157:H7 isolates included three clinical isolates, five isolates from separate bags of spinach, and single isolates from pasture soil, river water, cow feces, and a feral pig. Twelve condition experiment, 12 E. coli O157:H7 isolates. Two biological replicates for isolates RM6067, RM6069, RM6101, RM6102, RM6103, RM6149, RM6655, RM6658, RM9992, RM9997, RM9998 and RM10002 independently grown to stationary phase in LB at 37°C and harvested. One replicate per array. A type 2 gene expression experimental design was used, with fluorescently labeled genomic DNA as a reference channel in each experiment as described by Lucchini, S., et al. 2005. Infect Immun 73:88-102.
Project description:We conducted comparative gene co-expression network (GCN) analyses of two O113:H21 STEC strains: EH41, reference strain, isolated from hemolytic-uremic syndrome patient in Australia, and Ec472/01, isolated from cattle feces in Brazil. These strains were cultured in fresh or in Caco-2 cell conditioned media. GCN analyses were also accomplished for cultured Caco-2 cells exposed to EH41 or Ec472/01. Differential transcriptome profiles for EH41 and Ec472/01 were not significantly changed by exposure to fresh or Caco-2 conditioned media. Conversely, global gene expression comparison of both strains cultured in conditioned medium revealed a gene set exclusively expressed in EH41, which includes the dicA putative virulence factor regulator. Network analysis showed that this set of genes constitutes an EH41 specific transcriptional module. The GCNs of Caco-2 cells exposed to EH41 or to Ec472/01 presented a major transcriptional module containing many hubs related to inflammatory response that was not found in the GCN of control cells. Moreover, EH41 seems to cause gene network dysregulation in Caco-2. Therefore, EH41 virulence may be derived from its capacity for dysregulating enterocyte genome functioning and its enhanced enteric survival due to slow growth. Overall design: [EH41]: Caco-2 transcriptomic profiles after 3 hrs of interaction with STEC strain EH41 and without interaction (control) were compared in order to identify differentially expressed transcripts [EC472]: Caco-2 transcriptomic profiles after 3 hrs of interaction with STEC strain EC472/01 and without interaction (control) were compared in order to identify differentially expressed transcripts [COND]: STEC transcriptomic profiles after 3 hrs incubation in conditioned Caco-2 cell medium: STEC strain EH41 (isolated from patient with HUS) and STEc strain EC472/01 (isolated from cattle) were compared in order to identify differentially expressed transcripts [FRESH]: STEC transcriptomic profiles after 3 hrs incubation in fresh medium: STEC strain EH41 (isolated from patient with HUS) and STEc strain EC472/01 (isolated from cattle) were compared in order to identify differentially expressed transcripts
Project description:Six isolates of PT21/28 and six of PT32 were analysed by CGH using UBECarray3 microarrays (containing probes for E. coli K-12 str. MG1655 and O157:H7 str. EDL933 and Sakai) to define genotypic differences between phage types. gDNA from E.coli O157 str. Sakai was hybridised to all arrays to provide a universal control channel on all arrays. gDNA from 12 PT 21/28 & 32 isolates were labelled with Cy5 and control gDNA from str. Sakai was labelled with Cy3. Test and control gDNA was hybridised to UBECarray3 microarrays. The LOWESS normalised relative signal to the Sakai control channel was used to compare between samples.
Project description:Food-borne illness arising for Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli is often linked to consumption of fruit and vegetables as the bacteria have the ability to interact with plants and use them as alternative or secondary hosts. Attachment of the bacteria to host tissue is one of the first steps in the interaction, and, as with mammalian hosts, has shown to be mediated by a combination of non-specific and specific adhesin-mediated interactions. We took a high-throughput positive-selection approach to investigate adherence mechanisms for E. coli O157:H7 isolate Sakai by inoculating a BAC clone library onto spinach, which was quantified by microarray hybridisation and gene loci enrichment measured using a Bayesian hierarchical model. The screen involved four successive rounds of adherence to spinach roots, resulting in 115 CDS credible candidates, covered by seven contiguous genomic regions. Two candidates regions selected for functional assessment included a chaperone-usher fimbrial gene cluster (loc6) and the type two secretion system (T2SS). The TS22 was found to significantly enhance binding to spinach roots and leaves, demonstrated with a BAC-T2SS clone and by mutagenesis of the secretin protein, EtpD. Both etpD and the inner membrane anchor protein gene etpC were expressed at 18 degree celsius, and expression of etpD was demonstrated for STEC (Sakai) resident in the apoplastic spaces in spinach leaf tissue. Together, these data indicate a novel function for STEC T2SS in adherence to plant tissue. Experiment 1: screening E coli O157:H7 Sakai genes for adherence to spinach roots. A BAC library of Sakai clones in an E coli DH10B background (which has poor root adherence) defined as the 'Input pool', was incubated with spinach roots for 4 rounds of enrichment, defined as the 'Output pool'. Control samples (defined as 'Input control' & 'Output control') were cultures of pV41 vector only. DNA extractions from test pools were labelled with Cy3 throughout. DH10B DNA was used for grid alignment and labelled with Cy5 throughout.
Project description:The capsular serotype has long been associated with the virulence of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Here we present an in-depth study of phenotypic and genetic differences between serotype 3 and serogroup 11 S. pneumoniae clinical isolates from both the general and indigenous populations of Australia. Both serotypes/groups included clonally unrelated strains with differences in well-known polymorphic virulence genes, such as nanA and pspA, as demonstrated by multilocus sequence typing and Western blot analysis. Nonetheless, the serotype 3 strains were consistently and significantly more virulent in mice than the serogroup 11 strains. Despite extensive genomic analysis, noncapsular genes common to one serotype/group but not the other were not identified. Nevertheless, following the conversion of a serotype 11A isolate to serotype 3 and subsequent analysis in an intranasal infection model, it was evident that both capsular and noncapsular factors determine the virulence phenotype in mice. However, it appears that these noncapsular factors vary from strain to strain. Data is also available from http://bugs.sgul.ac.uk/E-BUGS-126
Project description:Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) lung infection is a significant cause of mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Most CF patients acquire unique P. aeruginosa strains from the environment; however clonal strains have been identified in CF communities in several countries. Two clonal strains infect 10% to 40% of patients in three CF clinics in mainland eastern Australia. The expression profiles of four planktonically-grown isolates of one Australian clonal strain (AES-2), and four non–clonal CF P. aeruginosa isolates were compared to each other and to the reference strain PAO1 using the Affymetrix P. aeruginosa PAO1 genome array, to gain insight into properties mediating the enhanced infectivity of AES-1. The isolates were subsequently grown as 3-day old biofilms and similarly extracted for RNA and compared as above. Data analysis was carried out using BIOCONDUCTOR software. Keywords: Comparative strain hybridization Overall design: Four isolates of the AES-2 strain were compared to four non-clonal isolates and to the reference strain PAO1, when grwn both as planktonic and as a biofilm culture.
Project description:Background: Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157 causes severe food-bone illness in humans. The chromosome of O157 consists of 4.1-Mb backbone sequences shared by benign E. coli K-12, and 1.4-Mb O157-specific sequences encoding many virulence determinants such as Shiga toxin genes (stxs) and the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). Non-O157 EHECs belonging to clonal lineages distinct from O157 also cause similar illness in humans. According to the parallel evolution model, they have independently acquired the major virulence determinants, stxs and LEE. However, the genomic differences between O157 and non-O157 EHECs have not yet systematically been analyzed. Results: By using the microarray and Whole Genome PCR scanning analyses, we performed a whole genome comparison of 20 EHEC strains of O26, O111, and O103 serotypes with O157. In non-O157 EHEC strains, although genome sizes were similar with or rather larger than O157 and the backbone regions were well conserved, O157-specific regions were very poorly conserved. Only around 20% of the O157-specific genes were fully conserved in each non-O157 serotype. However, the non-O157 EHECs contained a significant number of virulence genes found on prophages and plasmids in O157, and also multiple prophages similar but significantly divergent from those in O157. Conclusion: Although O157 and non-O157 EHECs have independently acquired a huge amount of serotype- or strain-specific genes by lateral gene transfer, they share an unexpectedly large number of virulence genes. Independent infections of similar but distinct bacteriophages carrying these virulence determinants appear to be involved in the parallel evolution of EHEC. Keywords: comparative genomic hybridization, CGH Overall design: Total 29 test samples were analyzed. Genomic DNA from each test strain and a reference strain (O157 Sakai) were labeled with Cy3 and Cy5, respectively, and were cohybridized on a single array. Labeling and hybridization were performed twice independently.