Project description:We present the first genome sequence of Chlamydophila psittaci, an intracellular pathogen of birds and a human zoonotic pathogen. A comparison with previously sequenced Chlamydophila genomes shows that, as in other chlamydiae, most of the genome diversity is restricted to the plasticity zone. The C. psittaci plasmid was also sequenced.
Project description:Chlamydophila psittaci is an obligate intracellular zoonotic pathogen, mainly of birds. It is the causative agent of psittacosis in birds and humans. Here we report the full-length de novo genome sequence of the avian isolate 6BC, the type strain of the species C. psittaci.
Project description:The obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydophila abortus strain S26/3 (formerly the abortion subtype of Chlamydia psittaci) is an important cause of late gestation abortions in ruminants and pigs. Furthermore, although relatively rare, zoonotic infection can result in acute illness and miscarriage in pregnant women. The complete genome sequence was determined and shows a high level of conservation in both sequence and overall gene content in comparison to other Chlamydiaceae. The 1,144,377-bp genome contains 961 predicted coding sequences, 842 of which are conserved with those of Chlamydophila caviae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae. Within this conserved Cp. abortus core genome we have identified the major regions of variation and have focused our analysis on these loci, several of which were found to encode highly variable protein families, such as TMH/Inc and Pmp families, which are strong candidates for the source of diversity in host tropism and disease causation in this group of organisms. Significantly, Cp. abortus lacks any toxin genes, and also lacks genes involved in tryptophan metabolism and nucleotide salvaging (guaB is present as a pseudogene), suggesting that the genetic basis of niche adaptation of this species is distinct from those previously proposed for other chlamydial species.
Project description:Chlamydia psittaci is the etiological agent of psittacosis and is a zoonotic pathogen infecting birds and a variety of mammalian hosts. Here we report the genome sequence of the porcine strain 01DC12 which is representative of a novel clade of C. psittaci belonging to ompA genotype E.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The currently used genotyping system for the avian zoonotic pathogen Chlamydophila (C.) psittaci has evolved from serology and is based on ompA sequence variations. It includes seven avian and two non-avian genotypes. Restriction enzyme cleavage of the amplified ompA gene and, less frequently, ompA sequencing are being used for examination, but, beside methodological limitations, an increasing number of recently tested strains could not be assigned to any established genotype. RESULTS: Comprehensive analysis of all available ompA gene sequences has revealed a remarkable genetic diversity within the species C. psittaci, which is only partially covered by the present genotyping scheme. We suggest adjustments and extensions to the present scheme, which include the introduction of subgroups to the more heterogeneous genotypes A, E/B and D, as well as six provisional genotypes representing so far untypable strains. The findings of sequence analysis have been incorporated in the design of a new DNA microarray. The ArrayTubetrade mark microarray-based ompA genotyping assay has been shown to discriminate among established genotypes and identify so far untyped strains. Its high specificity, which allows detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms, is due to the parallel approach consisting in the use of 35 hybridization probes derived from variable domains 2 and 4 of the ompA gene. CONCLUSION: The traditional genotyping system does not adequately reflect the extent of intra-species heterogeneity in ompA sequences of C. psittaci. The newly developed DNA microarray-based assay represents a promising diagnostic tool for tracing epidemiological chains, exploring the dissemination of genotypes and identifying non-typical representatives of C. psittaci.
Project description:The obligatory intracellular bacterium Chlamydophila psittaci is the causative agent of psittacosis in birds and humans. The capability of this zoonotic pathogen to develop a persistent phase is likely to play a role in chronicity of infections, as well as in failure of antibiotic therapy and immunoprophylaxis. To elucidate three different in vitro models for transition of C. psittaci to persistence (iron depletion, penicillin G treatment, and gamma interferon [IFN-gamma] exposure), a set of 27 genes was examined by mRNA expression analysis using quantitative real-time PCR. While the phenotypical characteristics were the same as in other chlamydiae, i.e., aberrant morphology of reticulate bodies, loss of cultivability, and rescue of infectivity upon removal of inducers, the transcriptional response of C. psittaci to persistence-inducing factors included several new and distinctive features. Consistent downregulation of membrane proteins, chlamydial sigma factors, cell division protein, and reticulate body-elementary body differentiation proteins from 24 h postinfection onward proved to be a general feature of C. psittaci persistence. However, other genes displayed considerable variations in response patterns from one model to another, which suggests that there is no persistence model per se. In contrast to results for Chlamydia trachomatis, late shutdown of essential genes in C. psittaci was more comprehensive with IFN-gamma-induced persistence, which is probably due to the absence of a functional tryptophan synthesis operon.
Project description:Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria globally widespread across humans, wildlife, and domesticated animals. Chlamydia psittaci is a primarily zoonotic pathogen with multiple hosts, which can be transmitted to humans, resulting in psittacosis or ornithosis. Since this pathogen is a well-recognized threat to human and animal health, it is critical to unravel in detail the genetic make-up of this microorganism. Though many genomes of C. psittaci have been studied to date, little is known about the variants of chlamydial organisms causing infection in Russian livestock. This research is the first de novo genome assembly of the C. psittaci strain Rostinovo-70 of zoonotic origin that was isolated in Russian Federation. The results were obtained by using standard protocols of sequencing with the Illumina HiSeq 2500 and Oxford Nanopore MinION technology that generated 3.88 GB and 3.08 GB of raw data, respectively. The data obtained are available in NCBI DataBase (GenBank accession numbers are CP041038.1 & CP041039.1). The Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) showed that the strain Rostinovo-70 together with C. psittaci GR9 and C. psittaci WS/RT/E30 belong to the sequence type (ST)28 that could be further separated into two different clades. Despite C. psittaci Rostinovo-70 and C. psittaci GR9 formed a single clade, the latter strain did not contain a cryptic plasmid characteristis to Rostinovo-70. Moreover, the genomes of two strains differed significantly in the cluster of 30 genes that in Rostinovo-70 were closer to Chlamydia abortus rather than C. psittaci. The alignment of the genomes of C. psittaci and C. abortus in this area revealed the exact boarders of homologous recombination that occurred between two Chlamydia species. These findings provide evidence for the first time of genetic exchange between closely related Chlamydia species.
Project description:Chlamydophila (formerly Chlamydia) psittaci genotypes A, B, C, and a new genotype most similar to the 6BC type strain were found in 10 humans with psittacosis by outer membrane protein A gene sequencing. Genotypes B (n = 3) and C (n = 1) are endemic in nonpsittacine European birds. These birds may represent an important part of the zoonotic reservoir.
Project description:Chlamydophila psittaci was detected in 10% of 431 fulmars examined from the Faroe Islands. Analysis of ompA showed a sequence almost identical to that of the type strain. The origin of C. psittaci outbreaks in fulmars is discussed. Despite a high level of exposure, the risk for transmission of C. psittaci to humans is low.
Project description:Chlamydia psittaci is an avian pathogen and zoonotic agent of atypical pneumonia. The most pathogenic C. psittaci strains cluster into the 6BC clade, predicted to have recently emerged globally. Exposure to infected parrots is a risk factor with limited evidence also of an indirect exposure risk. Genome sequencing was performed on six Australian human and a single avian C. psittaci strain isolated over a 9 year period. Only one of the five human patients had explicit psittacine contact. Genomics analyses revealed that the Australian C. psittaci strains are remarkably similar, clustering tightly within the C. psittaci 6BC clade suggested to have been disseminated by South America parrot importation. Molecular clock analysis using the newly sequenced C. psittaci genomes predicted the emergence of the 6BC clade occurring approximately 2,000 years ago. These findings reveal the potential for an Australian natural reservoir of C. psittaci 6BC strains. These strains can also be isolated from seriously ill patients without explicit psittacine contact. The apparent recent and global spread of C. psittaci 6BC strains raises important questions over how this happened. Further studies may reveal whether the dissemination of this important zoonotic pathogen is linked to Australian parrot importation rather than parrots from elsewhere.