Project description:Infection by Shigella spp. is a common cause of dysentery in Southeast Asia. Antimicrobials are thought to be beneficial for treatment; however, antimicrobial resistance in Shigella spp. is becoming widespread. We aimed to assess the frequency and mechanisms associated with decreased susceptibility to azithromycin in Southeast Asian Shigella isolates and use these data to assess appropriate susceptibility breakpoints. Shigella isolates recovered in Vietnam and Laos were screened for susceptibility to azithromycin (15 ?g) by disc diffusion and MIC. Phenotypic resistance was confirmed by PCR amplification of macrolide resistance loci. We compared the genetic relationships and plasmid contents of azithromycin-resistant Shigella sonnei isolates using whole-genome sequences. From 475 available Shigella spp. isolated in Vietnam and Laos between 1994 and 2012, 6/181 S. flexneri isolates (3.3%, MIC ? 16 g/liter) and 16/294 S. sonnei isolates (5.4%, MIC ? 32 g/liter) were phenotypically resistant to azithromycin. PCR amplification confirmed a resistance mechanism in 22/475 (4.6%) isolates (mphA in 19 isolates and ermB in 3 isolates). The susceptibility data demonstrated the acceptability of the S. flexneri (MIC ? 16 g/liter, zone diameter ? 15 mm) and S. sonnei (MIC ? 32 g/liter, zone diameter ? 11 mm) breakpoints with a <3% discrepancy. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that decreased susceptibility has arisen sporadically in Vietnamese S. sonnei isolates on at least seven occasions between 2000 and 2009 but failed to become established. While the proposed susceptibility breakpoints may allow better recognition of resistant isolates, additional studies are required to assess the impact on the clinical outcome. The potential emergence of azithromycin resistance highlights the need for alternative options for management of Shigella infections in countries where Shigella is endemic.
Project description:Shigella spp. and entero-invasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) can cause mild diarrhea to dysentery. In Netherlands, although shigellosis is a notifiable disease, there is no laboratory surveillance for Shigella spp. and EIEC in place. Consequently, the population structure for circulating Shigella spp. and EIEC isolates is not known. This study describes the phenotypic and serological characteristics, the phenotypic and genetic antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles, the virulence gene profiles, the classic multi-locus sequence types (MLST) and core genome (cg)MLST types, and the epidemiology of 414 Shigella spp. and EIEC isolates collected during a cross-sectional study in Netherlands in 2016 and 2017. S. sonnei (56%), S. flexneri (25%), and EIEC (15%) were detected predominantly in Netherlands, of which the EIEC isolates were most diverse according to their phenotypical profile, O-types, MLST types, and cgMLST clades. Virulence gene profiling showed that none of the isolates harbored Shiga toxin genes. Most S. flexneri and EIEC isolates possessed nearly all virulence genes examined, while these genes were only detected in approximately half of the S. sonnei isolates, probably due to loss of the large invasion plasmid upon subculturing. Phenotypical resistance correlated well with the resistant genotype, except for the genes involved in resistance to aminoglycosides. A substantial part of the characterized isolates was resistant to antimicrobials advised for treatment, i.e., 73% was phenotypically resistant to co-trimoxazole and 19% to ciprofloxacin. AMR was particularly observed in isolates from male patients who had sex with men (MSM) or from patients that had traveled to Asia. Furthermore, isolates related to international clusters were also circulating in Netherlands. Travel-related isolates formed clusters with isolates from patients without travel history, indicating their emergence into the Dutch population. In conclusion, laboratory surveillance using whole genome sequencing as high-resolution typing technique and for genetic characterization of isolates complements the current epidemiological surveillance, as the latter is not sufficient to detect all (inter)national clusters, emphasizing the importance of multifactorial public health approaches.
Project description:Shigella sonnei increasingly dominates the international epidemiological landscape of shigellosis. Treatment options for S. sonnei are dwindling due to resistance to several key antimicrobials, including the fluoroquinolones. Here we analyse nearly 400?S. sonnei whole genome sequences from both endemic and non-endemic regions to delineate the evolutionary history of the recently emergent fluoroquinolone-resistant S. sonnei. We reaffirm that extant resistant organisms belong to a single clonal expansion event. Our results indicate that sequential accumulation of defining mutations (gyrA-S83L, parC-S80I, and gyrA-D87G) led to the emergence of the fluoroquinolone-resistant S. sonnei population around 2007 in South Asia. This clone was then transmitted globally, resulting in establishments in Southeast Asia and Europe. Mutation analysis suggests that the clone became dominant through enhanced adaptation to oxidative stress. Experimental evolution reveals that under fluoroquinolone exposure in vitro, resistant S. sonnei develops further intolerance to the antimicrobial while the susceptible counterpart fails to attain complete resistance.
Project description:In 1999, a review of the literature for 1966-1997 suggested that ?1.1 million persons die annually of shigellosis, including ?880,000 in Asia. Our recent review of the literature for 1990-2009 indicates that ?125 million shigellosis cases occur annually in Asia, of which ?14,000 are fatal. This estimate for illnesses is similar to the earlier estimate, but the number of deaths is 98% lower; that is, the lower estimate of deaths is associated with markedly reduced case-fatality rates rather than fewer cases. Shigella spp.-related deaths decreased substantially during a period without Shigella spp.-specific interventions. We speculate that nonspecific interventions, e.g., measles vaccination, vitamin A supplementation, and improved nutrition, may have led to the reduced number of shigellosis-related deaths.
Project description:Bacterial antimicrobial resistance mediated by the production of extended-spectrum ?-lactamases (ESBLs) is considered a major threat for treatment of Salmonella and Shigella infections. This study aimed to investigate antibiotic resistance patterns of Salmonella and Shigella spp. and presence of CTX-M from three teaching hospitals in Iran. In the present study, 58 clinical Shigella and 91 Salmonella isolates were recovered between 2009 and 2013 from 3 teaching hospitals in Iran. After culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, ESBL-positive isolates were subjected to further investigations. These included polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and DNA sequencing of blaCTX-M-15 encoding plasmid. In both genera, high sensitivity to gentamicin and amikacin, but high resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, was found. Molecular investigation showed that 31.8% isolates of Salmonella spp. and 34.48% isolates of Shigella spp. were CTX-M positive and all of them were also positive for ISEcpI. Protein translation, comparing with reference sequences, showed that all CTX-M isolates belong to CTX-M-15. The present study suggests that the resistance of ESBLs-producing Salmonella and Shigella spp. in Iran hospitals is very serious. Therefore, strategies to minimize the spread of ESBL-producing isolates should be implemented.
Project description:Campylobacter spp., especially Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli, are leading bacterial foodborne pathogens worldwide. In the United States, an estimated 0.8 million cases of campylobacteriosis occur annually, mostly involving C. jejuni Campylobacteriosis is generally self-limiting, but in severe cases, treatment with antibiotics may be mandated. The increasing incidence of fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter has rendered macrolides such as erythromycin and azithromycin the drugs of choice for human campylobacteriosis. The prevalence of macrolide resistance in C. jejuni remains low, but macrolide resistance can be common in C. coli Substitutions in the 23S rRNA gene, specifically A2075G, and less frequently A2074C/G, remain the most common mechanism for high-level resistance to macrolides. In C. jejuni, resistance mediated by such substitutions is accompanied by a reduced ability to colonize chickens and other fitness costs, potentially contributing to the low incidence of macrolide resistance. Interestingly, similar fitness impacts have not been noted in C. coli Also noteworthy is a novel mechanism first reported in 2014 for a C. coli isolate from China and mediated by erm(B) harbored on multidrug resistance genomic islands. The incidence of erm(B) appears to reflect clonal expansion of certain strains, and whole-genome sequencing has been critical to the elucidation of erm(B)-associated macrolide resistance in Campylobacter spp. With the exception of one report from Spain, erm(B)-mediated macrolide resistance has been restricted to Campylobacter spp., mostly C. coli, of animal and human origin from China. If erm(B)-mediated macrolide resistance does not confer fitness costs in C. jejuni, the range of this gene may expand in C. jejuni, threatening to compromise treatment effectiveness for severe campylobacteriosis cases.
Project description:The epidemiology of diarrheal disease in Botswana, an HIV endemic region, is largely unknown. Our primary objective was to characterize the prevalent bacterial and parasitic enteropathogens in Gaborone, Botswana. Secondary objectives included determining corresponding antimicrobial resistance patterns and the value of stool white and red blood cells for predicting bacterial and parasitic enteropathogens.A retrospective cross-sectional study examined laboratory records of stool specimens analyzed by the Botswana National Health Laboratory in Gaborone, Botswana from February 2003 through July 2008. In 4485 specimens the median subject age was 23 [interquartile range 1.6-34] years. Overall, 14.4% (644 of 4485) of samples yielded a pathogen. Bacteria alone were isolated in 8.2% (367 of 4485), parasites alone in 5.6% (253 of 4485) and both in 0.5% (24 of 4485) of samples. The most common bacterial pathogens were Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp., isolated from 4.0% (180 of 4485) and 3.9% (175 of 4485) of specimens, respectively. Escherichia coli (22 of 4485) and Campylobacter spp. (22 of 4485) each accounted for 0.5% of pathogens. Comparing antimicrobial resistance among Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. between two periods, February 2003 to February 2004 and July 2006 to July 2008, revealed an increase in ampicillin resistance among Shigella spp. from 43% to 83% (p<0.001). Among Salmonella spp., resistance to chloramphenicol decreased from 56% to 6% (p<0.001). The absence of stool white and red blood cells correlated with a high specificity and negative predictive value.Most gastroenteritis stools were culture and microscopy negative suggesting that viral pathogens were the majority etiologic agents in this Botswana cohort. Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. were the most common bacteria; Isospora spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. were the most common parasites. Resistance to commonly used antimicrobials is high and should be closely monitored.
Project description:Multiple transcontinental waves of drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum have originated in Southeast Asia before spreading westward, first into the rest of Asia and then to sub-Saharan Africa. In vitro studies have suggested that hypermutator P. falciparum parasites may exist in Southeast Asia and that an increased rate of acquisition of new mutations in these parasites may explain the repeated emergence of drug resistance in Southeast Asia. This study is the first to test the hypermutator hypothesis using field isolates. Using genome-wide SNP data from human P. falciparum infections in Southeast Asia and West Africa and a test for relative rate differences we found no evidence of increased relative substitution rates in P. falciparum isolates from Southeast Asia. Instead, we found significantly increased substitution rates in Mali and Bangladesh populations relative to those in populations from Southeast Asia. Additionally we found no association between increased relative substitution rates and parasite clearance following treatment with artemisinin derivatives.
Project description:Epidemiological surveillance of Shigella spp. in Australia is conducted to inform public health response. Multi-drug resistance has recently emerged as a contributing factor to sustained local transmission of Shigella spp. All data were collected as part of routine public health surveillance, and strains were whole-genome sequenced for further molecular characterisation. 108 patients with an endemic regional Shigella flexneri strain were identified between 2016 and 2019. The S. flexneri phylogroup 3 strain endemic to northern Australia acquired a multi-drug resistance conferring blaDHA plasmid, which has an IncFII plasmid backbone with virulence and resistance elements typically found in IncR plasmids. This is the first report of multi-drug resistance in Shigella sp. in Australia that is not associated with men who have sex with men. This strain caused an outbreak of multi-drug-resistant S. flexneri in northern Australia that disproportionality affects Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. Community controlled public health action is recommended.
Project description:Pyrimethamine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum has previously been shown to have emerged once in Southeast Asia, from where it spread to Africa. Pyrimethamine resistance in this parasite is known to be conferred by mutations in the gene encoding dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr). We have analyzed polymorphisms in dhfr as well as microsatellite haplotypes flanking this gene in a total of 285 isolates from different regions of Melanesia (Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, and the Solomon Islands) and Southeast Asia (Thailand and Cambodia). Nearly all isolates (92%) in Melanesia were shown to carry a dhfr double mutation (CNRNI [underlining indicates the mutation]) at positions 50, 51, 59, 108, and 164, whereas 98% of Southeast Asian isolates were either triple (CIRNI) or quadruple (CIRNL) mutants. Microsatellite analysis revealed two distinct lineages of dhfr double mutants in Melanesia. One lineage had the same microsatellite haplotype as that previously reported for Southeast Asia and Africa, suggesting the spread of this allele to Melanesia from Southeast Asia. The other lineage had a unique, previously undescribed microsatellite haplotype, indicative of the de novo emergence of pyrimethamine resistance in Melanesia.