Project description:BACKGROUND:Next generation sequencing (NGS) has become a universal practice in modern molecular biology. As the throughput of sequencing experiments increases, the preparation of conventional multiplexed libraries becomes more labor intensive. Conventional library preparation typically requires quality control (QC) testing for individual libraries such as amplification success evaluation and quantification, none of which occur until the end of the library preparation process. RESULTS:In this study, we address the need for a more streamlined high-throughput NGS workflow by tethering real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) to conventional workflows to save time and implement single tube and single reagent QC. We modified two distinct library preparation workflows by replacing PCR and quantification with qPCR using SYBR Green I. qPCR enabled individual library quantification for pooling in a single tube without the need for additional reagents. Additionally, a melting curve analysis was implemented as an intermediate QC test to confirm successful amplification. Sequencing analysis showed comparable percent reads for each indexed library, demonstrating that pooling calculations based on qPCR allow for an even representation of sequencing reads. To aid the modified workflow, a software toolkit was developed and used to generate pooling instructions and analyze qPCR and melting curve data. CONCLUSIONS:We successfully applied fluorescent amplification for next generation sequencing (FA-NGS) library preparation to both plasmids and bacterial genomes. As a result of using qPCR for quantification and proceeding directly to library pooling, the modified library preparation workflow has fewer overall steps. Therefore, we speculate that the FA-NGS workflow has less risk of user error. The melting curve analysis provides the necessary QC test to identify and troubleshoot library failures prior to sequencing. While this study demonstrates the value of FA-NGS for plasmid or gDNA libraries, we speculate that its versatility could lead to successful application across other library types.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized almost all fields of biology, agriculture and medicine, and is widely utilized to analyse genetic variation. Over the past decade, the NGS pipeline has been steadily improved, and the entire process is currently relatively straightforward. However, NGS instrumentation still requires upfront library preparation, which can be a laborious process, requiring significant hands-on time. Herein, we present a simple but robust approach to streamline library preparation by utilizing surface bound transposases to construct DNA libraries directly on a flowcell surface. RESULTS:The surface bound transposases directly fragment genomic DNA while simultaneously attaching the library molecules to the flowcell. We sequenced and analysed a Drosophila genome library generated by this surface tagmentation approach, and we showed that our surface bound library quality was comparable to the quality of the library from a commercial kit. In addition to the time and cost savings, our approach does not require PCR amplification of the library, which eliminates potential problems associated with PCR duplicates. CONCLUSIONS:We described the first study to construct libraries directly on a flowcell. We believe our technique could be incorporated into the existing Illumina sequencing pipeline to simplify the workflow, reduce costs, and improve data quality.
Project description:A methodology to achieve high-throughput de novo sequencing of synthetic peptide mixtures is reported. The approach leverages shotgun nanoliquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry-based de novo sequencing of library mixtures (up to 2000 peptides) as well as automated data analysis protocols to filter away incorrect assignments, noise, and synthetic side-products. For increasing the confidence in the sequencing results, mass spectrometry-friendly library designs were developed that enabled unambiguous decoding of up to 600 peptide sequences per hour while maintaining greater than 85% sequence identification rates in most cases. The reliability of the reported decoding strategy was additionally confirmed by matching fragmentation spectra for select authentic peptides identified from library sequencing samples. The methods reported here are directly applicable to screening techniques that yield mixtures of active compounds, including particle sorting of one-bead one-compound libraries and affinity enrichment of synthetic library mixtures performed in solution.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Next-generation sequencing does not yield fully unbiased estimates for read abundance, which may impact on the conclusions that can be drawn from sequencing data. The ligation step in RNA sequencing library generation is a known source of bias, motivating developments in enzyme technology and library construction protocols. We present the first comparison of the standard duplex adaptor protocol supplied by Life Technologies for use on the Ion Torrent PGM with an alternate single adaptor approach involving CircLigase (CircLig protocol).A correlation between over-representation in sequenced libraries and degree of secondary structure has been reported previously, therefore we also investigated whether bias could be reduced by ligation with an enzyme that functions at a temperature not permissive for such structure. RESULTS:A pool of small RNA fragments of known composition was converted into a sequencing library using one of three protocols and sequenced on an Ion Torrent PGM. The CircLig protocol resulted in less over-representation of specific sequences than the standard protocol. Over-represented sequences are more likely to be predicted to have secondary structure and to co-fold with adaptor sequences. However, use of the thermostable ligase Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum RNA ligase K97A (Mth K97A) was not sufficient to reduce bias. CONCLUSIONS:The single adaptor CircLigase-based approach significantly reduces, but does not eliminate, bias in Ion Torrent data. Ligases that function at temperatures to remove the possible influence of secondary structure on library generation may be of value, although Mth K97A is not effective in this case.
Project description:In this study three DNA extraction procedures, two library preparation protocols and two sequencing platforms were applied to analyse six bacterial cultures and their corresponding DNA obtained as part of a proficiency test. The impact of each variable on sequencing results was assessed using the following parameters: reads quality, assembly and alignment statistics; number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), detected applying assembly- and alignment-based strategies; antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs), identified on de novo assemblies of all sequenced genomes. The investigated nucleic acid extraction procedures, library preparation kits and sequencing platforms do not significantly affect de novo assembly statistics and number of SNPs and ARGs. The only exception was observed for two duplicates, which were associated to one PCR-based library preparation kit. Results from this comparative study can support researchers in the choice toward the available pre-sequencing and sequencing options, and might suggest further comparisons to be performed.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Massively parallel sequencing systems continue to improve on data output, while leaving labor-intensive library preparations a potential bottleneck. Efforts are currently under way to relieve the crucial and time-consuming work to prepare DNA for high-throughput sequencing. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we demonstrate an automated parallel library preparation protocol using generic carboxylic acid-coated superparamagnetic beads and polyethylene glycol precipitation as a reproducible and flexible method for DNA fragment length separation. With this approach the library preparation for DNA sequencing can easily be adjusted to a desired fragment length. The automated protocol, here demonstrated using the GS FLX Titanium instrument, was compared to the standard manual library preparation, showing higher yield, throughput and great reproducibility. In addition, 12 libraries were prepared and uniquely tagged in parallel, and the distribution of sequence reads between these indexed samples could be improved using quantitative PCR-assisted pooling. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We present a novel automated procedure that makes it possible to prepare 36 indexed libraries per person and day, which can be increased to up to 96 libraries processed simultaneously. The yield, speed and robust performance of the protocol constitute a substantial improvement to present manual methods, without the need of extensive equipment investments. The described procedure enables a considerable efficiency increase for small to midsize sequencing centers.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Current library preparation protocols for Illumina HiSeq and MiSeq DNA sequencers require ?2 nM initial library for subsequent loading of denatured cDNA onto flow cells. Such amounts are not always attainable from samples having a relatively low DNA or RNA input; or those for which a limited number of PCR amplification cycles is preferred (less PCR bias and/or more even coverage). A well-tested sub-nanomolar library preparation protocol for Illumina sequencers has however not been reported. The aim of this study is to provide a much needed working protocol for sub-nanomolar libraries to achieve outcomes as informative as those obtained with the higher library input (? 2 nM) recommended by Illumina's protocols. RESULTS:Extensive studies were conducted to validate a robust sub-nanomolar (initial library of 100 pM) protocol using PhiX DNA (as a control), genomic DNA (Bordetella bronchiseptica and microbial mock community B for 16S rRNA gene sequencing), messenger RNA, microRNA, and other small noncoding RNA samples. The utility of our protocol was further explored for PhiX library concentrations as low as 25 pM, which generated only slightly fewer than 50% of the reads achieved under the standard Illumina protocol starting with >?2 nM. CONCLUSIONS:A sub-nanomolar library preparation protocol (100 pM) could generate next generation sequencing (NGS) results as robust as the standard Illumina protocol. Following the sub-nanomolar protocol, libraries with initial concentrations as low as 25 pM could also be sequenced to yield satisfactory and reproducible sequencing results.
Project description:Next generation sequencing (NGS) is a powerful tool for the characterization, discovery, and molecular identification of RNA viruses. There were multiple NGS library preparation methods published for strand-specific RNA-seq, but some methods are not suitable for identifying and characterizing RNA viruses. In this study, we report a NGS library preparation method to identify RNA viruses using the Ion Torrent PGM platform. The NGS sequencing adapters were directly inserted into the sequencing library through reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction, without fragmentation and ligation of nucleic acids. The results show that this method is simple to perform, able to identify multiple species of RNA viruses in clinical samples.
Project description:In bacterial genome and metagenome sequencing, Illumina sequencers are most frequently used due to their high throughput capacity, and multiple library preparation kits have been developed for Illumina platforms. Here, we systematically analysed and compared the sequencing bias generated by currently available library preparation kits for Illumina sequencing. Our analyses revealed that a strong sequencing bias is introduced in low-GC regions by the Nextera XT kit. The level of bias introduced is dependent on the level of GC content; stronger bias is generated as the GC content decreases. Other analysed kits did not introduce this strong sequencing bias. The GC content-associated sequencing bias introduced by Nextera XT was more remarkable in metagenome sequencing of a mock bacterial community and seriously affected estimation of the relative abundance of low-GC species. The results of our analyses highlight the importance of selecting proper library preparation kits according to the purposes and targets of sequencing, particularly in metagenome sequencing, where a wide range of microbial species with various degrees of GC content is present. Our data also indicate that special attention should be paid to which library preparation kit was used when analysing and interpreting publicly available metagenomic data.