Project description:n Arabidopsis thaliana, the non-pollinated floral stigma degenerates about 3 to 4 days after flower opening. This data set describes the changes in the stigma transcriptome profiles during this senescence process. Three timepoints cover the young (TP1), the mature (TP2), and the senescent (TP3) stigma.
Project description:Synchronisation of flowering phenology has often been observed between individuals within plant species. We expected that a critical role of flowering-time control under natural conditions is a phenological synchronisation. However, no studies have quantified the level of synchronisation of reproductive timing relative to germination timing under natural conditions. In a sequential seeding experiment (SSE) in which we manipulated the germination timing of Arabidopsis thaliana accessions, we developed a quantification index to evaluate reproductive synchrony in annual plants. In the SSE, we identified a novel phenomenon of reproductive synchrony: senescence synchrony. The role of vernalisation in realising flowering synchrony between plants of different ages under natural conditions was demonstrated by synchronisation and de-synchronisation of flowering initiation in vernalisation-sensitive and less-vernalisation-sensitive accessions, respectively. We also observed up-regulation of senescence-related genes at corresponding times. The approach we developed in this study provides a set of concepts and procedures that can be used to study reproductive synchrony experimentally under natural conditions.
Project description:Arabidopsis has been used as a model system to study many aspects of plant growth and development. However, fruit senescence in Arabidopsis has been less investigated and the underlying molecular and hormonal (especially ethylene) regulatory mechanisms are not well understood. It is reported here that the Arabidopsis silique has characteristics of a climacteric fruit, and that AtNAP, a NAC family transcription factor gene whose expression is increased with the progression of silique senescence, plays an important role in its senescence. Silique senescence was delayed for 4-5 d in the atnap knockout mutant plants. The ethylene climacteric was delayed for 2 d in the atnap silique and the associated respiratory climacteric was suppressed. Exogenous ethylene stimulated respiration in the wild type, but not in the atnap mutant. The decoupling of the ethylene and respiratory climacterics in the atnap mutant suggests that AtNAP is required for ethylene stimulation of respiration. qPCR analyses revealed that the expression patterns of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis, perception, and signalling, ACS2, ETR1, CTR1, EIN2, EIN3, and ERF1, were also altered in the atnap mutant. The effects of exogenous ABA, SA, 6-BA, and NAA on ethylene production and respiration in siliques of the wild type and atnap mutant were also investigated. A model involving ABA-AtNAP-controlled stomatal opening in regulating ethylene-stimulated respiration in fruit senescence is presented.
Project description:The role of ANAC017 in leaf senescence was assessed by covering leaf 6-7 of 5 week old plants. Samples of Col-0, anac017 knock-out and two ANAC017 overexpression lines were compared of day 0, 1 and 3 of the timecourse. ANAC017 OE lines show accelerated senescence during this time.
Project description:In a recent publication, we proposed that adjusting lifespan in order to synchronize senescence is important for timing of reproduction, and we quantified the synchrony of reproductive timing relative to germination timing. Here, in a second sequential seeding experiment (SSE), the germination timing of Arabidopsis thaliana accessions was manipulated and plants were then grown under two different temperature regimes. Life stage traits of plants in each temperature regime were analysed and it was evaluated whether the cohorts were grouped according to age and/or environmental conditions. While flowering-related traits showed desynchrony among cohorts, striking synchrony in the timing of senescence among cohorts for each group was found. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis using a genotyped population of 'Cvi/Ler' recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was then conducted. Novel and known loci were assigned to flowering and senescence timing. However, senescence synchrony resulted in low variation in senescence time and weak QTL detection for flowering termination. Overlapping flowering and senescence genes with loci affecting either of those traits were found and suggest a potential interdependency of reproductive traits.
Project description:Cell senescence occurs as a part of developmental or stress-induced process. It is tightly regulated and involves a sequence of metabolic and structural alterations, eventually leading to cell death. Dark-induced leaf senescence is a useful model for studying senescence-related events. To facilitate the integration of physiological and molecular studies utilizing this model, we generated the microarray data set providing time course gene expression profiles in senescing barley leaves. Here, we describe the detailed procedures and data analysis scheme of our experiment. The entire data set (available at NCBI/GEO database under GSE62539) has been successively explored to find the genes differentially expressed during the senescence process as well as to identify genes with the invariant expression as reliable references for qPCR or ddPCR experiments.
Project description:Cellular calcium acts as a second messenger and regulates diverse developmental events and stress responses. Cytosolic calcium has long been considered as an important regulator of senescence, however, the role of Ca2+ in plant senescence has remained elusive. Here we show that the Calmodulin 1 (CaM1) gene, which encodes Ca2+-binding protein calmodulin 1, positively regulates leaf senescence in Arabidopsis. Yellowing of leaves, accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and expression of the senescence-associated gene 12 (SAG12) were significantly enhanced in CaM1 overexpression plants. In contrast, abscisic acid (ABA)-triggered ROS production and stomatal closure were reduced in amiRNA-CaM1 plants. We found a positive-feedback regulation loop among three signaling components, CaM1, RPK1, and RbohF, which physically associate with each other. RPK1 positively regulates the expression of the CaM1 gene, and the CaM1 protein, in turn, up-regulates RbohF gene expression. Interestingly, the expression of CaM1 was down-regulated in rbohD, rbohF, and rbohD/F mutants. We show that CaM1 positively regulates ROS production, leaf senescence, and ABA response in Arabidopsis.
Project description:In plants, the vegetative to reproductive phase transition (termed bolting in Arabidopsis) generally precedes age-dependent leaf senescence (LS). Many studies describe a temporal link between bolting time and LS, as plants that bolt early, senesce early, and plants that bolt late, senesce late. The molecular mechanisms underlying this relationship are unknown and are potentially agriculturally important, as they may allow for the development of crops that can overcome early LS caused by stress-related early-phase transition. We hypothesized that leaf gene expression changes occurring in synchrony with bolting were regulating LS. ARABIDOPSIS TRITHORAX (ATX) enzymes are general methyltransferases that regulate the adult vegetative to reproductive phase transition. We generated an atx1, atx3, and atx4 (atx1,3,4) triple T-DNA insertion mutant that displays both early bolting and early LS. This mutant was used in an RNA-seq time-series experiment to identify gene expression changes in rosette leaves that are likely associated with bolting. By comparing the early bolting mutant to vegetative WT plants of the same age, we were able to generate a list of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that change expression with bolting as the plants age. We trimmed the list by intersection with publicly available WT datasets, which removed genes from our DEG list that were atx1,3,4 specific. The resulting 398 bolting-associated genes (BAGs) are differentially expressed in a mature rosette leaf at bolting. The BAG list contains many well-characterized LS regulators (ORE1, WRKY45, NAP, WRKY28), and GO analysis revealed enrichment for LS and LS-related processes. These bolting-associated LS regulators may contribute to the temporal coupling of bolting time to LS.
Project description:Glutathione reductase (GR) catalyzes the reduction of glutathione disulfide (GSSG) to reduced glutathione (GSH) and participates in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, which scavenges H2 O2 . Here, we report that chloroplastic/mitochondrial GR2 is an important regulator of leaf senescence. Seed development of the homozygous gr2 knockout mutant was blocked at the globular stage. Therefore, to investigate the function of GR2 in leaf senescence, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants with decreased GR2 using RNAi. The GR2 RNAi plants displayed early onset of age-dependent and dark- and H2 O2 -induced leaf senescence, which was accompanied by the induction of the senescence-related marker genes SAG12 and SAG13. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis revealed that genes related to leaf senescence, oxidative stress, and phytohormone pathways were upregulated directly before senescence in RNAi plants. In addition, H2 O2 accumulated to higher levels in RNAi plants than in wild-type plants and the levels of H2 O2 peaked in RNAi plants directly before the early onset of leaf senescence. RNAi plants showed a greater decrease in GSH/GSSG levels than wild-type plants during leaf development. Our results suggest that GR2 plays an important role in leaf senescence by modulating H2 O2 and glutathione signaling in Arabidopsis.