Project description:The domestic goat, Capra hircus (2n=60), is one of the most important domestic livestock species in the world. Here we report its high quality reference genome generated by combining Illumina short reads sequencing and a new automated and high throughput whole genome mapping system based on the optical mapping technology which was used to generate extremely long super-scaffolds. The N50 size of contigs, scaffolds, and super-scaffolds for the sequence assembly reported herein are 18.7 kb, 3.06 Mb, and 18.2 Mb, respectively. Almost 95% of the supper-scaffolds are anchored on chromosomes based on conserved syntenic information with cattle. The assembly is strongly supported by the RH map of goat chromosome 1. We annotated 22,175 protein-coding genes, most of which are recovered by RNA-seq data of ten tissues. Rapidly evolving genes and gene families are enriched in metabolism and immune systems, consistent with the fact that the goat is one of the most adaptable and geographically widespread livestock species. Comparative transcriptomic analysis of the primary and secondary follicles of a cashmere goat revealed 51 genes that were significantly differentially expressed between the two types of hair follicles. This study not only provides a high quality reference genome for an important livestock species, but also shows that the new automated optical mapping technology can be used in a de novo assembly of large genomes. Corresponding whole genome sequencing is available in NCBI BioProject PRJNA158393. We have sequenced a 3-year-old female Yunnan black goat and constructed a reference sequence for this breed. In order to improve quality of gene models, RNA samples of ten tissues (Bladder, Brain, Heart, Kidney, Liver, Lung, Lymph, Muscle, Ovarian, Spleen) were extracted from the same goat which was sequenced. To investigate the genic basis underlying the development of cashmere fibers using the goat reference genome assembly and annotated genes, we extracted RNA samples of primary hair follicle and secondary hair follicle from three Inner Mongolia cashmere goats and conducted transcriptome sequencing and DGE analysis. This submission represents RNA-Seq component of study.
Project description:Fat metabolism is a complicated process regulated by a series of factors. microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of negative regulator of proteins and play crucial roles in many biological processes, including fat metabolism. Although there have been some researches indicating that miRNAs could influence the milk fat metabolism through targeting some factors, little is known about the effect of miRNAs on goat milk fat metabolism. Here we utilized an improved miRNA detection assay, S-Poly(T), to profile the expression of miRNAs in the goat mammary gland in early-lactation and dry-lactation. Overall, we found 146 miRNAs expression changed between early-lactation and dry-lactation, with 81 up-regulation and 65 down-regulation, among which the miR-27a, miR-200a and miR-200c have been reported to be involved in the milk fat metabolism process. Overall design: To investigate the connection between the miRNA regulation and this physiological process in a more comprehensive way, here we profiled the differential miRNAs expression between early-lactation and dry-lactation in goat mammary gland with S-Poly(T) real method, including 267 Capra hircus primary miRNAs and 793 Bos taurus primary miRNAs from miRBase (http://www.mirbase.org/) and the new discovered miRNAs by Solexa sequencing. As Capra hircus and Bos taurus share high sequence homology with each other, some raw data or referenced data are overlapping. We have marked out the overlapping data, and details can be found in the additional materials (S1-first screening). All the miRNAs with four-fold change and p-value smaller than 0.05 were chosen as candidates.
Project description:In comparison with cow milk, goat (Capra hircus) milk contains much higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids, as well as higher levels of total fat, proteins, carbohydrates, calcium, and vitamins.The main objective of the present study was to better define the relationship of known miRNAs regulating milk fat metabolism. Our main purpose is to search for some known miRNAs regulating milk fat metabolism, to this end, we screened potential miRNAs with differential expression between peak-lactation and non-lactation. qPCR gene expression profiling. Monocytes from three healthy goats (3 year old) of similar body weight. We screened a series of potential miRNAs involved in regulation of milk metabolism.
Project description:Enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma (ENA), an epithelial tumor induced in goats and sheep by enzootic nasal tumor virus (ENTV), is a chronic, progressive, contact sexually transmitted disease. This study aimed to identify novel and differentially expressed miRNAs in the tumor and para-carcinoma nasal tissues of Nanjiang yellow goats with ENA. Small RNA Illumina high-throughput sequencing was used to construct a goat nasal miRNA library; 406 known miRNAs and 29 novel miRNAs were identified. A total of 116 miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed in para-carcinoma nasal tissues and ENA (54 downregulated; 60 upregulated; 2 only expressed in control group); Target gene prediction and functional analysis revealed that 6176 non-redundancy target genes, 1792 significant GO and 97 significant KEGG pathway for 121 miRNAs (116 significant expression miRNAs and 5 star sequence) were predicted. GO and KEGG pathway analysis revealed the majority of target genes in ENA are involved in cell proliferation, signal transduction and other processes associated with cancer. This is the first large-scale identification of miRNAs in Capra hircus ENA and provides a theoretical basis for investigating the complicated miRNA-mediated regulatory networks involved in the pathogenesis and progression of ENA. Overall design: miRNA expression profiles of goat nose tissues between enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma and para-carcinoma nasal tissues were generated by deep sequencing using Illumina Hiseq 2500