Project description:The aims of this study were to isolate, identify and characterize culturable endophytic bacteria from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) roots grown in different soils. In addition, the effects of rhizobial inoculation, soil and stress on the functionality of those culturable endophytic bacterial communities were also investigated. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the endophytic bacteria isolated in this work belong to the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, with Enterobacter and Pseudomonas being the most frequently observed genera. Production of indoleacetic acid and ammonia were the most widespread plant growth-promoting features, while antifungal activity was relatively rare among the isolates. Despite the fact that the majority of bacterial endophytes were salt- and Mn-tolerant, the isolates obtained from soil with Mn toxicity were generally more Mn-tolerant than those obtained from the same soil amended with dolomitic limestone. Several associations between an isolate's genus and specific plant growth-promoting mechanisms were observed. The data suggest that soil strongly impacts the Mn tolerance of endophytic bacterial communities present in chickpea roots while rhizobial inoculation induces significant changes in terms of isolates' plant growth-promoting abilities. In addition, this study also revealed chickpea-associated endophytic bacteria that could be exploited as sources with potential application in agriculture.
Project description:Animal manure is commonly used as fertilizer for agricultural crops worldwide, even though it is believed to contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance from animal intestines to the soil environment. However, it is unclear whether and how there is any impact of manure fertilization on populations and community structure of antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (AREB) in plant tissues. To investigate the effect of manure and organic fertilizer on endophytic bacterial communities, pot experiments were performed with pakchoi grown with the following treatments: (1) non-treated; (2) chicken manure-treated and (3) organic fertilizer-treated. Manure or organic fertilizer significantly increased the abundances of total cultivable endophytic bacteria (TCEB) and AREB in pakchoi, and the effect of chicken manure was greater than that of organic fertilizer. Further, 16S rDNA sequencing and the phylogenetic analysis indicated that chicken manure or organic fertilizer application increased the populations of multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria (MARB) in soil and multiple antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (MAREB) in pakchoi. The identical multiple antibiotic-resistant bacterial populations detected in chicken manure, manure- or organic fertilizer-amended soil and the vegetable endophytic system were Brevundimonas diminuta, Brachybacterium sp. and Bordetella sp., suggesting that MARB from manure could enter and colonize the vegetable tissues through manure fertilization. The fact that some human pathogens with multiple antibiotic resistance were detected in harvested vegetables after growing in manure-amended soil demonstrated a potential threat to human health.
Project description:The endophytic fungal communities of Polygonum acuminatum and Aeschynomene fluminensis were examined with respect to soil mercury (Hg) contamination. Plants were collected in places with and without Hg+2 for isolation and identification of their endophytic root fungi. We evaluated frequency of colonization, number of isolates and richness, indices of diversity and similarity, functional traits (hydrolytic enzymes, siderophores, indoleacetic acid, antibiosis and metal tolerance) and growth promotion of Aeschynomene fluminensis inoculated with endophytic fungi on soil with mercury. The frequency of colonization, structure and community function, as well as the abundant distribution of taxa of endophytic fungi were influenced by mercury contamination, with higher endophytic fungi in hosts in soil with mercury. The presence or absence of mercury in the soil changes the profile of the functional characteristics of the endophytic fungal community. On the other hand, tolerance of lineages to multiple metals is not associated with contamination. A. fluminensis depends on its endophytic fungi, since plants free of endophytic fungi grew less than expected due to mercury toxicity. In contrast plants containing certain endophytic fungi showed good growth in soil containing mercury, even exceeding growth of plants cultivated in soil without mercury. The data obtained confirm the hypothesis that soil contamination by mercury alters community structure of root endophytic fungi in terms of composition, abundance and species richness. The inoculation of A. fluminensis with certain strains of stress tolerant endophytic fungi contribute to colonization and establishment of the host and may be used in processes that aim to improve phytoremediation of soils with toxic concentrations of mercury.
Project description:The microbiota colonizing the root endophytic compartment and surrounding rhizosphere soils contribute to plant growth and health. However, the key members of plant soil and endophytic microbial communities involved in inhibiting or assisting pathogen invasion remain elusive. By utilizing 16S high-throughput sequencing and a molecular ecological network (MEN) approach, we systematically studied the interactions within bacterial communities in plant endophytic compartments (stem and root) and the surrounding soil (bulk and rhizosphere) during bacterial wilt invasion. The endophytic communities were found to be strongly influenced by pathogen invasion according to analysis of microbial diversity and community structure and composition. Endophytic communities of the infected plants were primarily derived from soil communities, as assessed by the SourceTracker program, but with rare migration from soil communities to endophytic communities observed in healthy plants. Soil and endophytic microbiomes from infected plants showed modular topology and greater complexity in network analysis, and a higher number of interactions than those in healthy plants. Furthermore, interactions among microbial members revealed that pathogenic Ralstonia members were positively correlated with several bacterial genera, including Delftia, Stenotrophomonas, Bacillus, Clostridium XlVa, Fontibacillus, Acidovorax, Herminiimonas, and three unclassified bacterial genera, in infected plant roots. Our findings indicated that the pathogen invasion in the rhizosphere and endophytic compartments may be highly associated with bacteria that are normally not detrimental, and sometimes even beneficial, to plants.
Project description:One of the most exciting scientific advances in recent decades has been the realization that the diverse and immensely active microbial communities are not only 'passengers' with plants, but instead play an important role in plant growth, development and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. A picture is emerging where plant roots act as 'gatekeepers' to screen soil bacteria from the rhizosphere and rhizoplane. This typically results in root endophytic microbiome dominated by Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and to a lesser extent Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, but Acidobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes being almost depleted. A synthesis of available data suggest that motility, plant cell-wall degradation ability and reactive oxygen species scavenging seem to be crucial traits for successful endophytic colonization and establishment of bacteria. Recent studies provide solid evidence that these bacteria serve host functions such as improving of plant nutrients through acquisition of nutrients from soil and nitrogen fixation in leaves. Additionally, some endophytes can engage 'priming' plants which elicit a faster and stronger plant defense once pathogens attack. Due to these plant growth-promoting effects, endophytic bacteria are being widely explored for their use in the improvement of crop performance. Updating the insights into the mechanism of endophytic bacterial colonization and interactions with plants is an important step in potentially manipulating endophytic bacteria/microbiome for viable strategies to improve agricultural production.
Project description:Plant-soil feedback studies attempt to understand the interplay between composition of plant and soil microbial communities. A growing body of literature suggests that plant species can coexist when they interact with a subset of the soil microbial community that impacts plant performance. Most studies focus on the microbial community in the soil rhizosphere; therefore, the degree to which the bacterial community within plant roots (root-endophytic compartment) influences plant-microbe interactions remains relatively unknown. To determine if there is an interaction between conspecific vs heterospecific soil microbes and plant performance, we sequenced root-endophytic bacterial communities of five tallgrass-prairie plant species, each reciprocally grown with soil microbes from each hosts' soil rhizosphere. We found evidence of plant-soil feedbacks for some pairs of plant hosts; however, the strength and direction of feedbacks varied substantially across plant species pairs-from positive to negative feedbacks. Additionally, each plant species harbored a unique subset of root-endophytic bacteria. Conspecifics that hosted similar bacterial communities were more similar in biomass than individuals that hosted different bacterial communities, suggesting an important functional link between root-endophytic bacterial community composition and plant fitness. Our findings suggest a connection between an understudied component of the root-endophytic microbiome and plant performance, which may have important implications in understanding plant community composition and coexistence.
Project description:The halophytes have evolved several strategies to survive in saline environments; however, an additional support from their associated microbiota helps combat adverse conditions. Hence, our driving interests to investigate the endophytic bacterial community richness, diversity, and composition associated to roots of Salicornia europaea from two test sites with different origins of soil salinity. We assumed that salinity will have a negative effect on the diversity of endophytes but simultaneously will permit the high occurrence of halophylic bacteria. Further, to establish the role of the host and its external environment in determining the endophytic diversity, we analyzed the physico-chemical parameters of root zone soil and the concentration of salt ions in the plant roots. The results based on the Miseq Illumina sequencing approach revealed a higher number of endophytic bacterial OTUs at naturally saline test site with a higher level of soil salinity. Proteobacteria and Bacteriodetes were the dominant endophytic phyla at both analyzed sites; additionally, the high occurrence of Planctomycetes and Acidobacteria at more saline site and the occurrence of Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi at less saline site were recorded. The salinity in the root zone soil was crucial in structuring the endophytic community of S. europaea, and the significant prevalence of representatives from the phyla Deltaproteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Caldithrix, Fibrobacteres, and Verrucomicrobia at the more saline test site suggest domination of halophylic bacteria with potential role in mitigation of salt stress of halophytes.
Project description:Paeonia ludlowii is indigenous to Tibet and has an important ecological and economic value in China. In Tibet, P. ludlowii has been used in folk medicine with relative success. Plant microbial endophytes play an important role in plant growth, health and ecological function. The diversity of endophytic bacteria associated with P. ludlowii remains poorly understood. In this study, the structure of the endophytic bacterial communities associated with different tissues, including fruits, flowers, leaves, stems, and roots, and rhizosphere soils was analyzed with Illumina MiSeq sequencing of bacterial 16S rDNA. A total of 426,240 sequences and 4847 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained. The OTUs abundance of roots was higher than that of other tissues; however, the OTUs abundance was similar among different deep soil samples. In the plant tissues, Cyanobacteria was the most abundant bacterial phylum, followed by Proteobacteria; however, the most abundant phyla were Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria in soil samples from three different layers. In addition, the diversity and richness of the microorganisms in the soil were very similar to those in roots but higher than those in other tissues of P. ludlowii. Predictive metagenome analysis revealed that endophytic bacteria play critical functional roles in P. ludlowii. This conclusion could facilitate the study of the ecological functions of endophytic bacteria and their interactions with P. ludlowii to analyze the reasons why this important medicinal plant is becoming endangered.
Project description:Plants form symbiotic associations with endophytic bacteria within tissues of leaves, stems, and roots. It is unclear whether or how plants obtain nitrogen from these endophytic bacteria. Here we present evidence showing nitrogen flow from endophytic bacteria to plants in a process that appears to involve oxidative degradation of bacteria. In our experiments we employed Agave tequilana and its seed-transmitted endophyte Bacillus tequilensis to elucidate organic nitrogen transfer from (15)N-labeled bacteria to plants. Bacillus tequilensis cells grown in a minimal medium with (15)NH4Cl as the nitrogen source were watered onto plants growing in sand. We traced incorporation of (15)N into tryptophan, deoxynucleosides and pheophytin derived from chlorophyll a. Probes for hydrogen peroxide show its presence during degradation of bacteria in plant tissues, supporting involvement of reactive oxygen in the degradation process. In another experiment to assess nitrogen absorbed as a result of endophytic colonization of plants we demonstrated that endophytic bacteria potentially transfer more nitrogen to plants and stimulate greater biomass in plants than heat-killed bacteria that do not colonize plants but instead degrade in the soil. Findings presented here support the hypothesis that some plants under nutrient limitation may degrade and obtain nitrogen from endophytic microbes.
Project description:Land plants associate with a root microbiota distinct from the complex microbial community present in surrounding soil. The microbiota colonizing the rhizosphere (immediately surrounding the root) and the endophytic compartment (within the root) contribute to plant growth, productivity, carbon sequestration and phytoremediation. Colonization of the root occurs despite a sophisticated plant immune system, suggesting finely tuned discrimination of mutualists and commensals from pathogens. Genetic principles governing the derivation of host-specific endophyte communities from soil communities are poorly understood. Here we report the pyrosequencing of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene of more than 600 Arabidopsis thaliana plants to test the hypotheses that the root rhizosphere and endophytic compartment microbiota of plants grown under controlled conditions in natural soils are sufficiently dependent on the host to remain consistent across different soil types and developmental stages, and sufficiently dependent on host genotype to vary between inbred Arabidopsis accessions. We describe different bacterial communities in two geochemically distinct bulk soils and in rhizosphere and endophytic compartments prepared from roots grown in these soils. The communities in each compartment are strongly influenced by soil type. Endophytic compartments from both soils feature overlapping, low-complexity communities that are markedly enriched in Actinobacteria and specific families from other phyla, notably Proteobacteria. Some bacteria vary quantitatively between plants of different developmental stage and genotype. Our rigorous definition of an endophytic compartment microbiome should facilitate controlled dissection of plant-microbe interactions derived from complex soil communities.