Project description:4C procedure was used for analysis of genomic contacts of rDNA units in HEK 293T cells. The primers for 4C were selected inside IGS. Our data indicate that mostly rDNA units exhibit close proximity with pericentromeric regions in different chromosomes. We also detected the contacts within a rDNA unit and between rDNA units. Examination of rDNA genome-wide contacts in HEK 293T cells using 4C approach.
Project description:To sustain growth, budding yeast actively transcribes its ribosomal gene array (rDNA) in the nucoleolus to produce ribosomes and proteins. However, intense transcription during rDNA replication may provoke collisions between RNA polymerase I (Pol I) and the replisome, may cause replication fork instability, double-strand breaks, local recombinations and rDNA instability. The latter is manifested by rDNA array expansion or reduction and the formation of extrachromosomal rDNA circles, anomalies that accelerate aging in yeast. Transcription also interferes with the resolution, condensation and segregation of the sister chromatid rDNA arrays. As a consequence, rDNA segregation lags behind the rest of the yeast genome and occurs in late anaphase when rDNA transcription is temporarily shut off. How yeast promotes the stability and transmission of its rDNA array while satisfying a constant need for ribosomes remains unclear. Here we show that the downregulation of Pol I by the conserved cell cycle kinase Rio1 spatiotemporally coordinates rDNA transcription, replication and segregation. More specifically, Rio1 activity promotes copy-number stability of the replicating rDNA array by curtailing Pol I activity and by localising the histone deacetylase Sir2, which establishes a heterochromatic state that silences rDNA transcription. At anaphase entry, Rio1 and the Cdc14 phosphatase target Pol I subunit Rpa43 to dissociate Pol I from the 35S rDNA promoter. The rDNA locus then condensates and segregates, thereby concluding the genome transmission process. Rio1 is involved in ribosome maturation in the cytoplasm of budding yeast and human cells. Additional engagements in the cytoplasm or roles in the nucleus are unknown. Our study describes its first nuclear engagement as a Pol I silencing kinase. This activity may prove highly relevant as dysregulated RNA polymerase I activity has been associated with cancer initiation and proliferation. Overall design: ChIP-on-chip analyses were carried out as described in Bermejo R. et al., Meth. Mol. Biol. 582: 103-18 (2009). Labelled probes were hybridized to Affymetrix S.cerevisiae Tiling 1.0 (P/N 900645) arrays and processed with TAS software.
Project description:Please see publication. These experiments were performed to ascertain the contribution of Y-linked rDNA copy number variation in the modulation of gene expression. Males (XY) and female (XXY) genotypes were probed. Dye swaps and direct comparisons within each sex
Project description:Please see publication. These experiments were performed to ascertain the contribution of Y-linked rDNA copy number variation in the modulation of gene expression. Males (XY) and female (XXY) genotypes were probed. Overall design: Dye swaps and direct comparisons within each sex
Project description:Induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in ribosomal DNA (rDNA) repeats is associated with ATM-dependent repression of ribosomal RNA synthesis and large-scale reorganization of nucleolar architecture, but the signaling events that regulate these responses are largely elusive. Here we show that the nucleolar response to rDNA breaks is dependent on both ATM and ATR activity. We further demonstrate that ATM- and NBS1-dependent recruitment of TOPBP1 in the nucleoli is required for inhibition of ribosomal RNA synthesis and nucleolar segregation in response to rDNA breaks. Mechanistically, TOPBP1 recruitment is mediated by phosphorylation-dependent interactions between three of its BRCT domains and conserved phosphorylated Ser/Thr residues at the C-terminus of the nucleolar phosphoprotein Treacle. Our data thus reveal an important cooperation between TOPBP1 and Treacle in the signaling cascade that triggers transcriptional inhibition and nucleolar segregation in response to rDNA breaks.
Project description:In S. cerevisiae, replication timing is controlled by epigenetic mechanisms restricting the accessibility of origins to limiting initiation factors. About 30% of these origins are located within repetitive DNA sequences such as the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) array, but their regulation is poorly understood. Here, we have investigated how histone deacetylases (HDACs) control the replication program in budding yeast. This analysis revealed that two HDACs, Rpd3 and Sir2, control replication timing in an opposite manner. Whereas Rpd3 delays initiation at late origins, Sir2 is required for the timely activation of early origins. Moreover, Sir2 represses initiation at rDNA origins whereas Rpd3 counteracts this effect. Remarkably, deletion of SIR2 restored normal replication in rpd3 cells by reactivating rDNA origins. Together, these data indicate that HDACs control the replication timing program in budding yeast by modulating the ability of repeated origins to compete with single-copy origins for limiting initiation factors. MNase-seq analysis of nucleosome position in wt, sir2 and rpd3 cells, aligned against genomic DNA (sacCer3; *sorted_s3.bed) and rDNA sequences (*rdna_nucleosomes.bed)