Project description:BACKGROUND:Approximately 5-20% of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients demonstrate primary resistance or intolerance to imatinib. None of the existing predictive scores gives a good prognosis of TKI efficacy. Gene polymorphisms, expression and microRNAs are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of TKI resistance in CML. The aim of our study is to find new molecular markers of TKI therapy efficacy in CML patients. METHODS:Newly diagnosed patients with Ph+?CML in chronic phase were included in this study. Optimal and non-optimal responses to TKI were estimated according to ELN 2013 recommendation. We performed genotyping of selected polymorphisms in 62 blood samples of CML patients, expression profiling of 33 RNA samples extracted from blood and miRNA profiling of 800 miRNA in 12 blood samples of CML patients. RESULTS:The frequencies of genotypes at the studied loci did not differ between groups of patients with an optimal and non-optimal response to TKI therapy. Analysis of the expression of 34,681 genes revealed 26 differently expressed genes (p?<?0.05) in groups of patients with different TKI responses, but differences were very small and were not confirmed by qPCR. Finally, we did not find difference in miRNA expression between the groups. CONCLUSIONS:Using modern high-throughput methods such as whole-exome sequencing, transcriptome and miRNA analysis, we could not find reliable molecular markers for early prediction of TKI efficiency in Ph+?CML patients.
Project description:Previous studies have shown that leukemogenic chromosomal translocations, including fusions between Break point Cluster Region (BCR) and Abelson (ABL) are present in the peripheral blood of healthy individuals. The aim of this study was to gain insights into the genetic alterations other than BCR-Abl translocation in molecular level, which cause chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).We performed whole-exome sequencing on four cases representative of BCR-ABL positive CML in chronic phase of the disease.We did not identify any pathogenic mutation in all known genes involved in CML or other cancers in our subjects. Nevertheless, we identified polymorphisms in related genes.It is the first report of exome sequencing in Philadelphia chromosome positive CML patients. We did not identify any pathogenic mutation in known cancer genes in our patients who can be due to CML pathogenesis or technical limitations.
Project description:Inherited eye disorders have a large clinical and genetic heterogeneity, which makes genetic diagnosis cumbersome. An exome-sequencing approach was developed in which data analysis was divided into two steps: the vision gene panel and exome analysis. In the vision gene panel analysis, variants in genes known to cause inherited eye disorders were assessed for pathogenicity. If no causative variants were detected and when the patient consented, the entire exome data was analyzed. A total of 266 Dutch patients with different types of inherited eye disorders, including inherited retinal dystrophies, cataract, developmental eye disorders and optic atrophy, were investigated. In the vision gene panel analysis (likely), causative variants were detected in 49% and in the exome analysis in an additional 2% of the patients. The highest detection rate of (likely) causative variants was in patients with inherited retinal dystrophies, for instance a yield of 63% in patients with retinitis pigmentosa. In patients with developmental eye defects, cataract and optic atrophy, the detection rate was 50, 33 and 17%, respectively. An exome-sequencing approach enables a genetic diagnosis in patients with different types of inherited eye disorders using one test. The exome approach has the same detection rate as targeted panel sequencing tests, but offers a number of advantages. For instance, the vision gene panel can be frequently and easily updated with additional (novel) eye disorder genes. Determination of the genetic diagnosis improved the clinical diagnosis, regarding the assessment of the inheritance pattern as well as future disease perspective.
Project description:Copy number variation (CNV) is a common source of genetic variation that has been implicated in many genomic disorders, Mendelian diseases, and common/complex traits. Genomic microarrays are often employed for CNV detection. More recently, whole-exome sequencing (WES) has enabled detection of clinically relevant point mutations and small insertion-deletion exome wide. We evaluated (de Ligt et al. 2013)  the utility of short-read WES (SOLiD 5500xl) to detect clinically relevant CNVs in DNA from 10 patients with intellectual disability and compared these results to data from three independent high-resolution microarray platforms. Calls made by the different platforms and detection software are available at dbVar under nstd84.
Project description:To investigate why dipeptides accumulate in immature CML cells, we examined upstream gene expression patterns. We isolated the most primitive long-term stem cells, short-term stem cells, and KLS- progenitor cells from healthy littermate control and CML-affected mice and performed gene expression profiling using next-generation RNA-sequencing. Gene expression profiles of the most primitive long-term (LT) stem cells (CD150+CD48-CD135-KLS+ cells), short-term (ST) stem cells (CD150-CD48-CD135- KLS+ cells), and KLS- progenitor cells from healthy littermate control and CML-affected mice
Project description:Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder with an increased risk of early-onset coronary artery disease. Although some clinically diagnosed FH cases are caused by mutations in LDLR, APOB, or PCSK9, mutation detection rates and profiles can vary across ethnic groups. In this study, we aimed to provide insight into the spectrum of FH-causing mutations in Koreans. Among 136 patients referred for FH, 69 who met Simon Broome criteria with definite family history were enrolled. By whole-exome sequencing (WES) analysis, we confirmed that the 3 known FH-related genes accounted for genetic causes in 23 patients (33.3%). A substantial portion of the mutations (19 of 23 patients, 82.6%) resulted from 17 mutations and 2 copy number deletions in LDLR gene. Two mutations each in the APOB and PCSK9 genes were verified. Of these anomalies, two frameshift deletions in LDLR and one mutation in PCSK9 were identified as novel causative mutations. In particular, one novel mutation and copy number deletion were validated by co-segregation in their relatives. This study confirmed the utility of genetic diagnosis of FH through WES.
Project description:Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) and Marfan syndrome (MFS) are common Mendelian disorders. Both conditions are usually diagnosed clinically, as genetic testing is expensive due to the size and number of potentially causative genes and mutations. However, genetic testing may benefit patients, at-risk family members and individuals with borderline phenotypes, as well as improving genetic counseling and allowing critical differential diagnoses. We assessed whether whole exome sequencing (WES) is a sensitive method for mutation detection in OI and MFS. WES was performed on genomic DNA from 13 participants with OI and 10 participants with MFS who had known mutations, with exome capture followed by massive parallel sequencing of multiplexed samples. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and small indels were called using Genome Analysis Toolkit (GATK) and annotated with ANNOVAR. CREST, exomeCopy and exomeDepth were used for large deletion detection. Results were compared with the previous data. Specificity was calculated by screening WES data from a control population of 487 individuals for mutations in COL1A1, COL1A2 and FBN1. The target capture of five exome capture platforms was compared. All 13 mutations in the OI cohort and 9/10 in the MFS cohort were detected (sensitivity=95.6%) including non-synonymous SNPs, small indels (<10?bp), and a large UTR5/exon 1 deletion. One mutation was not detected by GATK due to strand bias. Specificity was 99.5%. Capture platforms and analysis programs differed considerably in their ability to detect mutations. Consumable costs for WES were low. WES is an efficient, sensitive, specific and cost-effective method for mutation detection in patients with OI and MFS. Careful selection of platform and analysis programs is necessary to maximize success.
Project description:We developed an algorithm, HMZDelFinder, that uses whole exome sequencing (WES) data to identify rare and intragenic homozygous and hemizygous (HMZ) deletions that may represent complete loss-of-function of the indicated gene. HMZDelFinder was applied to 4866 samples in the Baylor-Hopkins Center for Mendelian Genomics (BHCMG) cohort and detected 773 HMZ deletion calls (567 homozygous or 206 hemizygous) with an estimated sensitivity of 86.5% (82% for single-exonic and 88% for multi-exonic calls) and precision of 78% (53% single-exonic and 96% for multi-exonic calls). Out of 773 HMZDelFinder-detected deletion calls, 82 were subjected to array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and/or breakpoint PCR and 64 were confirmed. These include 18 single-exon deletions out of which 8 were exclusively detected by HMZDelFinder and not by any of seven other CNV detection tools examined. Further investigation of the 64 validated deletion calls revealed at least 15 pathogenic HMZ deletions. Of those, 7 accounted for 17-50% of pathogenic CNVs in different disease cohorts where 7.1-11% of the molecular diagnosis solved rate was attributed to CNVs. In summary, we present an algorithm to detect rare, intragenic, single-exon deletion CNVs using WES data; this tool can be useful for disease gene discovery efforts and clinical WES analyses.
Project description:<h4>Motivation</h4>The ability to detect copy-number variation (CNV) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) from exome sequencing data extends the utility of this powerful approach that has mainly been used for point or small insertion/deletion detection.<h4>Results</h4>We present ExomeCNV, a statistical method to detect CNV and LOH using depth-of-coverage and B-allele frequencies, from mapped short sequence reads, and we assess both the method's power and the effects of confounding variables. We apply our method to a cancer exome resequencing dataset. As expected, accuracy and resolution are dependent on depth-of-coverage and capture probe design.<h4>Availability</h4>CRAN package 'ExomeCNV'.<h4>Contact</h4>email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org<h4>Supplementary information</h4>Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Project description:Alport syndrome (AS) is an inherited progressive renal disease caused by mutations in COL4A3, COL4A4, and COL4A5 genes. Despite simultaneous screening of these genes being widely available, mutation detection still remains incomplete in a non-marginal portion of patients. Here, we applied whole-exome sequencing (WES) in 3 Italian families negative after candidate-gene analyses. In Family 1, we identified a novel heterozygous intronic variant (c.2245-40A>G) -outside the conventionally screened candidate region for diagnosis- potentially disrupting COL4A5 exon29 splicing. Using a minigene-based approach in HEK293 cells we demonstrated that this variant abolishes exon29 branch site, causing exon skipping. Moreover, skewed X-inactivation of the c.2245-40A>G allele correlated with disease severity in heterozygous females. In Family 2, WES highlighted a novel COL4A5 hemizygous missense mutation (p.Gly491Asp), which segregates with the phenotype and impacts on a highly-conserved residue. Finally, in Family 3, we detected a homozygous 24-bp in-frame deletion in COL4A3 exon1 (NM_000091.4:c.30_53del:p.Val11_Leu18del or c.40_63del24:p.Leu14_Leu21del), which is ambiguously annotated in databases, although it corresponds to a recurrent AS mutation. Functional analyses showed that this deletion disrupts COL4A3 signal peptide, possibly altering protein secretion. In conclusion, WES -together with functional studies- was fundamental for molecular diagnosis in 3 AS families, highlighting pathogenic variants that escaped previous screenings.