Project description:Sponges are the most prolific marine organisms with respect to their arsenal of bioactive compounds including antimicrobials. However, the majority of these substances are probably not produced by the sponge itself, but rather by bacteria or fungi that are associated with their host. This review for the first time provides a comprehensive overview of antimicrobial compounds that are known to be produced by sponge-associated microbes. We discuss the current state-of-the-art by grouping the bioactive compounds produced by sponge-associated microorganisms in four categories: antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal and antiprotozoal compounds. Based on in vitro activity tests, identified targets of potent antimicrobial substances derived from sponge-associated microbes include: human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) (2-undecyl-4-quinolone, sorbicillactone A and chartarutine B); influenza A (H1N1) virus (truncateol M); nosocomial Gram positive bacteria (thiopeptide YM-266183, YM-266184, mayamycin and kocurin); Escherichia coli (sydonic acid), Chlamydia trachomatis (naphthacene glycoside SF2446A2); Plasmodium spp. (manzamine A and quinolone 1); Leishmania donovani (manzamine A and valinomycin); Trypanosoma brucei (valinomycin and staurosporine); Candida albicans and dermatophytic fungi (saadamycin, 5,7-dimethoxy-4-p-methoxylphenylcoumarin and YM-202204). Thirty-five bacterial and 12 fungal genera associated with sponges that produce antimicrobials were identified, with Streptomyces, Pseudovibrio, Bacillus, Aspergillus and Penicillium as the prominent producers of antimicrobial compounds. Furthemore culture-independent approaches to more comprehensively exploit the genetic richness of antimicrobial compound-producing pathways from sponge-associated bacteria are addressed.
Project description:Archaea are ubiquitous symbionts of marine sponges but their ecological roles and the influence of environmental factors on these associations are still poorly understood.We compared the diversity and composition of archaea associated with seawater and with the sponges Hymeniacidon heliophila, Paraleucilla magna and Petromica citrina in two distinct environments: Guanabara Bay, a highly impacted estuary in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and the nearby Cagarras Archipelago. For this we used metagenomic analyses of 16S rRNA and ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene libraries. Hymeniacidon heliophila was more abundant inside the bay, while P. magna was more abundant outside and P. citrina was only recorded at the Cagarras Archipelago. Principal Component Analysis plots (PCA) generated using pairwise unweighted UniFrac distances showed that the archaeal community structure of inner bay seawater and sponges was different from that of coastal Cagarras Archipelago. Rarefaction analyses showed that inner bay archaeaoplankton were more diverse than those from the Cagarras Archipelago. Only members of Crenarchaeota were found in sponge libraries, while in seawater both Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota were observed. Although most amoA archaeal genes detected in this study seem to be novel, some clones were affiliated to known ammonia oxidizers such as Nitrosopumilus maritimus and Cenarchaeum symbiosum.The composition and diversity of archaeal communities associated with pollution-tolerant sponge species can change in a range of few kilometers, probably influenced by eutrophication. The presence of archaeal amoA genes in Porifera suggests that Archaea are involved in the nitrogen cycle within the sponge holobiont, possibly increasing its resistance to anthropogenic impacts. The higher diversity of Crenarchaeota in the polluted area suggests that some marine sponges are able to change the composition of their associated archaeal communities, thereby improving their fitness in impacted environments.
Project description:Sponges are host to extremely diverse bacterial communities, some of which appear to be spatiotemporally stable, though how these consistent associations are assembled and maintained from one sponge generation to the next is not well understood. Here we report that a diverse group of microbes, including both bacteria and archaea, is consistently present in aggregates within embryos of the tropical sponge Corticium sp. The major taxonomic groups represented in bacterial 16S rRNA sequences amplified from the embryos are similar to those previously described in a variety of marine sponges. Three selected bacterial taxa, representing proteobacteria, actinobacteria, and a clade including recently described sponge-associated bacteria, were tested and found to be present in all adult samples tested over a 3-year period and in the embryos throughout development. Specific probes were used in fluorescence in situ hybridization to localize cells of the three types in the embryos and mesohyl. This study confirms the vertical transmission of multiple, phylogenetically diverse microorganisms in a marine sponge, and our findings lay the foundation for future work on exploring vertical transmission of specific, yet diverse, microbial assemblages in marine sponges.
Project description:Sponges can host diverse and abundant communities of microorganisms, which constitute an interesting source of bioactive compounds. Thus, to broaden our knowledge about the diversity of the microbiota that is found in freshwater sponges, the microbial community of Tubella variabilis was analyzed using culture-independent and culture-dependent approaches. Additionally, sponge-associated bacteria were compared with those living in the surrounding waters. Bacteria were also tested for antimicrobial production. Overall, the microbial composition identified comprises at least 44 phyla belonging mainly to Proteobacteria and low percentages of Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia. Alphaproteobacteria was the dominant class in T. variabilis while Betaproteobacteria was dominant in freshwater. Our data also revealed a high richness of bacteria in comparison to another freshwater sponge and 32 marine sponges. A global comparison of the structure of microbiota of different sponges showed that the main structuring factor may be the sponge environment, with T. variabilis and all freshwater sponges clustering together, and far away from the marine sponges. Bacterial strains from sponges and from freshwater were isolated and 163 morphotypes were phylogenetically identified. These belong to 26 genera, of which 12 were exclusively found in sponge samples and three only in freshwater. Inhibitory activities were also detected among 20-25% of the isolates from sponges and freshwater, respectively. This study presents new information on the composition of the microbial community found in freshwater sponges, which is diverse, abundant and distinct from some marine sponges. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity observed from the bacterial strains might play an important role in shaping microbial communities of the environment.
Project description:Marine sponges often contain diverse and abundant microbial communities, including bacteria, archaea, microalgae, and fungi. In some cases, these microbial associates comprise as much as 40% of the sponge volume and can contribute significantly to host metabolism (e.g., via photosynthesis or nitrogen fixation). We review in detail the diversity of microbes associated with sponges, including extensive 16S rRNA-based phylogenetic analyses which support the previously suggested existence of a sponge-specific microbiota. These analyses provide a suitable vantage point from which to consider the potential evolutionary and ecological ramifications of these widespread, sponge-specific microorganisms. Subsequently, we examine the ecology of sponge-microbe associations, including the establishment and maintenance of these sometimes intimate partnerships, the varied nature of the interactions (ranging from mutualism to host-pathogen relationships), and the broad-scale patterns of symbiont distribution. The ecological and evolutionary importance of sponge-microbe associations is mirrored by their enormous biotechnological potential: marine sponges are among the animal kingdom's most prolific producers of bioactive metabolites, and in at least some cases, the compounds are of microbial rather than sponge origin. We review the status of this important field, outlining the various approaches (e.g., cultivation, cell separation, and metagenomics) which have been employed to access the chemical wealth of sponge-microbe associations.
Project description:The interaction of animals with microbes relies on the specific recognition of microbial-derived molecules by receptors of the immune system. Sponges (phylum Porifera), as sister group of the Eumetazoa, provide insights into conserved mechanisms for animal-microbe crosstalk, but empirical data is limited. Here we aimed to characterize the immune response of sponges upon microbial stimuli by RNA-Seq. Two sponges species from the Mediterranean Sea, Aplysina aerophoba and Dysidea avara, were challenged with microbial-associated molecular patterns (lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan) or sterile artificial seawater (control) in aquarium experiments. Sponge tissue samples were collected 1h, 3h, and 5h after treatment. The response of the sponges to the treatments was assessed by differential gene expression analysis of RNA-Seq data. For each species, we compared the transcriptomic profiles of the samples in MAMP treatment to control within each time point.
Project description:Sponge-associated prokaryotic diversity has been studied from a wide range of marine environments across the globe. However, for certain regions, e.g., Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia, and Singapore, an overview of the sponge-associated prokaryotic communities is still pending. In this study we characterized the prokaryotic communities from 27 specimens, comprising 18 marine sponge species, sampled from the central coastal region of Vietnam. Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene fragments was used to investigate sponge-associated bacterial and archaeal diversity. Overall, 14 bacterial phyla and one archaeal phylum were identified among all 27 samples. The phylum Proteobacteria was present in all sponges and the most prevalent phylum in 15 out of 18 sponge species, albeit with pronounced differences at the class level. In contrast, Chloroflexi was the most abundant phylum in Halichondria sp., whereas Spirastrella sp. and Dactylospongia sp. were dominated by Actinobacteria. Several bacterial phyla such as Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Deferribacteres, Gemmatimonadetes, and Nitrospirae were found in two-thirds of the sponge species. Moreover, the phylum Thaumarchaeota (Archaea), which is known to comprise nitrifying archaea, was highly abundant among the majority of the 18 investigated sponge species. Altogether, this study demonstrates that the diversity of prokaryotic communities associated with Vietnamese sponges is comparable to sponge-prokaryotic assemblages from well-documented regions. Furthermore, the phylogenetically divergent sponges hosted species-specific prokaryotic communities, thus demonstrating the influence of host identity on the composition and diversity of the associated communities. Therefore, this high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon analysis of Vietnamese sponge-prokaryotic communities provides a foundation for future studies on sponge symbiont function and sponge-derived bioactive compounds from this region.
Project description:Fungi play a critical role in a range of ecosystems; however, their interactions and functions in marine hosts, and particular sponges, is poorly understood. Here we assess the fungal community composition of three co-occurring sponges (Cymbastela concentrica, Scopalina sp., Tedania anhelans) and the surrounding seawater over two time points to help elucidate host-specificity, stability and potential core members, which may shed light into the ecological function of fungi in sponges. The results showed that ITS-amplicon-based community profiling likely provides a more realistic assessment of fungal diversity in sponges than cultivation-dependent approaches. The sponges studied here were found to contain phylogenetically diverse fungi (eight fungal classes were observed), including members of the family Togniniaceae and the genus Acrostalagmus, that have so far not been reported to be cultured from sponges. Fungal communities within any given sponge species were found to be highly variable compared to bacterial communities, and influenced in structure by the community of the surrounding seawater, especially considering temporal variation. Nevertheless, the sponge species studied here contained a few "variable/core" fungi that appeared in multiple biological replicates and were enriched in their relative abundance compared to seawater communities. These fungi were the same or highly similar to fungal species detected in sponges around the world, which suggests a prevalence of horizontal transmission where selectivity and enrichment of some fungi occur for those that can survive and/or exploit the sponge environment. Our current sparse knowledge about sponge-associated fungi thus indicate that fungal communities may perhaps not play as an important ecological role in the sponge holobiont compared to bacterial or archaeal symbionts.
Project description:Marine sponges can associate with abundant and diverse consortia of microbial symbionts. However, associated bacteria remain unexamined for the majority of host sponges and few studies use phylogenetic metrics to quantify symbiont community diversity. DNA fingerprinting techniques, such as terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP), might provide rapid profiling of these communities, but have not been explicitly compared to traditional methods.We investigated the bacterial communities associated with the marine sponges Hymeniacidon heliophila and Haliclona tubifera, a sympatric tunicate, Didemnum sp., and ambient seawater from the northern Gulf of Mexico by combining replicated clone libraries with T-RFLP analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Clone libraries revealed that bacterial communities associated with the two sponges exhibited lower species richness and lower species diversity than seawater and tunicate assemblages, with differences in species composition among all four source groups. T-RFLP profiles clustered microbial communities by source; individual T-RFs were matched to the majority (80.6%) of clone library sequences, indicating that T-RFLP analysis can be used to rapidly profile these communities. Phylogenetic metrics of community diversity indicated that the two sponge-associated bacterial communities include dominant and host-specific bacterial lineages that are distinct from bacteria recovered from seawater, tunicates, and unrelated sponge hosts. In addition, a large proportion of the symbionts associated with H. heliophila were shared with distant, conspecific host populations in the southwestern Atlantic (Brazil).The low diversity and species-specific nature of bacterial communities associated with H. heliophila and H. tubifera represent a distinctly different pattern from other, reportedly universal, sponge-associated bacterial communities. Our replicated sampling strategy, which included samples that reflect the ambient environment, allowed us to differentiate resident symbionts from potentially transient or prey bacteria. Pairing replicated clone library construction with rapid community profiling via T-RFLP analyses will greatly facilitate future studies of sponge-microbe symbioses.
Project description:The naproxen-degrading bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis B1(2015b) was immobilised onto loofah sponge and introduced into lab-scale trickling filters. The trickling filters constructed for this study additionally contained stabilised microflora from a functioning wastewater treatment plant to assess the behavior of introduced immobilized biocatalyst in a fully functioning bioremediation system. The immobilised cells degraded naproxen (1 mg/L) faster in the presence of autochthonous microflora than in a monoculture trickling filter. There was also abundant colonization of the loofah sponges by the microorganisms from the system. Analysis of the influence of an acute, short-term naproxen exposure on the indigenous community revealed a significant drop in its diversity and qualitative composition. Bioaugmentation was also not neutral to the microflora. Introducing a new microorganism and increasing the removal of the pollutant caused changes in the microbial community structure and species composition. The incorporation of the immobilised B1(2015b) was successful and the introduced strain colonized the basic carrier in the trickling filter after the complete biodegradation of the naproxen. As a result, the bioremediation system could potentially be used to biodegrade naproxen in the future.