Project description:The bacterial communities colonizing amphibian skin have been intensively studied due to their interactions with pathogenic chytrid fungi that are causing drastic amphibian population declines. Bacteria of the family Alcaligenaceae, and more specifically of the genus Pigmentiphaga, have been found to be associated specifically to arboreal frogs. Here we analyze their occurrence in a previously assembled global skin microbiome dataset from 205 amphibian species. Pigmentiphaga made up about 5% of the total number of reads in this global dataset. They were mostly found in unrelated arboreal frogs from Madagascar (Mantellidae and Hyperoliidae), but also occurred at low abundances on Neotropical frogs. Based on their 16S sequences, most of the sequences belong to a clade within Pigmentiphaga not assignable to any type strains of the five described species of the genus. One isolate from Madagascar clustered with Pigmentiphaga aceris (>99% sequence similarity on 16S rRNA gene level). Here, we report the full genome sequence of this bacterium which, based on 16S sequences of >97% similarity, has previously been found on human skin, floral nectar, tree sap, stream sediment and soil. Its genome consists of a single circular chromosome with 6,165,255 bp, 5,300 predicted coding sequences, 57 tRNA genes, and three rRNA operons. In comparison with other known Pigmentiphaga genomes it encodes a higher number of genes associated with environmental information processing and cellular processes. Furthermore, it has a biosynthetic gene cluster for a nonribosomal peptide syntethase, and bacteriocin biosynthetic genes can be found, but clusters for ?-lactones present in other comparative Pigmentiphaga genomes are lacking.
Project description:Features from two Pigmentiphaga isolates referred to Canada's National Microbiology Laboratory from human clinical materials were described previously (N. Bridger, S. Drews, T. Burdz, D. Wiebe, A. L. Pacheco, B. Ng, and K. Bernard, J Med Microbiol 62:708-711, 2013, https://doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.051615-0). Whole-genome sequencing was performed on strains NML030171 and NML080357; the sequences were found to have 5.86 and 5.73 Mb of clean data and G+C contents of 67.5 and 66.74 mol%, respectively.
Project description:UNLABELLED:This study demonstrates the prevalence, phylogenetic diversity, and physiology of nitrate-reducing microorganisms capable of utilizing reduced humic acids (HA) as electron donors in agricultural soils. Most probable number (MPN) enumeration of agricultural soils revealed large populations (10(4) to 10(6) cells g(-1) soil) of microorganisms capable of reducing nitrate while oxidizing the reduced HA analog 2,6-anthrahydroquinone disulfonate (AH(2)DS) to its corresponding quinone. Nitrate-dependent HA-oxidizing organisms isolated from agricultural soils were phylogenetically diverse and included members of the Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria. Advective up-flow columns inoculated with corn plot soil and amended with reduced HA and nitrate supported both HA oxidation and enhanced nitrate reduction relative to no-donor or oxidized HA controls. The additional electron donating capacity of reduced HA could reasonably be attributed to the oxidation of reduced functional groups. Subsequent 16S rRNA gene-based high-density oligonucleotide microarray (PhyloChip) indicated that reduced HA columns supported the development of a bacterial community enriched with members of the Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, and Betaproteobacteria relative to the no-donor control and initial inoculum. This study identifies a previously unrecognized role for HA in stimulating denitrification processes in saturated soil systems. Furthermore, this study indicates that reduced humic acids impact soil geochemistry and the indigenous bacterial community composition. IMPORTANCE:This study identifies a new metabolic capacity in soil microbial communities that may be responsible for the mediation of significant nitrogen losses from soil systems. Nitrate-dependent humic acid (HA)-oxidizing organisms isolated from agricultural soils were phylogenetically diverse and included members of Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria. Advective up-flow columns inoculated with corn plot soil and amended with reduced HA and nitrate supported both HA oxidation and enhanced nitrate reduction relative to no-donor or oxidized HA controls. The additional electron donating capacity of reduced HA could reasonably be attributed to the oxidation of reduced functional groups.
Project description:Acetamiprid, a chloronicotinyl neonicotinoid insecticide, is among the most commonly used insecticides worldwide, and its environmental fate has caused considerable concern. The compound 1-(6-chloropyridin-3-yl)-N-methylmethanamine (IM 1-4) has been reported to be the main intermediate during acetamiprid catabolism in microorganisms, honeybees, and spinach. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the hydrolysis of acetamiprid to IM 1-4 has not yet been elucidated. In this study, a novel amidase (AceAB) that initially hydrolyzes the C-N bond of acetamiprid to generate IM 1-4 was purified and characterized from the acetamiprid-degrading strain Pigmentiphaga sp. strain D-2. Based on peptide profiling of the purified AceAB and the draft genome sequence of strain D-2, aceA (372?bp) and aceB (2,295?bp), encoding the ? and ? subunits of AceAB, respectively, were cloned and found to be necessary for acetamiprid hydrolysis in strain D-2. The characteristics of AceAB were also systematically investigated. Though AceA and AceB showed 35% to 56% identity to the ? and ? subunits of the N,N-dimethylformamidase from Paracoccus aminophilus, AceAB was specific for the hydrolysis of acetamiprid and showed no activities to N,N-dimethylformamide or its structural analogs.IMPORTANCE Acetamiprid, among the top neonicotinoid insecticides used worldwide, is one of the most important commercial insecticides. Due to its extensive use, the environmental fate of acetamiprid, especially its microbial degradation, has caused considerable concern. Although the catabolic pathways of acetamiprid in microorganisms have been extensively studied, the molecular mechanisms underlying acetamiprid biodegradation (except for a nitrile hydratase) remain largely unknown, and the enzyme responsible for the biotransformation of acetamiprid into its main intermediate, IM 1-4, have not yet been elucidated. The amidase AceAB and its encoding genes, aceA and aceB, characterized in this study, were found to be necessary and specific for the initial hydrolysis of the C-N bond of acetamiprid to generate IM 1-4 in Pigmentiphaga sp. strain D-2. The finding of the novel amidase AceAB will greatly enhance our understanding of the microbial catabolism of the widely used insecticide acetamiprid at the molecular level.
Project description:This is the first study to evaluate the potential application of FGDG as an in situ Pb stabilizer in contaminated soils with two different compositions and to explain the underlying mechanisms. A smelter Pb contaminated soil (SM-soil), rich in ferrihydrite bound Pb (FH-Pb), cerussite and litharge with a total Pb content of 65,123mg/kg and an organic matter rich orchard soil (BO-soil), rich in FH-Pb and humic acid bound Pb with a total Pb content of 1532mg/kg were amended with 5% FGDG (w/w). We subjected the two soils to three leaching tests; toxicity characteristic leaching protocol (TCLP), synthetic precipitation leaching protocol (SPLP), kinetic batch leaching test (KBLT) and in-vitro bioaccessibility assay (IVBA) in order to evaluate the FGDG amendment on Pb stabilization. Solid residues of original and FGDG amended soil were analyzed using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to identify changes in Pb speciation after each leaching test. The leachate Pb concentrations of FGDG amended soil were lower compared to those of in non-amended soil. The linear combination fitting analysis of XAS confirmed the formation of anglesite and leadhillite in FGDG amended soil. FGDG reduced the Pb desorption from ferrihydrite (FH), by forming FH-Pb-SO4 ternary complexes. FGDG decreased the Pb adsorption onto humic acid (HA) possibly due to the release of divalent cations such as Ca and Mg, which can compete with Pb to get adsorbed onto HA. The FGDG can successfully be used to remediate Pb contaminated soil. The efficiency of the treatment highly depends on the soil composition.
2017-01-01 | S-EPMC7316141 | BioStudies
Project description:A novel Xinfangfangia species isolated from soil amended with humic acid
Project description:BACKGROUND: Microbial degradation of azo dyes is commonly initiated by the reduction of the azo bond(s) by a group of NADH or NADPH dependant azoreductases with many requiring flavin as a cofactor. In this study, we report the identification of a novel flavin-free NADPH preferred azoreductase encoded by azoB in Pigmentiphaga kullae K24. RESULTS: The deduced amino acid sequence of azoB from P. kullae K24 showed 61% identity to a previously studied azoreductase (AzoA) from the same strain. azoB encoded a protein of 203 amino acids and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant enzyme was a monomer with a molecular mass of 22 kDa. Both NADH and NADPH can be used as an electron donor for its activity with 4-(4-hydroxy-1-naphthylazo) benzenesulfonic acid (Orange I) as substrate. The apparent Km values for both NADH and Orange I were 170 and 8.6 microM, respectively. The Km of NADPH for the enzyme is 1.0 microM. When NADPH served as the electron donor, the activity of the enzyme is 63% higher than that when NADH was used. The pH and temperature optima for activity of the enzyme with Orange I as the substrate were at pH 6.0 and between 37 and 45 degrees C. Phylogenetic analysis shows that AzoB belongs to the flavin-free azoreductase group which has a key fingerprint motif GXXGXXG for NAD(P)H binding at the N-terminus of the amino acid sequences. The 3D structure of AzoB was generated by comparative modeling approach. The structural combination of three conserved glycine residues (G7xxG10xxG13) in the pyrophosphate-binding loop with the Arg-32 explains the preference for NADPH of AzoB. CONCLUSION: The biochemical and structural properties of AzoB from P. kullae K24 revealed its preference for NADPH over NADH and it is a member of the monomeric flavin-free azoreductase group. Our studies show the substrate specificity of AzoB based on structure and cofactor requirement and the phylogenetic relationship among azoreductase groups.