Project description:Schizochytrium is a promising source for the production of docosahexaenoic acid and astaxanthin. The effects of different methanol concentrations on astaxanthin, biomass, and production of the lipids, squalene, and total sterol in Schizochytrium limacinum B4D1 were investigated. Astaxanthin began to accumulate when the methanol concentration reached 3.2% and peaked at 5.6% methanol, with a 2,000-fold increase over that in the control. However, under cultivation with 5.6% methanol, the biomass, lipids, squalene, and total sterol decreased to various degrees. Transcriptomic analysis was performed to explore the effects of different methanol concentrations (0%, 3.2%, and 5.6%) on the expression profile of B4D1. Three key signaling pathways were found to play important roles in regulating cell growth and metabolism under cultivation with methanol. Five central carbon metabolism-associated genes were significantly downregulated in response to 5.6% methanol and thus were expected to result in less ATP and NADPH being available for cell growth and synthesis. High methanol conditions significantly downregulated three genes involved in fatty acid and squalene/sterol precursor biosynthesis but significantly upregulated geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase, lycopene ?-cyclase, and ?-carotene 3-hydroxylase, which are involved in astaxanthin synthesis, thus resulting in an increase in the levels of precursors and the final production of astaxanthin. Additionally, the transcriptional levels of three stress response genes were upregulated. This study investigates gene expression profiles in the astaxanthin producer Schizochytrium when grown under various methanol concentrations. These results broaden current knowledge regarding genetic expression and provide important information for promoting astaxanthin biosynthesis in Schizochytrium IMPORTANCE Schizochytrium strains are usually studied as oil-producing strains, but they can also synthesize other secondary metabolites, such as astaxanthin. In this study, methanol was used as an inducer, and we explored its effects on the production of astaxanthin, a highly valuable substance in Schizochytrium Methanol induced Schizochytrium to synthesize large amounts of astaxanthin. Transcriptomic analysis was used to investigate the regulation of signaling and metabolic pathways (mainly relative gene expression) in Schizochytrium grown in the presence of various concentrations of methanol. These results contribute to the understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms and may aid in the future optimization of Schizochytrium for astaxanthin biosynthesis.
Project description:Schizochytrium sp. is the best natural resource for omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. We report a high-quality genome sequence of Schizochytrium limacinum SR21, which has a 63 Mb genome size, with a contig N50 of 2.67 Mb and 6,838 protein-coding genes. Phylogenomic and comparative genomic analyses revealed that DHA-producing Schizochytrium and Aurantiochytrium strains were highly similar and possessed similar genes. Analysis of the fatty acid synthase (FAS) for LC-PUFAs production results in the annotation of all genes in map00062 and map01212. A gene cluster and 10 ORFs related to PKS pathway were found in the genome. 1,402 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of the treated groups (0.5 g/L yeast extract) were identified by comparing with the control groups (1.0 g/L yeast extract) at 36 h. A weighted gene coexpression network analysis revealed that 2 of 7 modules correlated highly with the fatty acid and DHA contents. The DEGs and transcription factors were significantly correlated with fatty acid biosynthesis, including MYB, Zinc Finger and ACOX. The results showed that these hub genes are regulated by genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis pathways. The results providing an important reference for further research on promoting fatty acid and DHA accumulation in S. limacinum SR21.
Project description:Omega-3 fatty acids, and specifically docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are important and essential nutrients for human health. Thraustochytrids are recognised as commercial strains for nutraceuticals production, they are group of marine oleaginous microorganisms capable of co-synthesis of DHA and other valuable carotenoids in their cellular compartment. The present study sought to optimize DHA and squalene production by the thraustochytrid Schizochytrium limacinum SR21. The highest biomass yield (0.46?g/gsubstrate) and lipid productivity (0.239?g/gsubstrate) were observed with 60?g/L of glucose, following cultivation in a bioreactor, with the DHA content to be 67.76% w/wtotal lipids. To reduce costs, cheaper feedstocks and simultaneous production of various value-added products for pharmaceutical or energy use should be attempted. To this end, we replaced pure glucose with organosolv-pretreated spruce hydrolysate and assessed the simultaneous production of DHA and squalene from S. limacinum SR21. After the 72?h of cultivation period in bioreactor, the maximum DHA content was observed to 66.72% w/wtotal lipids that was corresponded to 10.15?g/L of DHA concentration. While the highest DHA productivity was 3.38?±?0.27?g/L/d and squalene reached a total of 933.72?±?6.53?mg/L (16.34?±?1.81?mg/gCDW). In summary, we show that the co-production of DHA and squalene makes S. limacinum SR21 appropriate strain for commercial-scale production of nutraceuticals.
Project description:Background:In this study, a two-step processing method (hydrothermal liquefaction followed by catalytic upgrading) was used to produce upgraded bio-oil. A comprehensive screening analysis of algal species, including four microalgae and four macroalgae, was conducted to bridge the gap between previous accounts of microalgae and macroalgae hydrothermal liquefaction and the upgrading process of the resulting crude bio-oils. Results:Hydrothermal liquefaction using eight algal biomasses was performed at 350 °C for 1 h. The microalgae always produced a higher crude bio-oil yield than the macroalgae due to their high lipid content, among which Schizochytrium limacinum provided the maximum crude bio-oil yield of 54.42 wt%. For microalgae, higher amounts of N in the biomass resulted in higher amounts of N in the crude bio-oil; however, contrary results were observed for the macroalgae. The crude bio-oils generated from both the microalgae and macroalgae were characterized as having a high viscosity, total acid number, and heteroatom content, and they were influenced by the biochemical compositions of the feedstocks. Next, all eight-crude bio-oils were treated at 400 °C for 2 h with 10 wt% Ru/C using tetralin as the hydrogen donor. The hydrogen source was provided after tetralin was transformed to naphthalene. All the upgraded bio-oils had higher energy densities and significantly lower N, O, and S contents and viscosities than their corresponding crude bio-oils. However, the H/C molar ratio of the upgraded bio-oils decreased due to the absence of external hydrogen relative to the crude bio-oils. The S content of the upgraded bio-oil produced from upgrading the Schizochytrium limacinum crude bio-oil was even close to the 50 ppm requirement of China IV diesel. Conclusions:Microalgae are better feedstocks than macroalgae for liquid fuel production. Biochemical components have a significant impact on the yield and composition of crude bio-oil. Tetralin does not perform as well as external hydrogen for controlling coke formation. The S content of the upgraded bio-oil can be reduced to 76 ppm for the crude bio-oil produced from Schizochytrium limacinum. Upgraded bio-oils have similar properties to those of naphtha and jet fuel.
Project description:Background:Schizochytrium sp. is a promising strain for the production of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich oil and biodiesel, and has been widely used in the food additive and bioenergy industries. Oxygen is a particularly important environmental factor for cell growth and DHA synthesis. In general, higher oxygen supply favors lipid accumulation, but could lead to a reduction of the DHA percentage in total fatty acids in Schizochytrium sp. To tackle this problem, it is essential to understand the mechanisms regulating the response of Schizochytrium sp. to oxygen. In this study, we aimed to explore the acclimatization of this DHA producer to different oxygen supply conditions by examining the transcriptome changes. Results:Two different fermentation processes, namely normal oxygen supply condition (shift agitation speeds from 400 rpm to 300 rpm) and high oxygen supply condition (constant agitation speeds: 400 rpm), were designed to study how the fermentation characteristics of Schizochytrium sp. HX-308 were affected by different oxygen supply conditions. The results indicated that high oxygen supply condition resulted in 49% and 37.5% improvement in the maximum cell dry weight (CDW) and total lipid concentration, respectively. However, the DHA percentage in total fatty acids decreased to 35%, which was 31.4% lower than that produced by normal oxygen supply condition. Moreover, transcriptome analysis was performed to explore the effect of the oxygen supply condition on genetic expression and metabolism. The results showed that glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway metabolism-associated genes (hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase) were substantially upregulated in response to high oxygen supply, resulting in more NADPH was available for Schizochytrium. Specially, high oxygen supply condition also led to genes (?6 desaturase, ?12 desaturase, FAS, ORFA, ORFB, and ORFC) involved in fatty acid biosynthesis upregulation. In addition, a transcriptional upregulation of catalase (CAT) became apparent under high oxygen supply condition, while superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were found to be down-regulated. Conclusions:This study is the first to investigate the differences of gene expression at different levels of oxygen availability in the DHA producer Schizochytrium. The results of transcriptome analyses indicated that high oxygen supply condition resulting in more NADPH and acetyl-CoA production for cell growth and lipid synthesis in Schizochytrium. ?12 desaturase and ORFC showed higher expression levels at high oxygen supply condition, which might be the key regulators for enhancing fatty acid biosynthesis in the future. These results enrich the current knowledge regarding genetic expression and provide important information to enhance DHA production in Schizochytrium sp.
Project description:Background:Schizochytrium sp. is a marine fungus with great potential as an alternative commercial source of lipids rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). To further increase lipid accumulation in Schizochytrium sp., the effect of exogenous additives has become one of the hotspots of current research. Although benzoic acid derivatives showed positive effects on lipid accumulation in Schizochytrium, the biochemical mechanism needs further investigation. Results:Four benzoic acid derivatives (sodium benzoate, p-aminobenzoic acid, p-methyl benzoic acid and folic acid) were screened and evaluated for their effect on lipid accumulation in Schizochytrium limacinum SR21. The lipid yield was increased by 56.84% with p-aminobenzoic acid (p-ABA) at a concentration of 200 mg/L among the four tested chemical modulators. The metabolomics analysis showed that 200 mg/L p-ABA was optimal for promoting glucose catabolism in glycolysis with an increase in the mevalonate pathway and a weakening of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Moreover, p-ABA increased NADPH generation by enhancing the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), ultimately redirecting the metabolic flux to lipid synthesis. Fed-batch fermentation further proved that p-ABA could significantly increase the yield of lipid by 30.01%, reaching 99.67 g/L, and the lipid content was increased by 35.03%, reaching 71.12%. More importantly, the yields of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were increased by 33.28% and 42.0%, respectively. Conclusion:The addition of p-ABA could promote the synthesis of tetrahydrofolate, enhancing NADPH, which ultimately promoted the flow of carbon flux to lipid synthesis. These findings provide a valuable strategy for improving the lipid accumulation in Schizochytrium by additives.
Project description:Background:Schizochytrium species are known for their abundant production of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Low temperatures can promote the biosynthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in many species. This study investigates low-temperature effects on DHA biosynthesis in Schizochytrium sp. TIO01 and its underlying mechanism. Results:The Schizochytrium fatty acid biosynthesis pathway was evaluated based on de novo genome assembly (contig N50?=?2.86 Mb) and iTRAQ-based protein identification. Our findings revealed that desaturases, involved in DHA synthesis via the fatty acid synthase (FAS) pathway, were completely absent. The polyketide synthase (PKS) pathway and the FAS pathway are, respectively, responsible for DHA and saturated fatty acid synthesis in Schizochytrium. Analysis of fatty acid composition profiles indicates that low temperature has a significant impact on the production of DHA in Schizochytrium, increasing the DHA content from 43 to 65% of total fatty acids. However, the expression levels of PKS pathway genes were not significantly regulated as the DHA content increased. Further, gene expression analysis showed that pathways related to the production of substrates (acetyl-CoA and NADPH) for fatty acid synthesis (the branched-chain amino acid degradation pathway and the pentose phosphate pathway) and genes related to saturated fatty acid biosynthesis (the FAS pathway genes and malic enzyme) were, respectively, upregulated and downregulated. These results indicate that low temperatures increase the DHA content by likely promoting the entry of relatively large amounts of substrates into the PKS pathway. Conclusions:In this study, we provide genomic, proteomic, and transcriptomic evidence for the fatty acid synthesis pathway in Schizochytrium and propose a mechanism by which low temperatures promote the accumulation of DHA in Schizochytrium. The high-quality and nearly complete genome sequence of Schizochytrium provides a valuable reference for investigating the regulation of polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis and the evolutionary characteristics of Thraustochytriidae species.
Project description:Lipid extraction is an integral part of biodiesel production, as it facilitates the release of fatty acids from algal cells. To utilise thraustochytrids as a potential source for lipid production. We evaluated the extraction efficiency of various solvents and solvent combinations for lipid extraction from Schizochytrium sp. S31 and Thraustochytrium sp. AMCQS5-5. The maximum lipid extraction yield was 22% using a chloroform:methanol ratio of 2:1. We compared various cell disruption methods to improve lipid extraction yields, including grinding with liquid nitrogen, bead vortexing, osmotic shock, water bath, sonication and shake mill. The highest lipid extraction yields were obtained using osmotic shock and 48.7% from Schizochytrium sp. S31 and 29.1% from Thraustochytrium sp. AMCQS5-5. Saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid contents were more than 60% in Schizochytrium sp. S31 which suggests their suitability for biodiesel production.
Project description:Chlorella can produce an unusually wide range of metabolites under various nutrient availability, carbon source, and light availability. Glucose, an essential molecule for the growth of microorganisms, also contributes significantly to the metabolism of various metabolic compounds produced by Chlorella. In addition, manipulation of light intensity also induces the formation of secondary metabolites such as pigments, and carotenoids in Chlorella. This study will focus on the effect of glucose addition, and moderate light on the regulation of carotenoid, lipid, starch, and other key metabolic pathways in Chlorella sorokiniana. To gain knowledge about this, we performed transcriptome profiling on C. sorokiniana strain NIES-2168 in response to moderate light stress supplemented with glucose under mixotrophic conditions. A total of 60,982,352 raw paired-end (PE) reads 100 bp in length was obtained from both normal, and mixotrophic samples of C. sorokiniana. After pre-processing, 93.63% high-quality PE reads were obtained, and 18,310 predicted full-length transcripts were assembled. Differential gene expression showed that a total of 937, and 1124 genes were upregulated, and downregulated in mixotrophic samples, respectively. Transcriptome analysis revealed that the mixotrophic condition caused upregulation of genes involved in carotenoids production (specifically lutein biosynthesis), fatty acid biosynthesis, TAG accumulation, and the majority of the carbon fixation pathways. Conversely, starch biosynthesis, sucrose biosynthesis, and isoprenoid biosynthesis were downregulated. Novel insights into the pathways that link the enhanced production of valuable metabolites (such as carotenoids in C. sorokiniana) grown under mixotrophic conditions is presented.
Project description:Cordyceps militaris, a valuable edible and medicinal fungus, has attracted increasing attention because of its various bioactive ingredients. However, the biosynthetic pathway of C. militaris carotenoids is still unknown due to lack of transcriptome information. To uncover genes related to the biosynthesis of C. militaris carotenoids, the transcriptomes of mycelia CM10_D cultured under dark conditions and mycelia CM10_L cultured under light exposure conditions were sequenced. Compared with mycelia CM10_D, 866 up-regulated genes and 856 down-regulated genes were found in mycelia CM10_L. Gene ontology (GO) analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) indicated that DEGs were mainly classified into the "metabolic process," "membrane," and "catalytic activity" terms. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis of DEGs suggested that DEGs were mainly enriched in "metabolic pathways," "MAPK signaling pathway-yeast," and "biosynthesis of secondary metabolites." In addition, the carotenoid content of the Cmtns gene deletion mutant (?Cmtns) was significantly lower than that of the wild-type C. militaris CM10, while the carotenoid content of the complementary strain (?Cmtns-c) of the Cmtns gene was not significantly different from that of C. militaris CM10, suggesting that the Cmtns gene significantly affected the biosynthesis of carotenoids in C. militaris. These results potentially pave the way for revealing the biosynthetic pathway of carotenoids and improving carotenoids production in C. militaris.