Project description:Cyclophosphamide (CTX) is widely used in cancer chemotherapy, but it often induces mucositis, in which the disruption of the gut microbiota might play a pivotal role. Whether the manipulation of the gut microbiota can be used as a strategy to improve CTX-induced mucositis remains to be studied. Here we observed the effects of a 4-week calorie restriction (CR) on CTX-induced mucositis. Compared with ad libitum-fed mice, CR mice showed significantly less mucositis in response to CTX, including lower intestinal permeability, less bacterial translocation, higher number of epithelial stem cells, and less epithelium damage. CTX induced significant shifts of the gut microbiota of the gut microbiota in ad libitum-fed control mice. In contrast, CR mice showed no significant change in their gut microbiota in responding to CTX treatment. CR significantly enriched the gut microbiota in Lactobacillus and Lachnospiraceae which are known to mitigate inflammation and improve gut barrier function. These findings suggest that CR remodeled gut microbiota is more robust and may contribute to attenuate the side effects of cyclophosphamide, which supports the concept that cancer chemotherapy would benefit from strategies targeting the gut microbiota.IMPORTANCE Improving the gut microbiota via calorie restriction is beneficial for human health. Our findings showed differential responses between calorie-restricted mice and ad libitum-fed mice. Compared with the ad libitum-fed mice, the calorie-restricted mice were less susceptible to cyclophosphamide side effects otherwise observed on the gut integrity and its microbiota. These results show the potential benefits of manipulating the gut microbiota with CR prior to cancer chemotherapy.
Project description:Early dysbiosis of the gut microbiota is associated with the severity of acute pancreatitis (AP), although the underlying mechanism is unclear. Here, we investigated the role of crosstalk between NLRP3 and the gut microbiota in the development of AP utilizing gut microbiota deficient mice, as well as NLRP3 knockout (KO) mouse models. Pancreatic damage and systemic inflammation were improved in antibiotic-treated (Abx) and germ-free (GF) mice, accompanied by weakened activity of the intestinal NLRP3 inflammasome. Interestingly, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) reactivated the intestinal NLRP3 inflammasome and exacerbated the disease in Abx and GF mice. Although the gut barrier in GF and Abx mice was disrupted, gut microbiota deficiency ameliorated the severity of AP, probably due to the reduction in bacterial translocation from the gut to the pancreas. The composition of the gut microbiota was significantly different between NLRP3 KO mice and wild-type (WT) mice at baseline, and there were alterations in response to the induction of AP. While a dramatic shift in the gut microbiota with overgrowth of Escherichia-Shigella was observed in WT mice suffering from AP, there was no significant change in NLRP3 KO mice with or without AP, suggesting that NLRP3 deficiency counteracts AP-induced microbial disturbance. With a strengthened gut barrier and decreased systemic inflammation, NLRP3 KO mice showed less severe AP, as revealed by reduced pancreatic neutrophilic infiltration and necrosis. Taken together, these results identified the bidirectional modulation between the gut microbiota and NLRP3 in the progression of AP, which suggests the interplay of the host and microbiome during AP.
Project description:The gut microbiota influences many aspects of host metabolism. We have previously shown that the presence of a gut microbiota remodels lipid composition. Here we investigated how interaction between gut microbiota and dietary lipids regulates lipid composition in the liver and plasma, and gene expression in the liver. Germ-free and conventionally raised mice were fed a lard or fish oil diet for 11 weeks. We performed lipidomics analysis of the liver and serum and microarray analysis of the liver. As expected, most of the variation in the lipidomics dataset was induced by the diet, and abundance of most lipid classes differed between mice fed lard and fish oil. However, the gut microbiota also affected lipid composition. The gut microbiota increased hepatic levels of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters in mice fed lard, but not in mice fed fish oil. Serum levels of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters were not affected by the gut microbiota. Genes encoding enzymes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis were downregulated by the gut microbiota in mice fed lard and were expressed at a low level in mice fed fish oil independent of microbial status. In summary, we show that gut microbiota-induced regulation of hepatic cholesterol metabolism is dependent on dietary lipid composition.
Project description:Advanced age is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, which is usually referred to as inflammaging. Elderly are also known to have an altered gut microbiota composition. However, whether inflammaging is a cause or consequence of an altered gut microbiota composition is not clear. In this study, gut microbiota from young or old conventional mice was transferred to young germ-free (GF) mice. Four weeks after gut microbiota transfer immune cell populations in spleen, Peyer's patches, and mesenteric lymph nodes from conventionalized GF mice were analyzed by flow cytometry. In addition, whole-genome gene expression in the ileum was analyzed by microarray. Gut microbiota composition of donor and recipient mice was analyzed with 16S rDNA sequencing. Here, we show by transferring aged microbiota to young GF mice that certain bacterial species within the aged microbiota promote inflammaging. This effect was associated with lower levels of Akkermansia and higher levels of TM7 bacteria and Proteobacteria in the aged microbiota after transfer. The aged microbiota promoted inflammation in the small intestine in the GF mice and enhanced leakage of inflammatory bacterial components into the circulation was observed. Moreover, the aged microbiota promoted increased T cell activation in the systemic compartment. In conclusion, these data indicate that the gut microbiota from old mice contributes to inflammaging after transfer to young GF mice.
Project description:Transferring gut microbiota from one individual to another may enable researchers to "humanize" the gut of animal models and transfer phenotypes between species. To date, most studies of gut microbiota transfer are performed in germ-free mice. In the studies presented, it was tested whether an antibiotic treatment approach could be used instead. C57BL/6 mice were treated with ampicillin prior to inoculation at weaning or eight weeks of age with gut microbiota from lean or obese donors. The gut microbiota and clinical parameters of the recipients was characterized one and six weeks after inoculation. The results demonstrate, that the donor gut microbiota was introduced, established, and changed the gut microbiota of the recipients. Six weeks after inoculation, the differences persisted, however alteration of the gut microbiota occurred with time within the groups. The clinical parameters of the donor phenotype were partly transmissible from obese to lean mice, in particularly β cell hyperactivity in the obese recipients. Thus, a successful inoculation of gut microbiota was not age dependent in order for the microbes to colonize, and transferring different microbial compositions to conventional antibiotic-treated mice was possible at least for a time period during which the microbiota may permanently modulate important host functions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disorder, and the effective pharmacological treatments for the core autistic symptoms are currently limited. Increasing evidence, particularly that from clinical studies on ASD patients, suggests a functional link between the gut microbiota and the development of ASD. However, the mechanisms linking the gut microbiota with brain dysfunctions (gut-brain axis) in ASD have not yet been full elucidated. Due to its genetic mutations and downregulated expression in patients with ASD, EPHB6, which also plays important roles in gut homeostasis, is generally considered a candidate gene for ASD. Nonetheless, the role and mechanism of EPHB6 in regulating the gut microbiota and the development of ASD are unclear. RESULTS:Here, we found that the deletion of EphB6 induced autism-like behavior and disturbed the gut microbiota in mice. More importantly, transplantation of the fecal microbiota from EphB6-deficient mice resulted in autism-like behavior in antibiotic-treated C57BL/6J mice, and transplantation of the fecal microbiota from wild-type mice ameliorated the autism-like behavior in EphB6-deficient mice. At the metabolic level, the disturbed gut microbiota in EphB6-deficient mice led to vitamin B6 and dopamine defects. At the cellular level, the excitation/inhibition (E/I) balance in the medial prefrontal cortex was regulated by gut microbiota-mediated vitamin B6 in EphB6-deficient mice. CONCLUSIONS:Our study uncovers a key role for the gut microbiota in the regulation of autism-like social behavior by vitamin B6, dopamine, and the E/I balance in EphB6-deficient mice, and these findings suggest new strategies for understanding and treating ASD. Video abstract.
Project description:Gut microbiota dysbiosis has been implicated in a variety of systemic disorders, notably metabolic diseases including obesity and impaired liver function, but the underlying mechanisms are uncertain. To investigate this question, we transferred caecal microbiota from either obese or lean mice to antibiotic-free, conventional wild-type mice. We found that transferring obese-mouse gut microbiota to mice on normal chow (NC) acutely reduces markers of hepatic gluconeogenesis with decreased hepatic PEPCK activity, compared to non-inoculated mice, a phenotypic trait blunted in conventional NOD2 KO mice. Furthermore, transferring of obese-mouse microbiota changes both the gut microbiota and the microbiome of recipient mice. We also found that transferring obese gut microbiota to NC-fed mice then fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) acutely impacts hepatic metabolism and prevents HFD-increased hepatic gluconeogenesis compared to non-inoculated mice. Moreover, the recipient mice exhibit reduced hepatic PEPCK and G6Pase activity, fed glycaemia and adiposity. Conversely, transfer of lean-mouse microbiota does not affect markers of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Our findings provide a new perspective on gut microbiota dysbiosis, potentially useful to better understand the aetiology of metabolic diseases.
Project description:Triptolide is beneficial for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC), which is closely related to the gut microbiota. However, whether the therapeutic effects of triptolide involve the regulation of the gut microbiota is still unclear. In the present study, animal models of UC mice induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) were established, the changes of gut microbiota in mice were detected by high-throughput sequencing. The effects of triptolide on DSS-induced UC mouse and its gut microbiota were studied. As a result, we found that triptolide exerted anti-inflammatory and therapeutic effects on UC mice. Sequencing results for the gut microbiota showed that the composition of the gut microbiota from DSS group was disordered as compared with that from the control group, consistent with a decrease in the abundance of flora. Triptolide treatment accelerated the recovery of the population of the gut microbiota and significantly improved the microbial diversity. At the phylum level, the population of Bacteroidetes decreased and that of Firmicutes increased. At the genus level, Bacteroides and Lachnospiraceae counts decreased. Thus, triptolide could regulate the composition of the gut microbiota, accelerate the recovery of microbiota, and exert good therapeutic effects in UC mice. Our results also revealed that fecal transplantation from triptolide-treated mice could relieve UC. This study provides a reference for the rational use of triptolide for the treatment of UC.
Project description:Advanced age is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, which is usually referred to as inflammaging. Elderly are also known to have an altered gut microbiota composition. However, whether inflammaging is a cause or consequence of an altered gut microbiota composition is not clear. In this study gut microbiota from young or old conventional mice was transferred to young germ-free mice. Four weeks after gut microbiota transfer immune cell populations in spleen, Peyer’s patches, and mesenteric lymph nodes from conventionalized germ-free mice were analyzed by flow cytometry. In addition, whole-genome gene expression in the ileum was analyzed by microarray. Gut microbiota composition of donor and recipient mice was analyzed with 16S rDNA sequencing. Here we show by transferring aged microbiota to young germ-free mice that certain bacterial species within the aged microbiota promote inflammaging. This effect was associated with lower levels of Akkermansia and higher levels of TM7 bacteria and Proteobacteria in the aged microbiota after transfer. The aged microbiota promoted inflammation in the small intestine in the germ-free mice and enhanced leakage of inflammatory bacterial components into the circulation was observed. Moreover, the aged microbiota promoted increased T cell activation in the systemic compartment. In conclusion, these data indicate that the gut microbiota from old mice contributes to inflammaging after transfer to young germ-free mice. Overall design: Gut microbiota from young or old conventional mice was transferred to young germ-free mice. Four weeks after gut microbiota transfer whole-genome gene expression in the distal ileum was analyzed by microarray.
Project description:There have been attempts to reveal the possible associations between systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and gut microbiota. Using MRL/lpr mice, this study was performed to reveal whether early and short-term interventions in gut microbiota affect lupus. MRL/lpr mice were treated with antibiotics or fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) before onset. Then, prednisone was used to treat the lupus mice with initially different gut microbiota compositions. The compositions of gut microbiota were assessed by the V3-V4 region of 16S rRNA gene sequence. Early and short-term antibiotics exposure aggravated lupus severity by depleting beneficial gut microbiota for lupus, such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, and enriching harmful gut microbiota for lupus, such as Klebsiella and Proteus. FMT alleviated lupus severity by renovating the antibiotic-induced dysbiosis of gut microbiota in the following 1 week after antibiotics exposure. Besides, short-term antibiotics exposure before onset imposed no significant effects on lupus progression, but the following one week of FMT suppressed lupus progression. Moreover, the short-term antibiotics or FMT before onset inhibited the therapeutic efficiency of prednisone on lupus from 9 to 13 weeks old of MRL/lpr mice. These data demonstrate that the gut microbiota before onset is important for lupus severity, progression and treatment.