Project description:Eukaryotic cells have evolved a nuclear quality control (QC) system to monitor the co-transcriptional mRNA processing and packaging reactions that lead to the formation of export-competent ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs). Aberrant mRNPs that fail to pass the QC steps are retained in the nucleus and eliminated by the exonuclease activity of Rrp6. It is still unclear how the surveillance system is precisely coordinated both physically and functionally with the transcription machinery to detect the faulty events that may arise at each step of transcript elongation and mRNP formation. To dissect the QC mechanism, we previously implemented a powerful assay based on global perturbation of mRNP biogenesis in yeast by the bacterial Rho helicase. By monitoring model genes, we have shown that the QC process is coordinated by Nrd1, a component of the NNS complex (Nrd1-Nab3-Sen1) involved in termination, processing and decay of ncRNAs which is recruited by the CTD of RNAP II. Here, we have extended our investigations by analyzing the QC behaviour over the whole yeast genome. We performed high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to survey a large collection of mRNPs whose biogenesis is affected by Rho action and which can be rescued upon Rrp6 depletion. This genome-wide perspective was extended by generating high-resolution binding landscapes (ChIP-seq) of QC components along the yeast chromosomes before and after perturbation of mRNP biogenesis. Our results show that perturbation of mRNP biogenesis redistributes the QC components over the genome with a significant hijacking of Nrd1 and Nab3 from genomic loci producing ncRNAs to Rho-affected protein-coding genes, triggering termination and processing defects of ncRNAs.
Project description:In order to dissect the nuclear RNA quality control (QC) mechanisms, we used a powerful assay based on global perturbation of mRNP biogenesis in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the bacterial Rho helicase. We have monitored the global RNA levels upon Rho activation and compare it to basal RNA level in WT strain, which have revealed down-regulated transcripts. Then, the same experiment was performed but in a strain lacking Rrp47, giving us a precise overview of the QC targets. We also followed some QC components (Nrd1, Nab3, Trf4 and Rrp6) along the yeast chromosomes by ChIP-seq before and after perturbation of mRNP biogenesis by Rho (crosslinked dataset).
Project description:In order to dissect the nuclear RNA quality control (QC) mechanisms, we used a powerful assay based on global perturbation of mRNP biogenesis in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the bacterial Rho helicase. We have monitored the global RNA levels upon Rho activation and compare it to basal RNA level in WT strain, which have revealed down-regulated transcripts. Then, the same experiment was performed but in a strain lacking Rrp47, giving us a precise overview of the QC targets (crosslinked dataset). We also followed some QC components (Nrd1, Nab3, Trf4 and Rrp6) along the yeast chromosomes by ChIP-seq before (NI) and after (I) perturbation of mRNP biogenesis by Rho.
Project description:The eukaryotic RNA exosome is a highly conserved multi-subunit complex that catalyzes degradation and processing of coding and noncoding RNA. A noncatalytic nine-subunit exosome core interacts with Rrp44 and Rrp6, two subunits that possess processive and distributive 3'-to-5' exoribonuclease activity, respectively. While both Rrp6 and Rrp44 are responsible for RNA processing in budding yeast, Rrp6 may play a more prominent role in processing, as it has been demonstrated to be inhibited by stable RNA secondary structure in vitro and because the null allele in budding yeast leads to the buildup of specific structured RNA substrates. Human RRP6, otherwise known as PM/SCL-100 or EXOSC10, shares sequence similarity to budding yeast Rrp6 and is proposed to catalyze 3'-to-5' exoribonuclease activity on a variety of nuclear transcripts including ribosomal RNA subunits, RNA that has been poly-adenylated by TRAMP, as well as other nuclear RNA transcripts destined for processing and/or destruction. To characterize human RRP6, we expressed the full-length enzyme as well as truncation mutants that retain catalytic activity, compared their activities to analogous constructs for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rrp6, and determined the X-ray structure of a human construct containing the exoribonuclease and HRDC domains that retains catalytic activity. Structural data show that the human active site is more exposed when compared to the yeast structure, and biochemical data suggest that this feature may play a role in the ability of human RRP6 to productively engage and degrade structured RNA substrates more effectively than the analogous budding yeast enzyme.
Project description:RNA surveillance factors are involved in heterochromatin regulation in yeast and plants, but less is known about the possible roles of ribonucleases in the heterochromatin of animal cells. Here we show that RRP6, one of the catalytic subunits of the exosome, is necessary for silencing heterochromatic repeats in the genome of Drosophila melanogaster. We show that a fraction of RRP6 is associated with heterochromatin, and the analysis of the RRP6 interaction network revealed physical links between RRP6 and the heterochromatin factors HP1a, SU(VAR)3-9 and RPD3. Moreover, genome-wide studies of RRP6 occupancy in cells depleted of SU(VAR)3-9 demonstrated that SU(VAR)3-9 contributes to the tethering of RRP6 to a subset of heterochromatic loci. Depletion of the exosome ribonucleases RRP6 and DIS3 stabilizes heterochromatic transcripts derived from transposons and repetitive sequences, and renders the heterochromatin less compact, as shown by micrococcal nuclease and proximity-ligation assays. Such depletion also increases the amount of HP1a bound to heterochromatic transcripts. Taken together, our results suggest that SU(VAR)3-9 targets RRP6 to a subset of heterochromatic loci where RRP6 degrades chromatin-associated non-coding RNAs in a process that is necessary to maintain the packaging of the heterochromatin.
Project description:Messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs) move randomly within nucleoplasm before they exit from the nucleus. To further understand mRNP trafficking, we have studied the intranuclear movement of a specific mRNP, the BR2 mRNP, in salivary gland cells in Chironomus tentans. Their polytene nuclei harbor giant chromosomes separated by vast regions of nucleoplasm, which allows us to study mRNP mobility without interference of chromatin. The particles were fluorescently labeled with microinjected oligonucleotides (DNA or RNA) complementary to BR2 mRNA or with the RNA-binding protein hrp36, the C. tentans homologue of hnRNP A1. Using high-speed laser microscopy, we followed the intranuclear trajectories of single mRNPs and characterized their motion within the nucleoplasm. The Balbiani ring (BR) mRNPs moved randomly, but unexpectedly, in a discontinuous manner. When mobile, they diffused with a diffusion coefficient corresponding to their size. Between mobile phases, the mRNPs were slowed down 10- to 250-fold but were never completely immobile. Earlier electron microscopy work has indicated that BR particles can attach to thin nonchromatin fibers, which are sometimes connected to discrete fibrogranular clusters. We propose that the observed discontinuous movement reflects transient interactions between freely diffusing BR particles and these submicroscopic structures.
Project description:The RNA-processing exosome contains ribonucleases that degrade aberrant RNAs in archael and eukaryotic cells. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the nuclear/nucleolar 3'-5' exoribonuclease Rrp6 distinguishes the nuclear exosome from the cytoplasmic exosome. In vivo, the TRAMP complex enhances the ability of the nuclear exosome to destroy some aberrant RNAs. Previous reports showed that purified TRAMP enhanced RNA degradation by the nuclear exosome in vitro. However, the exoribonucleolytic component(s) of the nuclear exosome enhanced by TRAMP remain unidentified. We show that TRAMP does not significantly enhance RNA degradation by purified exosomes lacking Rrp6 in vitro, suggesting that TRAMP activation experiments with nuclear exosome preparations reflect, in part, effects on the activity of Rrp6. Consistent with this, we show that incubation of purified TRAMP with recombinant Rrp6 results in a 10-fold enhancement of the rate of RNA degradation. This increased activity results from enhancement of the hydrolytic activity of Rrp6 because TRAMP cannot enhance the activity of an Rrp6 mutant lacking a key amino acid side chain in its active site. We observed no ATP or polyadenylation dependence for the enhancement of Rrp6 activity by TRAMP, suggesting that neither the poly(A) polymerase activity of Trf4 nor the helicase activity of Mtr4 plays a role in the enhancement. These findings identify TRAMP as an exosome-independent enhancer of Rrp6 activity.
Project description:The eukaryotic RNA exosome processes and degrades RNA by directing substrates to the distributive or processive 3' to 5' exoribonuclease activities of Rrp6 or Rrp44, respectively. The non-catalytic nine-subunit exosome core (Exo9) features a prominent central channel. Although RNA can pass through the channel to engage Rrp44, it is not clear how RNA is directed to Rrp6 or whether Rrp6 uses the central channel. Here we report a 3.3 Å crystal structure of a ten-subunit RNA exosome complex from Saccharomyces cerevisiae composed of the Exo9 core and Rrp6 bound to single-stranded poly(A) RNA. The Rrp6 catalytic domain rests on top of the Exo9 S1/KH ring above the central channel, the RNA 3' end is anchored in the Rrp6 active site, and the remaining RNA traverses the S1/KH ring in an opposite orientation to that observed in a structure of a Rrp44-containing exosome complex. Solution studies with human and yeast RNA exosome complexes suggest that the RNA path to Rrp6 is conserved and dependent on the integrity of the S1/KH ring. Although path selection to Rrp6 or Rrp44 is stochastic in vitro, the fate of a particular RNA may be determined in vivo by the manner in which cofactors present RNA to the RNA exosome.
Project description:The yeast RNA exosome is a eukaryotic ribonuclease complex essential for RNA processing, surveillance, and turnover. It is comprised of a barrel-shaped core and cap as well as a 3'-5' ribonuclease known as Dis3 that contains both endo- and exonuclease domains. A second exonuclease, Rrp6, is added in the nucleus. Dis3 and Rrp6 have both shared and distinct roles in RNA metabolism, and this review will focus primarily on Rrp6 and the roles of the RNA exosome in the nucleus. The functions of the nuclear exosome are modulated by cofactors and interacting partners specific to each type of substrate. Generally, the cofactor TRAMP (Trf4/5-Air2/1-Mtr4 polyadenylation) complex helps unwind unstable RNAs, RNAs requiring processing such as rRNAs, tRNAs, or snRNAs or improperly processed RNAs and direct it toward the exosome. In yeast, Rrp6 interacts with Nrd1, the cap-binding complex, and RNA polymerase II to aid in nascent RNA processing, termination, and polyA tail length regulation. Recent studies have shown that proper termination and processing of short, noncoding RNAs by Rrp6 is particularly important for transcription regulation across the genome and has important implications for regulation of diverse processes at the cellular level. Loss of proper Rrp6 and exosome activity may contribute to various pathologies such as autoimmune disease, neurological disorders, and cancer. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:91-104. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1317 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.