ABSTRACT: Strain Bifidobacterium longum TSDC17.1-1.1 (species Bifidobacterium longum) was isolated from the fecal microbiota of a USA female at time point zero (bacterial isolates were sequenced from this donor on day 0 and 49). The species name was assigned by genome clustering.
Project description:Bifidobacteria are among the most abundant microorganisms inhabiting the intestine of humans and many animals. Within the genus Bifidobacterium, several beneficial effects have been attributed to strains belonging to the subspecies Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis, which are often found in infants and adults. The increasing numbers of sequenced genomes belonging to these two subspecies, and the availability of novel computational tools focused on predicting glycolytic abilities, with the aim of understanding the capabilities of degrading specific carbohydrates, allowed us to depict the potential glycoside hydrolases (GH) of these bacteria, with a focus on those GH profiles that differ in the two subspecies. We performed an in silico examination of 188 sequenced B. longum genomes and depicted the commonly present and strain-specific GHs and GH families among representatives of this species. Additionally, GH profiling, genome-based and 16S rRNA-based clustering analyses showed that the subspecies assignment of some strains does not properly match with their genetic background. Furthermore, the analysis of the potential GH component allowed the distinction of clear GH patterns. Some of the GH activities, and their link with the two subspecies under study, are further discussed. Overall, our in silico analysis poses some questions about the suitability of considering the GH activities of B. longum subsp. longum and B. longum subsp. infantis to gain insight into the characterization and classification of these two subspecies with probiotic interest.
Project description:Strain Bifidobacterium longum TSDC17.1-1.2 (species Bifidobacterium longum) was isolated from the fecal microbiota of a USA female at time point zero (bacterial isolates were sequenced from this donor on day 0 and 49). The species name was assigned by genome clustering.
Project description:Bifidobacteria are a major component of the intestinal microbiota in humans, particularly breast-fed infants. Therefore, elucidation of the mechanisms by which these bacteria colonize the intestine is desired. One approach is transposon mutagenesis, a technique currently attracting much attention because, in combination with next-generation sequencing, it enables exhaustive identification of genes that contribute to microbial fitness. We now describe a transposon mutagenesis system for Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum 105-A (JCM 31944) based on ISBlo11, a native IS3 family insertion sequence. To build this system, xylose-inducible or constitutive bifidobacterial promoters were tested to drive the expression of full-length or a truncated form at the N terminus of the ISBlo11 transposase. An artificial transposon plasmid, pBFS12, in which ISBlo11 terminal inverted repeats are separated by a 3-bp spacer, was also constructed to mimic the transposition intermediate of IS3 elements. The introduction of this plasmid into a strain expressing transposase resulted in the insertion of the plasmid with an efficiency of >103 CFU/?g DNA. The plasmid targets random 3- to 4-bp sequences, but with a preference for noncoding regions. This mutagenesis system also worked at least in B. longum NCC2705. Characterization of a transposon insertion mutant revealed that a putative ?-glucosidase mediates palatinose and trehalose assimilation, demonstrating the suitability of transposon mutagenesis for loss-of-function analysis. We anticipate that this approach will accelerate functional genomic studies of B. longum subsp. longumIMPORTANCE Several hundred species of bacteria colonize the mammalian intestine. However, the genes that enable such bacteria to colonize and thrive in the intestine remain largely unexplored. Transposon mutagenesis, combined with next-generation sequencing, is a promising tool to comprehensively identify these genes but has so far been applied only to a small number of intestinal bacterial species. In this study, a transposon mutagenesis system was established for Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum, a representative health-promoting Bifidobacterium species. The system enables the identification of genes that promote colonization and survival in the intestine and should help illuminate the physiology of this species.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Members of the genus Bifidobacterium are abundant in the feces of babies during the exclusively-milk-diet period of life. Bifidobacterium longum is reported to be a common member of the infant fecal microbiota. However, B. longum is composed of three subspecies, two of which are represented in the bowel microbiota (B. longum subsp. longum; B. longum subsp. infantis). B. longum subspecies are not differentiated in many studies, so that their prevalence and relative abundances are not accurately known. This may largely be due to difficulty in assigning subspecies identity using DNA sequences of 16S rRNA or tuf genes that are commonly used in bacterial taxonomy. METHODS:We developed a qPCR method targeting the sialidase gene (subsp. infantis) and sugar kinase gene (subsp. longum) to differentiate the subspecies using specific primers and probes. Specificity of the primers/probes was tested by in silico, pangenomic search, and using DNA from standard cultures of bifidobacterial species. The utility of the method was further examined using DNA from feces that had been collected from infants inhabiting various geographical regions. RESULTS:A pangenomic search of the NCBI genomic database showed that the PCR primers/probes targeted only the respective genes of the two subspecies. The primers/probes showed total specificity when tested against DNA extracted from the gold standard strains (type cultures) of bifidobacterial species detected in infant feces. Use of the qPCR method with DNA extracted from the feces of infants of different ages, delivery method and nutrition, showed that subsp. infantis was detectable (0-32.4% prevalence) in the feces of Australian (n = 90), South-East Asian (n = 24), and Chinese babies (n = 91), but in all cases at low abundance (<0.01-4.6%) compared to subsp. longum (0.1-33.7% abundance; 21.4-100% prevalence). DISCUSSION:Our qPCR method differentiates B. longum subspecies longum and infantis using characteristic functional genes. It can be used as an identification aid for isolates of bifidobacteria, as well as in determining prevalence and abundance of the subspecies in feces. The method should thus be useful in ecological studies of the infant gut microbiota during early life where an understanding of the ecology of bifidobacterial species may be important in developing interventions to promote infant health.
Project description:Bifidobacterium longum strains predominate in the colonic microbiota of breast-fed infants. Here we report the complete genome sequence of B. longum subsp. longum KACC 91563, isolated from feces of neonates. A single circular chromosome of 2,385,301 bp contains 1,980 protein-coding genes, 56 tRNA genes, and 3 rRNA operons.
Project description:Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum represents one of the most prevalent bifidobacterial species in the infant, adult and elderly (human) gut. In the current study, we performed a comparative genome analysis involving 145 B. longum representatives, including 113 B. longum subsp. longum strains obtained from healthy Japanese subjects aged between 0 and 98 years. Although MCL clustering did not reveal any correlation between isolated strains and subject age, certain characteristics appear to be more prevalent among strains corresponding to specific host ages, such as genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and environmental response. Remarkably, a substantial number of strains appeared to have been transmitted across family members, a phenomenon that was shown not to be confined to mother-infant pairs. This suggests that the ubiquitous distribution of B. longum subsp. longum across the human lifespan is at least partly due to extensive transmission between relatives. Our findings form a foundation for future research aimed at unraveling the mechanisms that allow B. longum strains to successfully transfer between human hosts, where they then colonize and persist in the gut environment throughout the host's lifespan.
Project description:Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum is among the dominant species of the human gastrointestinal microbiota and could thus have potential as probiotics. New targets such as antioxidant properties have interest for beneficial effects on health. The objective of this study was to evaluate the bioaccessibility of antioxidants in milk fermented by selected B. longum subsp. longum strains during in vitro dynamic digestion. The antioxidant capacity of cell extracts from 38 strains, of which 32 belong to B. longum subsp. longum, was evaluated with the ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) method. On the basis of screening and gene sequence typing by multilocus locus sequence analysis (MLSA), five strains were chosen for fermenting reconstituted skim milk. Antioxidant capacity varied among the strains tested (P = 0.0009). Two strains of B. longum subsp. longum (CUETM 172 and 171) showed significantly higher ORAC values than the other bifidobacteria strains. However, there does not appear to be a relationship between gene sequence types and antioxidant capacity. The milk fermented by each of the five strains selected (CUETM 268, 172, 245, 247, or PRO 16-10) did not have higher initial ORAC values compared to the nonfermented milk samples. However, higher bioaccessibility of antioxidants in fermented milk (175-358%) was observed during digestion.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The importance of the gut microbiota at the early stage of life and their longitudinal effect on host health have recently been well investigated. In particular, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum, a common component of infant gut microbiota, appears in the gut shortly after birth and can be detected there throughout an individual's lifespan. However, it remains unclear whether this species colonizes in the gut over the long term from early infancy. Here, we investigated the long-term colonization of B. longum subsp. longum by comparing the genotypes of isolates obtained at different time points from individual subjects. Strains were isolated over time from the feces of 12 subjects followed from early infancy (the first six months of life) up to childhood (approximately six years of age). We also considered whether the strains were transmitted from their mothers' perinatal samples (prenatal feces and postnatal breast milk). RESULTS:Intra-species diversity of B. longum subsp. longum was observed in some subjects' fecal samples collected in early infancy and childhood, as well as in the prenatal fecal samples of their mothers. Among the highlighted strains, several were confirmed to colonize and persist in single individuals from as early as 90?days of age for more than six years; these were classified as long-term colonizers. One of the long-term colonizers was also detected from the corresponding mother's postnatal breast milk. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction data suggested that these long-term colonizers persisted in the subjects' gut despite the existence of the other predominant species of Bifidobacterium. CONCLUSIONS:Our results showed that several strains belonging to B. longum subsp. longum colonized in the human gut from early infancy through more than six years, confirming the existence of long-term colonizers from this period. Moreover, the results suggested that these strains persisted in the subjects' gut while co-existing with the other predominant bifidobacterial species. Our findings also suggested the importance of microbial-strain colonization in early infancy relative to their succession and showed the possibility that probiotics targeting infants might have longitudinal effects. TRIAL REGISTRATION:TRN: ISRCTN25216339 . Date of registration: 11/03/2016. Prospectively registered.
Project description:Strain Bifidobacterium adolescentis TSDC17.1-1.1 (species Bifidobacterium adolescentis) was isolated from the fecal microbiota of a USA female at time point zero (bacterial isolates were sequenced from this donor on day 0 and 49). The species name was assigned by genome clustering.
Project description:We constructed a deletion mutant of the pyrE gene in Bifidobacterium longum 105-A. A pyrE knockout cassette was cloned into pKKT427, a Bifidobacterium-Escherichia coli shuttle vector, and then introduced into B. longum 105-A by electroporation. The transformants were propagated and spread onto MRS plates containing 5-fluoroorotic acid (5-FOA) and uracil. 5-FOA-resistant mutants were obtained at a frequency of 4.7 × 10(-5) integrations per cell. To perform pyrE gene complementation, the pyrE gene was amplified by PCR and used to construct a complementation plasmid (pKKT427-pyrE (+)). B. longum 105-A ?pyrE harboring this plasmid could not grow on MRS plates containing 5-FOA, uracil and spectinomycin. We also developed a chemically defined medium (bifidobacterial minimal medium; BMM) containing inorganic salts, glucose, vitamins, isoleucine and tyrosine for positive selection of pyrE transformants. B. longum 105-A ?pyrE could not grow on BMM agar, but the same strain harboring pKKT427-pyrE (+) could. Thus, pyrE can be used as a counterselection marker in B. longum 105-A and potentially other Bifidobacterium species as well. We demonstrated the effectiveness of this system by constructing a knockout mutant of the xynF gene in B. longum 105-A by using the pyrE gene as a counterselection marker. This pyrE-based selection system will contribute to genetic studies of bifidobacteria.