Transplant experiment of surface and bathypelagic prokaryotes
ABSTRACT: Transplant Experiment with ocean surface and bathypelagic prokaryotic communities to compare the changes in community structure of those communities exposed to the same environmental conditions
Project description:In the bathypelagic realm of the ocean, the role of marine snow as a carbon and energy source for the deep-sea biota and as a potential hotspot of microbial diversity and activity has not received adequate attention. Here, we collected bathypelagic marine snow by gentle gravity filtration of sea water onto 30??m filters from ~1000 to 3900?m to investigate the relative distribution of eukaryotic microbes. Compared with sediment traps that select for fast-sinking particles, this method collects particles unbiased by settling velocity. While prokaryotes numerically exceeded eukaryotes on marine snow, eukaryotic microbes belonging to two very distant branches of the eukaryote tree, the fungi and the labyrinthulomycetes, dominated overall biomass. Being tolerant to cold temperature and high hydrostatic pressure, these saprotrophic organisms have the potential to significantly contribute to the degradation of organic matter in the deep sea. Our results demonstrate that the community composition on bathypelagic marine snow differs greatly from that in the ambient water leading to wide ecological niche separation between the two environments.
Project description:In this work, we study the diversity of bathypelagic microbial eukaryotes (0.8-20??m) in the global ocean. Seawater samples from 3000 to 4000?m depth from 27 stations in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans were analyzed by pyrosequencing the V4 region of the 18S ribosomal DNA. The relative abundance of the most abundant operational taxonomic units agreed with the results of a parallel metagenomic analysis, suggesting limited PCR biases in the tag approach. Although rarefaction curves for single stations were seldom saturated, the global analysis of all sequences together suggested an adequate recovery of bathypelagic diversity. Community composition presented a large variability among samples, which was poorly explained by linear geographic distance. In fact, the similarity between communities was better explained by water mass composition (26% of the variability) and the ratio in cell abundance between prokaryotes and microbial eukaryotes (21%). Deep diversity appeared dominated by four taxonomic groups (Collodaria, Chrysophytes, Basidiomycota and MALV-II) appearing in different proportions in each sample. Novel diversity amounted to 1% of the pyrotags and was lower than expected. Our study represents an essential step in the investigation of bathypelagic microbial eukaryotes, indicating dominating taxonomic groups and suggesting idiosyncratic assemblages in distinct oceanic regions.
Project description:DNA barcode sequences were developed from 557 mesopelagic and upper bathypelagic teleost specimens collected in waters off Atlantic Canada. Confident morphological identifications were available for 366 specimens, of 118 species and 93 genera, which yielded 328 haplotypes. Five of the species were novel to the Barcode of Life Database (BOLD). Most of the 118 species conformed to expectations of monophyly and the presence of a "barcode gap", though some known weaknesses in existing taxonomy were confirmed and a deficiency in published keys was revealed. Of the specimens for which no firm morphological identification was available, 156 were successfully identified to species, and a further 11 to genus, using their barcode sequences and a combination of distance- and character-based methods. The remaining 24 specimens were from species for which no reference barcode is yet available or else ones confused by apparent misidentification of publicly available sequences in BOLD. Addition of the new sequences to those previously in BOLD contributed support to recent taxonomic revisions of Chiasmodon and Poromitra, while it also revealed 18 cases of potential cryptic speciation. Most of the latter appear to result from genetic divergence among populations in different ocean basins, while the general lack of strong horizontal environmental gradients within the deep sea has allowed morphology to be conserved. Other examples of divergence appear to distinguish individuals living under the sub-tropical gyre of the North Atlantic from those under that ocean's sub-polar gyre. In contrast, the available sequences for two myctophid species, Benthosema glaciale and Notoscopelus elongatus, showed genetic structuring on finer geographic scales. The observed structure was not consistent with recent suggestions that "resident" populations of myctophids can maintain allopatry despite the mixing of ocean waters. Rather, it indicates that the very rapid speciation characteristic of the Myctophidae is both on-going and detectable using barcodes.
Project description:Bathypelagic gene collection (M-GeneDB), Metagenome Assembled Genomes (MAGs) sequences and associated data from 58 metagenomes from the Global Deep Ocean (~4000 m) collected during the Malaspina 2010 expedition (http://www.expedicionmalaspina.es; Duarte 2015) corresponding to 32 different sampling stations globally distributed across the world’s tropical and sub-tropical oceans. This data are associated to the publication Acinas et al., 2020 "Metabolic Architecture of the Deep Ocean Microbiome".
Project description:Marine Crenarchaeota, ubiquitous and abundant organisms in the oceans worldwide, remain metabolically uncharacterized, largely due to their low cultivability. Identification of candidate genes for bicarbonate fixation pathway in the Cenarchaeum symbiosum A was an initial step in understanding the physiology and ecology of marine Crenarchaeota. Recent cultivation and genome sequencing of obligate chemoautotrophic Nitrosopumilus maritimus SCM1 were a major breakthrough towards understanding of their functioning and provide a valuable model for experimental validation of genomic data. Here we present the identification of multiple key components of 3-hydroxipropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate cycle, the fifth pathway in carbon fixation, found in data sets of environmental sequences representing uncultivated superficial and bathypelagic Crenarchaeota from Sargasso sea (GOS data set) and KM3 (Mediterranean Sea) and ALOHA (Atlantic ocean) stations. These organisms are likely to use acetyl-CoA/propionyl-CoA carboxylase(s) as CO?-fixing enzyme(s) to form succinyl-CoA, from which one molecule of acetyl-CoA is regenerated via 4-hydroxybutyrate cleavage and another acetyl-CoA to be the pathway product. The genetic distinctiveness and matching sympatric abundance imply that marine crenarchaeal genotypes from the three different geographic sites share similar ecophysiological properties, and therefore may represent fundamental units of marine ecosystem functioning. To couple results of sequence comparison with the dark ocean primary production, dissolved inorganic carbon fixation rates were measured at KM3 Station (3000 m depth, Eastern Mediterranean Sea), i.e. at the same site and depth used for metagenomic library construction.
Project description:The study site located in the Mediterranean Sea was visited eight times in 2005 and 2006 to collect samples from the epipelagic (5 m), mesopelagic (200 m, 600 m), and bathypelagic (1,000 m, 2,000 m) zones. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA PCR (RAPD-PCR) analysis was used to obtain fingerprints from microbial and viral size fractions using two different primers each. Depending on the primer used, the number of bands in the water column varied between 12 to 24 and 6 to 19 for the microbial size fraction and between 16 to 26 and 8 to 22 for the viral size fraction. The majority of sequences from the microbial fraction was related to Alphaproteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Eukaryota. Only 9% of sequences obtained from the viral fraction were of identifiable viral origin; however, 76% of sequences had no close relatives in the nr database of GenBank. Only 20.1% of complete phage genomes tested in silico resulted in potential RAPD-PCR products, and only 12% of these were targeted by both primers. Also, in silico analysis indicated that RAPD-PCR profiles obtained by the two different primers are largely representative of two different subsets of the viral community. Also, correlation analyses and Mantel tests indicate that the links between changes in the microbial and viral community were strongest in the bathypelagic. Thus, these results suggest a strong codevelopment of virus and host communities in deep waters. The data also indicate that virus communities in the bathypelagic zone can exhibit substantial temporal dynamics.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although liver transplantation may potentially cure hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the risk of HCC recurrence is 8%-20% at five years post-transplant. Pre-transplant alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is a predictor of HCC recurrence, but it is unknown if pre-transplant AFP also predicts survival in patients with recurrence. METHODS:We performed a retrospective cohort study using the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) database between 2002 and 2016. We identified adult transplant recipients with HCC recurrence after liver transplantation for HCC and used Cox regression to compare patient survival among different maximum pre-transplant AFP levels. RESULTS:The cohort (N = 1164) was primarily male, white, and with hepatitis C liver disease. The median time to HCC recurrence was 11.6 months (interquartile range 6.1-26.3). In Cox regression analysis, increasing pre-transplant AFP was associated with poorer survival when adjusting for age, pre-transplant model for end-stage liver disease (MELD), and time to HCC recurrence. For example, patients with pre-transplant AFP ?500ng/mL had a 1.6-fold higher risk of death versus those with AFP ?20ng/mL (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION:Pre-transplant AFP is independently associated with survival in patients with HCC recurrence. These findings further contextualize the importance of pre-transplant AFP in liver transplantation and may improve prognostication for patients with HCC recurrence.
Project description:Covering two-thirds of our planet, the global deep ocean plays a central role in supporting life on Earth. Among other processes, this biggest ecosystem buffers the rise of atmospheric CO2. Despite carbon sequestration in the deep ocean has been known for a long time, microbial activity in the meso- and bathypelagic realm via the "assimilation of bicarbonate in the dark" (ABD) has only recently been described in more details. Based on recent findings, this process seems primarily the result of chemosynthetic and anaplerotic reactions driven by different groups of deep-sea prokaryoplankton. We quantified bicarbonate assimilation in relation to total prokaryotic abundance, prokaryotic heterotrophic production and respiration in the meso- and bathypelagic Mediterranean Sea. The measured ABD values, ranging from 133 to 370 ?g C m-3 d-1, were among the highest ones reported worldwide for similar depths, likely due to the elevated temperature of the deep Mediterranean Sea (13-14°C also at abyssal depths). Integrated over the dark water column (?200 m depth), bicarbonate assimilation in the deep-sea ranged from 396 to 873 mg C m-2 d-1. This quantity of produced de novo organic carbon amounts to about 85-424% of the phytoplankton primary production and covers up to 62% of deep-sea prokaryotic total carbon demand. Hence, the ABD process in the meso- and bathypelagic Mediterranean Sea might substantially contribute to the inorganic and organic pool and significantly sustain the deep-sea microbial food web. To elucidate the ABD key-players, we established three actively nitrifying and CO2-fixing prokaryotic enrichments. Consortia were characterized by the co-occurrence of chemolithoautotrophic Thaumarchaeota and chemoheterotrophic proteobacteria. One of the enrichments, originated from Ionian bathypelagic waters (3,000 m depth) and supplemented with low concentrations of ammonia, was dominated by the Thaumarchaeota "low-ammonia-concentration" deep-sea ecotype, an enigmatic and ecologically important group of organisms, uncultured until this study.
Project description:To extend comparative metagenomic analyses of the deep-sea, we produced metagenomic data by direct 454 pyrosequencing from bathypelagic plankton (1000? m depth) and bottom sediment of the Sea of Marmara, the gateway between the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Seas. Data from small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene libraries and direct pyrosequencing of the same samples indicated that Gamma- and Alpha-proteobacteria, followed by Bacteroidetes, dominated the bacterial fraction in Marmara deep-sea plankton, whereas Planctomycetes, Delta- and Gamma-proteobacteria were the most abundant groups in high bacterial-diversity sediment. Group I Crenarchaeota/Thaumarchaeota dominated the archaeal plankton fraction, although group II and III Euryarchaeota were also present. Eukaryotes were highly diverse in SSU rRNA gene libraries, with group I (Duboscquellida) and II (Syndiniales) alveolates and Radiozoa dominating plankton, and Opisthokonta and Alveolates, sediment. However, eukaryotic sequences were scarce in pyrosequence data. Archaeal amo genes were abundant in plankton, suggesting that Marmara planktonic Thaumarchaeota are ammonia oxidizers. Genes involved in sulfate reduction, carbon monoxide oxidation, anammox and sulfatases were over-represented in sediment. Genome recruitment analyses showed that Alteromonas macleodii 'surface ecotype', Pelagibacter ubique and Nitrosopumilus maritimus were highly represented in 1000? m-deep plankton. A comparative analysis of Marmara metagenomes with ALOHA deep-sea and surface plankton, whale carcasses, Peru subsurface sediment and soil metagenomes clustered deep-sea Marmara plankton with deep-ALOHA plankton and whale carcasses, likely because of the suboxic conditions in the deep Marmara water column. The Marmara sediment clustered with the soil metagenome, highlighting the common ecological role of both types of microbial communities in the degradation of organic matter and the completion of biogeochemical cycles.