Project description:Native to China and Mongolia, the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) now enjoys a worldwide distribution. While black rats and the house mouse tracked the regional development of human agricultural settlements, brown rats did not appear in Europe until the 1500s, suggesting their range expansion was a response to relatively recent increases in global trade. We inferred the global phylogeography of brown rats using 32 k SNPs, and detected 13 evolutionary clusters within five expansion routes. One cluster arose following a southward expansion into Southeast Asia. Three additional clusters arose from two independent eastward expansions: one expansion from Russia to the Aleutian Archipelago, and a second to western North America. Westward expansion resulted in the colonization of Europe from which subsequent rapid colonization of Africa, the Americas and Australasia occurred, and multiple evolutionary clusters were detected. An astonishing degree of fine-grained clustering between and within sampling sites underscored the extent to which urban heterogeneity shaped genetic structure of commensal rodents. Surprisingly, few individuals were recent migrants, suggesting that recruitment into established populations is limited. Understanding the global population structure of R. norvegicus offers novel perspectives on the forces driving the spread of zoonotic disease, and aids in development of rat eradication programmes.
Project description:Kytococcus sedentarius (ZoBell and Upham 1944) Stackebrandt et al. 1995 is the type strain of the species, and is of phylogenetic interest because of its location in the Dermacoccaceae, a poorly studied family within the actinobacterial suborder Micrococcineae. Kytococcus sedentarius is known for the production of oligoketide antibiotics as well as for its role as an opportunistic pathogen causing valve endocarditis, hemorrhagic pneumonia, and pitted keratolysis. It is strictly aerobic and can only grow when several amino acids are provided in the medium. The strain described in this report is a free-living, nonmotile, Gram-positive bacterium, originally isolated from a marine environment. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence, and annotation. This is the first complete genome sequence of a member of the family Dermacoccaceae and the 2,785,024 bp long single replicon genome with its 2639 protein-coding and 64 RNA genes is part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
Project description:Invasive species are the primary driver of island taxa extinctions and, among them, those belonging to the genus <i>Rattus</i> are considered as the most damaging. The presence of black rat (<i>Rattus rattus</i>) on Cyprus has long been established, while that of brown rat (<i>Rattus norvegicus</i>) is dubious. This study is the first to provide molecular and morphological data to document the occurrence of <i>R. norvegicus</i> in the island of Cyprus. A total of 223 black rats and 14 brown rats were collected. Each sample was first taxonomically attributed on the basis of body measurements and cranial observations. Four of the specimens identified as <i>R. norvegicus</i> and one identified as <i>R. rattus</i> were subjected to molecular characterization in order to corroborate species identification. The analyses of the mitochondrial control region were consistent with morphological data, supporting the taxonomic identification of the samples. At least two maternal molecular lineages for <i>R. norvegicus</i> were found in Cyprus. The small number of brown rats collected in the island, as well as the large number of samples of black rats retrieved in the past years might be an indication that the distribution of <i>R. norvegicus</i> is still limited into three out of the six districts of Cyprus.
Project description:Although the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) is widely used as a model mammal throughout biological sciences, little is known about genetic variation in wild rat populations or the relationship of commonly used inbred strains to their wild relatives. We sampled wild brown rats from the species' presumed ancestral range in NW China and from a derived population in the UK and estimated nucleotide diversity and population subdivision, based on the sequences of 30 autosomal protein-coding loci. Neutral genetic diversity was close to 0.2% in both populations, which is about five times lower than diversity at the orthologous sites in a population of wild house mice from the species' putative ancestral range in India. We found significant population differentiation between UK and Chinese populations, as assessed by F(st) and the program STRUCTURE. Based on synonymous diversity and divergence between the brown rat and house mouse, we estimate that the recent effective population size in brown rats is approximately 130,000 (approximate 95% confidence interval 85,000-184,000), about fivefold lower than wild house mice.
Project description:The brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) is a relatively recent (<300 years) addition to the British fauna, but by association with negative impacts on public health, animal health and agriculture, it is regarded as one of the most important vertebrate pest species. Anticoagulant rodenticides were introduced for brown rat control in the 1950s and are widely used for rat control in the UK, but long-standing resistance has been linked to control failures in some regions. One thus far ignored aspect of resistance biology is the population structure of the brown rat. This paper investigates the role population structure has on the development of anticoagulant resistance. Using mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA, we examined 186 individuals (from 15 counties in England and one location in Wales near the Wales-England border) to investigate the population structure of rural brown rat populations. We also examined individual rats for variations of the VKORC1 gene previously associated with resistance to anticoagulant rodenticides. We show that the populations were structured to some degree, but that this was only apparent in the microsatellite data and not the mtDNA data. We discuss various reasons why this is the case. We show that the population as a whole appears not to be at equilibrium. The relative lack of diversity in the mtDNA sequences examined can be explained by founder effects and a subsequent spatial expansion of a species introduced to the UK relatively recently. We found there was a geographical distribution of resistance mutations, and relatively low rate of gene flow between populations, which has implications for the development and management of anticoagulant resistance.
Project description:Fossil evidence indicates that the globally distributed brown rat (Rattus norvegicus) originated in northern China and Mongolia. Historical records report the human-mediated invasion of rats into Europe in the 1500s, followed by global spread because of European imperialist activity during the 1600s-1800s. We analyzed 14 genomes representing seven previously identified evolutionary clusters, and tested alternative demographic models to infer patterns of range expansion, divergence times, and changes in effective population (N e) size for this globally important pest species. We observed three range expansions from the ancestral population that produced the Pacific (diverged ?16.1 kya), eastern China (?17.5 kya), and Southeast (SE) Asia (?0.86 kya) lineages. Our model shows a rapid range expansion from SE Asia into the Middle East and then continued expansion into central Europe 788 yr ago (1227 AD). We observed declining N e within all brown rat lineages from 150-1 kya, reflecting population contractions during glacial cycles. N e increased since 1 kya in Asian and European, but not in Pacific, evolutionary clusters. Our results support the hypothesis that northern Asia was the ancestral range for brown rats. We suggest that southward human migration across China between the 800s-1550s AD resulted in the introduction of rats to SE Asia, from which they rapidly expanded via existing maritime trade routes. Finally, we discovered that North America was colonized separately on both the Atlantic and Pacific seaboards, by evolutionary clusters of vastly different ages and genomic diversity levels. Our results should stimulate discussions among historians and zooarcheologists regarding the relationship between humans and rats.
Project description:Studies evaluating the occurrence of enteropathogenic bacteria in urban rats (Rattus spp.) are scarce worldwide, specifically in the urban environments of tropical countries. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) and Salmonella spp. with zoonotic potential in urban slum environments. We trapped rats between April and June 2018 in Salvador, Brazil. We collected rectal swabs from Rattus spp., and cultured for E. coli and Salmonella spp., and screened E. coli isolates by polymerase chain reaction to identify pathotypes. E. coli were found in 70% of Rattus norvegicus and were found in four Rattus rattus. DEC were isolated in 31.3% of the 67 brown rats (R. norvegicus). The pathotypes detected more frequently were shiga toxin E. coli in 11.9%, followed by atypical enteropathogenic E. coli in 10.4% and enteroinvasive E. coli in 4.5%. From the five black rats (R. rattus), two presented DEC. Salmonella enterica was found in only one (1.4%) of 67 R. norvegicus. Our findings indicate that both R. norvegicus and R. rattus are host of DEC and, at lower prevalence, S. enterica, highlighting the importance of rodents as potential sources of pathogenic agents for humans.
Project description:Murine rodents are excellent models for study of adaptive radiations and speciation. Brown Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) are successful global colonizers and the contributions of their domesticated laboratory strains to biomedical research are well established. To identify nucleotide-based speciation timing of the rat and genomic information contributing to its colonization capabilities, we analyzed 51 whole-genome sequences of wild-derived Brown Norway rats and their sibling species, R. nitidus, and identified over 20 million genetic variants in the wild Brown Norway rats that were absent in the laboratory strains, which substantially expand the reservoir of rat genetic diversity. We showed that divergence of the rat and its siblings coincided with drastic climatic changes that occurred during the Middle Pleistocene. Further, we revealed that there was a geographically widespread influx of genes between Brown Norway rats and the sibling species following the divergence, resulting in numerous introgressed regions in the genomes of admixed Brown Norway rats. Intriguing, genes related to chemical communications among these introgressed regions appeared to contribute to the population-specific adaptations of the admixed Brown Norway rats. Our data reveals evolutionary history of the Brown Norway rat, and offers new insights into the role of climatic changes in speciation of animals and the effect of interspecies introgression on animal adaptation.
Project description:Urbanization often substantially influences animal movement and gene flow. However, few studies to date have examined gene flow of the same species across multiple cities. In this study, we examine brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) to test hypotheses about the repeatability of neutral evolution across four cities: Salvador, Brazil; New Orleans, USA; Vancouver, Canada; and New York City, USA. At least 150 rats were sampled from each city and genotyped for a minimum of 15 000 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms. Levels of genome-wide diversity were similar across cities, but varied across neighbourhoods within cities. All four populations exhibited high spatial autocorrelation at the shortest distance classes (less than 500 m) owing to limited dispersal. Coancestry and evolutionary clustering analyses identified genetic discontinuities within each city that coincided with a resource desert in New York City, major waterways in New Orleans, and roads in Salvador and Vancouver. Such replicated studies are crucial to assessing the generality of predictions from urban evolution, and have practical applications for pest management and public health. Future studies should include a range of global cities in different biomes, incorporate multiple species, and examine the impact of specific characteristics of the built environment and human socioeconomics on gene flow.
Project description:to understand the consequences of chronic exposure to fluoxetine during postnatal life on global transcriptional changes withing the rat hippocamps Agilent one-color experiment,Organism: Rattus Norvegicus, Agilent-016352 Genotypic designed Custom Rattus Norvegicus 8x15k, Labeling kit: Agilent Quick-Amp labeling Kit (p/n5190-0442)