Project description:Utilizing cyanobacteria as a bioenergy resource is difficult due to the cost and energy consuming harvests of microalgal biomass. In this study, an auto-floating system was developed by increasing the photobiological H2 production in the heterocysts of filamentous cyanobacteria. An amount of 1.0??M of diuron, which inhibited O2 production in cyanobacteria, resulted in a high rate of H2 production in heterocysts. The auto-floating process recovered 91.71% ± 1.22 of the accumulated microalgal biomass from the liquid media. Quantification analysis revealed that 0.72-1.10??mol H2 per mg dry weight microalgal biomass was necessary to create this auto-floating system. Further bio-conversion by using anaerobic digestion converted the harvested microalgal biomass into biogas. Through this novel coupled system of photobiological H2 production and anaerobic digestion, a high level of light energy conversion efficiency from solar energy to bioenergy was attained with the values of 3.79% ± 0.76.
Project description:Improving mass cultivation of cyanobacteria is a goal for industrial biotechnology. In this study, the mass cultivation of the thermophilic cyanobacterium Chlorogloeopsis fritschii was assessed for biomass production under light-emitting diode white light (LEDWL), far-red light (FRL), and combined white light and far-red light (WLFRL) adaptation. The induction of chl f was confirmed at 24 h after the transfer of culture from LEDWL to FRL. Using combined light (WLFRL), chl f, a, and d, maintained the same level of concentration in comparison to FRL conditions. However, phycocyanin and xanthophylls (echinone, caloxanthin, myxoxanthin, nostoxanthin) concentration increased 2.7-4.7 times compared to LEDWL conditions. The productivity of culture was double under WLFRL compared with LEDWL conditions. No significant changes in lipid, protein, and carbohydrate concentrations were found in the two different light conditions. The results are important for informing on optimum biomass cultivation of this species for biomass production and bioactive product development.
Project description:Microalgae constitute a diverse group of eukaryotic unicellular organisms that are of interest for pure and applied research. Owing to their natural synthesis of value-added natural products microalgae are emerging as a source of sustainable chemical compounds, proteins and metabolites, including but not limited to those that could replace compounds currently made from fossil fuels. For the model microalga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, this has prompted a period of rapid development so that this organism is poised for exploitation as an industrial biotechnology platform. The question now is how best to achieve this? Highly advanced industrial biotechnology systems using bacteria and yeasts were established in a classical metabolic engineering manner over several decades. However, the advent of advanced molecular tools and the rise of synthetic biology provide an opportunity to expedite the development of C. reinhardtii as an industrial biotechnology platform, avoiding the process of incremental improvement. In this review we describe the current status of genetic manipulation of C. reinhardtii for metabolic engineering. We then introduce several concepts that underpin synthetic biology, and show how generic parts are identified and used in a standard manner to achieve predictable outputs. Based on this we suggest that the development of C. reinhardtii as an industrial biotechnology platform can be achieved more efficiently through adoption of a synthetic biology approach.
Project description:Bacterial biofilms are complex biological systems that are difficult to eradicate at a medical, industrial, or environmental level. Biofilms confer bacteria protection against external factors and antimicrobial treatments. Taking into account that about 80% of human infections are caused by bacterial biofilms, the eradication of these structures is a great priority. Biofilms are resistant to old-generation antibiotics, which has led to the search for new antimicrobials from different sources, including deep oceans/seas. In this study, 675 extracts obtained from 225 cyanobacteria and microalgae species (11 phyla and 6 samples belonging to unknown group) were obtained from different culture collections: The Blue Biotechnology and Ecotoxicology Culture Collection (LEGE-CC), the Coimbra Collection of Algae (ACOI) from Portugal, and the Roscoff Culture Collection (RCC) from France. The largest number of samples was made up of the microalgae phylum Chlorophyta (270) followed by Cyanobacteria (261). To obtain a large range of new bioactive compounds, a method involving three consecutive extractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol) was used. The antibiofilm activity of extracts was determined against seven different bacterial species and two Candida strains in terms of minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC). The highest biofilm inhibition rates (%) were achieved against Candida albicans and Enterobacter cloacae. Charophyta, Chlorophyta, and Cyanobacteria were the most effective against all microorganisms. In particular, extracts of Cercozoa phylum presented the lowest MBIC50 and MBIC90 values for all the strains except C. albicans.
Project description:As the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, small RNAs (sRNAs) play important roles in every domain of life in organisms. It has been discovered gradually that bacteria possess multiple means of gene regulation using RNAs. They have been continuously used as model organisms for photosynthesis, metabolism, biotechnology, evolution, and nitrogen fixation for many decades. Cyanobacteria, one of the most ancient life forms, constitute all kinds of photoautotrophic bacteria and exist in almost any environment on this planet. It is believed that a complex RNA-based regulatory mechanism functions in cyanobacteria to help them adapt to changes and stresses in diverse environments. Although lagging far behind other model microorganisms, such as yeast and Escherichia coli, more and more non-coding regulatory sRNAs have been recognized in cyanobacteria during the past decades. In this article, by focusing on cyanobacterial sRNAs, the approaches for detection and targeting of sRNAs will be summarized, four major mechanisms and regulatory functions will be generalized, eight types of cis-encoded sRNA and four types of trans-encoded sRNAs will be reviewed in detail, and their possible physiological functions will be further discussed.
Project description:Cyanobacteria and algae having complex photosynthetic systems can channelize absorbed solar energy into other forms of energy for production of food and metabolites. In addition, they are promising biocatalysts and can be used in the field of "white biotechnology" for enhancing the sustainable production of food, metabolites, and green energy sources such as biodiesel. In this review, an endeavor has been made to uncover the significance of various metabolites like phenolics, phytoene/terpenoids, phytols, sterols, free fatty acids, photoprotective compounds (MAAs, scytonemin, carotenoids, polysaccharides, halogenated compounds, etc.), phytohormones, cyanotoxins, biocides (algaecides, herbicides, and insecticides) etc. Apart from this, the importance of these metabolites as antibiotics, immunosuppressant, anticancer, antiviral, anti-inflammatory agent has also been discussed. Metabolites obtained from cyanobacteria and algae have several biotechnological, industrial, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic uses which have also been discussed in this review along with the emerging technology of their harvesting for enhancing the production of compounds like bioethanol, biofuel etc. at commercial level. In later sections, we have discussed genetically modified organisms and metabolite production from them. We have also briefly discussed the concept of bioprocessing highlighting the functioning of companies engaged in metabolites production as well as their cost effectiveness and challenges that are being addressed by these companies.
Project description:Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes that are influential in global geochemistry and are promising candidates for industrial applications. Because the livelihood of cyanobacteria is directly dependent upon light, a comprehensive understanding of metabolism in these organisms requires taking into account the effects of day-night transitions and circadian regulation. These events synchronize intracellular processes with the solar day. Accordingly, metabolism is controlled and structured differently in cyanobacteria than in heterotrophic bacteria. Thus, the approaches applied to engineering heterotrophic bacteria will need to be revised for the cyanobacterial chassis. Here, we summarize important findings related to diurnal metabolism in cyanobacteria and present open questions in the field.
Project description:Feedstocks for industrial applications ranging from polymers to lubricants are largely derived from petroleum, a non-renewable resource. Vegetable oils with fatty acid structures and storage forms tailored for specific industrial uses offer renewable and potentially sustainable sources of petrochemical-type functionalities. A wide array of industrial vegetable oils can be generated through biotechnology, but will likely require non-commodity oilseed platforms dedicated to specialty oil production for commercial acceptance. Here we show the feasibility of three Brassicaceae oilseeds crambe, camelina, and carinata, none of which are widely cultivated for food use, as hosts for complex metabolic engineering of wax esters for lubricant applications. Lines producing wax esters >20% of total seed oil were generated for each crop and further improved for high temperature oxidative stability by down-regulation of fatty acid polyunsaturation. Field cultivation of optimized wax ester-producing crambe demonstrated commercial utility of these engineered crops and a path for sustainable production of other industrial oils in dedicated specialty oilseeds.
Project description:The cyanobacteria community dynamics in two eutrophic freshwater bodies (Tiegang Reservoir and Shiyan Reservoir) was studied with both a traditional microscopic counting method and a PCR-DGGE genotyping method. Results showed that cyanobacterium Phormidium tenue was the predominant species; twenty-six cyanobacteria species were identified in water samples collected from the two reservoirs, among which fourteen were identified with the morphological method and sixteen with the PCR-DGGE method. The cyanobacteria community composition analysis showed a seasonal fluctuation from July to December. The cyanobacteria population peaked in August in both reservoirs, with cell abundances of 3.78 × 10(8) cells L(-1) and 1.92 × 10(8) cells L(-1) in the Tiegang and Shiyan reservoirs, respectively. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was applied to further investigate the correlation between cyanobacteria community dynamics and environmental factors. The result indicated that the cyanobacteria community dynamics was mostly correlated with pH, temperature and total nitrogen. This study demonstrated that data obtained from PCR-DGGE combined with a traditional morphological method could reflect cyanobacteria community dynamics and its correlation with environmental factors in eutrophic freshwater bodies.
Project description:Inducible promoters such as Plac are of limited usability for industrial protein production with Pseudomonas putida. We therefore utilized cell density-dependent auto-inducible promoters for recombinant gene expression in P. putida KT2440 based on the RoxS/RoxR Quorum Sensing (QS) system of the bacterium. To this end, genetic regions upstream of the RoxS/RoxR-regulated genes ddcA (PR ox132 ) and PP_3332 (PR ox306 ) were inserted into plasmids that mediated the expression of superfolder green fluorescent protein (sfGFP) and surface displayed mCherry, confirming their promoter functionalities. Mutation of the Pribnow box of PR ox306 to the σ70 consensus sequence (PR ox3061 ) resulted in a more than threefold increase of sfGFP production. All three promoters caused cell density-dependent expression, starting transcription at optical densities (OD578 ) of approximately 1.0 (PR ox132 , PR ox306 ) or 0.7 (PR ox3061 ) as determined by RT-qPCR. The QS dependency of PR ox306 was further shown by cultivating P. putida in media that had already been used for cultivation and thus contained bacterial signal molecules. The longer P. putida had grown in these media before, the earlier protein expression in freshly inoculated P. putida appeared with PR ox306 . This confirmed previous findings that a bacterial compound accumulates within the culture and induces protein expression.