Project description:Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae have become widespread in hospitals and the environment. Here, we describe a bla KPC-2-carrying plasmid called pCRE3-KPC, which was recovered from a clinical multidrug-resistant Citrobacter braakii CRE3 strain in China. The complete nucleotide sequence of pCRE3-KPC was determined by combining MiSeq and MinION sequencing and then compared with those of three related plasmids. Plasmid conjugal transfer and electroporation tests, modified carbapenem inactivation method, and bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility test were carried out. We compared this plasmid with three related plasmids to verify that the backbone of pCRE3-KPC was composed of the backbones of the IncR plasmid and IncP6 plasmid. Further bioinformatics analysis showed that pCRE3-KPC carried two resistance-related regions (the bla KPC-2 gene cluster and the aacC2-tmrB-related region). The aacC2-tmrB-related region included two novel insertion sequences (ISCfr28 and ISCfr16).IMPORTANCE Reports of human-pathogenic C. braakii strains, especially of strains showing resistance to carbapenems, are rare. To the best of our knowledge, our results represent the first detection of carbapenemase gene bla KPC-2 in C. braakii strains. In addition, we have studied detailed genetic characteristics of the novel IncR/IncP6 hybrid plasmid pCRE3-KPC, which was isolated from a clinical multidrug-resistant Citrobacter braakii CRE3 strain. Our results may provide further insight into the horizontal transfer of multidrug resistance genes in bacteria and into the genomic diversity and molecular evolution of plasmids.
Project description:<i>Klebsiella pneumoniae</i> carbapenemase (KPC)-producing <i>K. pneumoniae</i> (KPC-KP) have disseminated worldwide and emerged as major threats to public health. Of epidemiological significance, the international pandemic of KPC-KP is primarily associated with CG258 isolates and <i>bla</i><sub>KPC</sub>-IncF plasmids. CRISPR-Cas system is an adaptive immune system that can hinder gene expansion driven by horizontal gene transfer. Because of <i>bla</i><sub>KPC</sub>-IncF plasmids are favored by CG258 <i>K. pneumoniae,</i> it was of interest to examine the co-distribution of CRISPR and <i>bla</i><sub>KPC</sub>-IncF plasmids in such isolates. We collected 459 clinical <i>K. pneumoniae isolates</i> in China and collected 203 global whole-genome sequences in GenBank to determine the prevalence of CRISPR-Cas systems. We observed that CRISPR-Cas system was significantly scarce in the CG258 lineage and <i>bla</i><sub>KPC</sub>-positive isolates. Furthermore, the results of conjugation and plasmid stability assay fully demonstrated the CRIPSR-Cas system in <i>K. pneumoniae</i> could effectively hindered <i>bla</i><sub>KPC</sub>-IncF plasmids invasion and existence. Notably, most <i>bla</i><sub>KPC</sub>-IncF plasmids were also proved to be good targets of CRISPR owing to carry matched and functional protospacers and PAMs. Overall, our work suggests that type I-E CRISPR-Cas systems could impact the spread of <i>bla</i><sub>KPC</sub> in <i>K. pneumoniae</i> populations, and the scarcity of CRISPR-Cas system was one of potential factors leading to the propagation of <i>bla</i><sub>KPC</sub>-IncF plasmids in CG258 <i>K. pneumoniae</i>.
Project description:The emergence and spread of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) among Enterobacteriaceae presents a major public health threat to the world. Although not as common as in K. pneumoniae, KPC is also found in Escherichia coli strains. Here, we genetically characterized 9 carbapenem-resistant E. coli strains isolated from six hospitals in the United States and completely sequenced their blaKPC-harboring plasmids. The nine strains were isolated from different geographical locations and belonged to 8 different E. coli sequence types. Seven blaKPC-harboring plasmids belonged to four different known incompatibility groups (IncN, -FIA, -FIIK2, and -FIIK1) and ranged in size from ?16 kb to ?241 kb. In this analysis, we also identified two plasmids that have novel replicons: (i) pBK28610, which is similar to p34978-3 with an insertion of Tn4401b, and (ii) pBK31611, which does not have an apparent homologue in the GenBank database. Moreover, we report the emergence of a pKP048-like plasmid, pBK34397, in E. coli in the United States. Meanwhile, we also found examples of interspecies spread of blaKPC plasmids, as pBK34592 is identical to pBK30683, isolated from K. pneumoniae In addition, we discovered examples of acquisition (pBK32602 acquired an ?46-kb fragment including a novel replication gene, along with Tn4401b and other resistance genes) and/or loss (pKpQIL-Ec has a 14.5-kb deletion compared to pKpQIL-10 and pBK33689) of DNA, demonstrating the plasticity of these plasmids and their rapid evolution in the clinic. Overall, our study shows that the spread of blaKPC-producing E. coli is largely due to horizontal transfer of blaKPC-harboring plasmids and related mobile elements into diverse genetic backgrounds.
Project description:Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) cause health care-associated infections worldwide, and they are of severe concern due to limited treatment options. We report an outbreak of KPC-2-producing CRE that was caused by horizontal transmission of a promiscuous plasmid across different genera of bacteria and hospitals in Germany. Eleven isolates (8 Citrobacter freundii, 2 Klebsiella oxytoca, and 1 Escherichia coli) were obtained from seven critically ill patients during the six months of the outbreak in 2016. One patient developed a CRE infection while the other six patients were CRE-colonized. Three patients died in the course of the hospital stay. Six of the seven patients carried the same C. freundii clone; one K. oxytoca clone was found in two patients, and one patient carried E. coli and C. freundii. Molecular analysis confirmed the presence of a conjugative, bla KPC-2-carrying 70 kb-IncN plasmid in C. freundii and E. coli and an 80 kb-IncN plasmid in K. oxytoca. All transconjugants harbored either the 70 or 80 kb plasmid with bla KPC-2, embedded within transposon variant Tn4401g. Whole genome sequencing and downstream bioinformatics analyses of all plasmid sequences showed an almost perfect match when compared to a bla KPC-2-carrying plasmid of a large outbreak in another German hospital two years earlier. Differences in plasmid sizes and open reading frames point to the presence of inserted mobile genetic elements. There are few outbreak reports worldwide on the transmission of bla KPC-2-carrying plasmids across different bacterial genera. Our data suggest a regional and supraregional spread of bla KPC-2-carrying IncN-plasmids harboring the Tn4401g isoform in Germany.
Project description:Limited information is available on whether <i>bla</i> <sub>KPC</sub>-containing plasmids from isolates in a hospital outbreak can be differentiated from epidemiologically unrelated <i>bla</i> <sub>KPC</sub>-containing plasmids based on sequence data. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of three approaches to distinguish epidemiologically related from unrelated <i>bla</i> <sub>KPC</sub>-containing pKpQiL-like IncFII(k2)-IncFIB(pQiL) plasmids. Epidemiologically related isolates were subjected to short- and long-read whole-genome sequencing. A hybrid assembly was performed, and plasmid sequences were extracted from the assembly graph. Epidemiologically unrelated plasmid sequences were extracted from GenBank. Pairwise comparisons of epidemiologically related and unrelated plasmids based on SNPs using snippy and of phylogenetic distance using Roary and using a similarity index that penalizes size differences between plasmids (Stoesser index) were performed. The percentage of pairwise comparisons misclassified as genetically related or as clonally unrelated was determined using different genetic thresholds for genetic relatedness. The ranges of number of SNPs, Roary phylogenetic distance, and Stoesser index overlapped between the epidemiologically related and unrelated plasmids. When a genetic similarity threshold that classified 100% of epidemiologically related plasmid pairs as genetically related was used, the percentages of plasmids misclassified as epidemiologically related ranged from 6.7% (Roary) to 20.8% (Stoesser index). Although epidemiologically related plasmids can be distinguished from unrelated plasmids based on genetic differences, <i>bla</i> <sub>KPC</sub>-containing pKpQiL-like IncFII(k2)-IncFIB(pQiL) plasmids show a high degree of sequence similarity. The phylogenetic distance as determined using Roary showed the highest degree of discriminatory power between the epidemiologically related and unrelated plasmids.
Project description:Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae are a major threat to global public health. Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) is the most commonly identified carbapenemase in the United States and is frequently found on mobile genetic elements including plasmids, which can be horizontally transmitted between bacteria of the same or different species. Here we describe the results of an epidemiological investigation of KPC-producing bacteria at two healthcare facilities. Using a combination of short-read and long-read whole-genome sequencing, we identified an identical 44 kilobase plasmid carrying the bla KPC-2 gene in four bacterial isolates belonging to three different species (Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli). The isolates in this investigation were collected from patients who were epidemiologically linked in a region in which KPC was uncommon, suggesting that the antibiotic resistance plasmid was transmitted between these bacterial species. This investigation highlights the importance of long-read sequencing in investigating the relatedness of bacterial plasmids, and in elucidating potential plasmid-mediated outbreaks caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria.
Project description:Forty-five KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains were isolated from multiple departments in a Chinese public hospital from 2014 to 2015. Genome sequencing of four representative strains, namely Proteus mirabilis GN2, Serratia marcescens GN26, Morganella morganii GN28, and Klebsiella aerogenes E20, indicated the presence of blaKPC-2-carrying IncX6 plasmids pGN2-KPC, pGN26-KPC, pGN28-KPC, and pE20-KPC in the four strains, respectively. These plasmids were genetically closely related to one another and to the only previously sequenced IncX6 plasmid, pKPC3_SZ. Each of the plasmids carried a single accessory module containing the blaKPC-2/3-carrying ?Tn6296 derivatives. The ?Tn6292 element from pGN26-KPC also contained qnrS, which was absent from all other plasmids. Overall, pKPC3_SZ-like blaKPC-carrying IncX6 plasmids were detected by PCR in 44.4% of the KPC-producing isolates, which included K. aerogenes, P. mirabilis, S. marcescens, M. morganii, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, and were obtained from six different departments of the hospital. Data presented herein provided insights into the genomic diversity and evolution of IncX6 plasmids, as well as the dissemination and epidemiology of blaKPC-carrying IncX6 plasmids among Enterobacteriaceae in a hospital setting.
Project description:Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have emerged as major causes of health care-associated infections worldwide. This diverse collection of organisms with various resistance mechanisms is associated with increased lengths of hospitalization, costs of care, morbidity, and mortality. The global spread of CRE has largely been attributed to dissemination of a dominant strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae producing a serine ?-lactamase, termed K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC). Here we report an outbreak of KPC-producing CRE infections in which the degree of horizontal transmission between strains and species of a promiscuous plasmid is unprecedented. Sixteen isolates, comprising 11 unique strains, 6 species, and 4 genera of bacteria, were obtained from 14 patients over the first 8 months of the outbreak. Of the 11 unique strains, 9 harbored the same highly promiscuous plasmid carrying the KPC gene bla(KPC). The remaining strains harbored distinct bla(KPC) plasmids, one of which was carried in a strain of Klebsiella oxytoca coisolated from the index patient and the other generated from transposition of the bla(KPC) element Tn4401. All isolates could be genetically traced to the index patient. Molecular epidemiological investigation of the outbreak was aided by the adaptation of nested arbitrary PCR (ARB-PCR) for rapid plasmid identification. This detailed molecular genetic analysis, combined with traditional epidemiological investigation, provides insights into the highly fluid dynamics of drug resistance transmission during the outbreak. IMPORTANCE The ease of horizontal transmission of carbapenemase resistance plasmids across strains, species, and genera of bacteria observed in this study has several important public health and epidemiological implications. First, it has the potential to promote dissemination of carbapenem resistance to new populations of Enterobacteriaceae, including organisms of low virulence, leading to the establishment of reservoirs of carbapenem resistance genes in patients and/or the environment and of high virulence, raising the specter of untreatable community-associated infections. Second, recognition of plasmid-mediated outbreaks, such as those described here, is problematic because analysis of resistance plasmids from clinical isolates is laborious and technically challenging. Adaptation of nested arbitrary PCR (ARB-PCR) to investigate the plasmid outbreak facilitated our investigation, and the method may be broadly applicable to other outbreaks due to other conserved mobile genetic elements. Whether infection control measures that focus on preventing transmission of drug-resistant clones are effective in controlling dissemination of these elements is unknown.
Project description:Background: Lateral gene transfer plays a central role in the dissemination of carbapenem resistance in bacterial pathogens associated with nosocomial infections, mainly Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Despite their clinical significance, there is little information regarding the mobile genetic elements and mechanism of acquisition and propagation of lateral genes in P. aeruginosa, and they remain largely unknown. Objectives: The present study characterized the genetic context of bla KPC-2 in carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strain BH9. Methods: Pseudomonas aeruginosa BH9 sequencing was performed using the long-read PacBio SMRT platform and the Ion Proton System. De novo assembly was carried out using the SMRT pipeline and Canu, and gene prediction and annotation were performed using Prokka and RAST. Results: Pseudomonas aeruginosa BH9 exhibited a 7.1 Mb circular chromosome. However, the bla KPC-2 gene is located in an additional contig composed by a small plasmid pBH6 from P. aeruginosa strain BH6 and several phage-related genes. Further analysis revealed that the beginning and end of the contig contain identical sequences, supporting a circular plasmid structure. This structure spans 41,087 bp, exhibiting all the Mu-like phage landmarks. In addition, 5-bp direct repeats (GGATG) flanking the pBH6 ends were found, strongly indicating integration of the Mu-like phage into the pBH6 plasmid. Mu phages are commonly found in P. aeruginosa. However, for the first time showing a potential impact in shaping the vehicles of the dissemination of antimicrobial (e.g., plasmid pBH6) resistance genes in the Pseudomonas genus. Conclusion: pBH6 captured the Mu-like Phage BH9, creating a co-integrate pBH6::Phage BH9, and this phage-plasmid complex may represent novel case of a phage-like plasmid.
Project description:The plasmid-mediated class A carbapenemase KPC-2 was isolated from unrelated Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates in Medellin, Colombia. These KPC enzymes are the first from South America and the second isolation outside of the United States. The expanding geographic spread of KPC carbapenemases underscores the importance of clinical recognition of these enzymes.