Project description:Although the sequencing landscape is rapidly evolving and sequencing costs are continuously decreasing, whole genome sequencing is still too expensive for use on a routine basis. Targeted resequencing of only the regions of interest decreases both costs and the complexity of the downstream data-analysis. Various target enrichment strategies are available, but none of them obtain the degree of coverage uniformity, flexibility and specificity of PCR-based enrichment. On the other hand, the biggest limitation of target enrichment by PCR is the need to design large numbers of partially overlapping assays to cover the target.To overcome the aforementioned hurdles, we have developed primerXL, a state-of-the-art PCR primer design pipeline for targeted resequencing. It uses an optimized design criteria relaxation cascade and a thorough downstream in silico evaluation process to generate high quality singleplex PCR assays, reducing the need for amplicon normalization, and outperforming other target enrichment strategies and similar primer design tools when considering assay quality, coverage uniformity and target coverage. Results of four different sequencing projects with 2348 amplicons in total covering 470 kb are presented. PrimerXL can be accessed at www.primerxl.org .PrimerXL is an state-of-the-art, easy to use primer design webtool capable of generating high-quality targeted resequencing assays. The workflow is fully customizable to suit every researchers' needs, while an innovative relaxation cascade ensures maximal target coverage.
Project description:Targeted DNA enrichment coupled with next generation sequencing has been increasingly used for interrogation of select sub-genomic regions at high depth of coverage in a cost effective manner. Specificity measured by on-target efficiency is a key performance metric for target enrichment. Non-specific capture leads to off-target reads, resulting in waste of sequencing throughput on irrelevant regions. Microdroplet-PCR allows simultaneous amplification of up to thousands of regions in the genome and is among the most commonly used strategies for target enrichment. Here we show that carryover of single-stranded template genomic DNA from microdroplet-PCR constitutes a major contributing factor for off-target reads in the resultant libraries. Moreover, treatment of microdroplet-PCR enrichment products with a nuclease specific to single-stranded DNA alleviates off-target load and improves enrichment specificity. We propose that nuclease treatment of enrichment products should be incorporated in the workflow of targeted sequencing using microdroplet-PCR for target capture. These findings may have a broad impact on other PCR based applications for which removal of template DNA is beneficial.
Project description:Targeted genome enrichment is a powerful tool for making use of the massive throughput of novel DNA-sequencing instruments. We herein present a simple and scalable protocol for multiplex amplification of target regions based on the Selector technique. The updated version exhibits improved coverage and compatibility with next-generation-sequencing (NGS) library-construction procedures for shotgun sequencing with NGS platforms. To demonstrate the performance of the technique, all 501 exons from 28 genes frequently involved in cancer were enriched for and sequenced in specimens derived from cell lines and tumor biopsies. DNA from both fresh frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biopsies were analyzed and 94% specificity and 98% coverage of the targeted region was achieved. Reproducibility between replicates was high (R(2)?=?0, 98) and readily enabled detection of copy-number variations. The procedure can be carried out in <24 h and does not require any dedicated instrumentation.
Project description:Behçet's disease (BD) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disorder characterized by four major manifestations: recurrent uveitis, oral and genital ulcers and skin lesions. To identify some pathogenic variants associated with severe Behçet's uveitis, we used targeted and massively parallel sequencing methods to explore the genetic diversity of target regions. A solution-based target enrichment kit was designed to capture whole-exonic regions of 132 candidate genes. Using a multiplexing strategy, 32 samples from patients with a severe type of Behçet's uveitis were sequenced with a Genome Analyzer IIx. We compared the frequency of each variant with that of 59 normal Korean controls, and selected five rare and eight common single-nucleotide variants as the candidates for a replication study. The selected variants were genotyped in 61 cases and 320 controls and, as a result, two rare and seven common variants showed significant associations with severe Behçet's uveitis (P<0.05). Some of these, including rs199955684 in KIR3DL3, rs1801133 in MTHFR, rs1051790 in MICA and rs1051456 in KIR2DL4, were predicted to be damaging by either the PolyPhen-2 or SIFT prediction program. Variants on FCGR3A (rs396991) and ICAM1 (rs5498) have been previously reported as susceptibility loci of this disease, and those on IFNAR1, MTFHR and MICA also replicated the previous reports at the gene level. The KIR3DL3 and KIR2DL4 genes are novel susceptibility genes that have not been reported in association with BD. In conclusion, this study showed that target enrichment and next-generation sequencing technologies can provide valuable information on the genetic predisposition for Behçet's uveitis.
Project description:Orthohantaviruses, negative-sense single-strand tripartite RNA viruses, are a global public health threat. In humans, orthohantavirus infection causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome or hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome. Whole-genome sequencing of the virus helps in identification and characterization of emerging or re-emerging viruses. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a potent method to sequence the viral genome, using molecular enrichment methods, from clinical specimens containing low virus titers. Hence, a comparative study on the target enrichment NGS methods is required for whole-genome sequencing of orthohantavirus in clinical samples. In this study, we used the sequence-independent, single-primer amplification, target capture, and amplicon NGS for whole-genome sequencing of Hantaan orthohantavirus (HTNV) from rodent specimens. We analyzed the coverage of the HTNV genome based on the viral RNA copy number, which is quantified by real-time quantitative PCR. Target capture and amplicon NGS demonstrated a high coverage rate of HTNV in Apodemus agrarius lung tissues containing up to 103-104 copies/?L of HTNV RNA. Furthermore, the amplicon NGS showed a 10-fold (102 copies/?L) higher sensitivity than the target capture NGS. This report provides useful insights into target enrichment NGS for whole-genome sequencing of orthohantaviruses without cultivating the viruses.
Project description:MOTIVATION: In light of the increasing adoption of targeted resequencing (TR) as a cost-effective strategy to identify disease-causing variants, a robust method for copy number variation (CNV) analysis is needed to maximize the value of this promising technology. RESULTS: We present a method for CNV detection for TR data, including whole-exome capture data. Our method calls copy number gains and losses for each target region based on normalized depth of coverage. Our key strategies include the use of base-level log-ratios to remove GC-content bias, correction for an imbalanced library size effect on log-ratios, and the estimation of log-ratio variations via binning and interpolation. Our methods are made available via CONTRA (COpy Number Targeted Resequencing Analysis), a software package that takes standard alignment formats (BAM/SAM) and outputs in variant call format (VCF4.0), for easy integration with other next-generation sequencing analysis packages. We assessed our methods using samples from seven different target enrichment assays, and evaluated our results using simulated data and real germline data with known CNV genotypes.
Project description:Next generation sequencing and advances in genomic enrichment technologies have enabled the discovery of the full spectrum of variants from common to rare alleles in the human population. The application of such technologies can be limited by the amount of DNA available. Whole genome amplification (WGA) can overcome such limitations. Here we investigate applicability of using WGA by comparing SNP and INDEL variant calls from a single genomic/WGA sample pair from two capture separate experiments: a 50 Mbp whole exome capture and a custom capture array of 4 Mbp region on chr12.Our results comparing variant calls derived from genomic and WGA DNA show that the majority of variant SNP and INDEL calls are common to both callsets, both at the site and genotype level and suggest that allele bias plays a minimal role when using WGA DNA in re-sequencing studies.Although the results of this study are based on a limited sample size, they suggest that using WGA DNA allows the discovery of the vast majority of variants, and achieves high concordance metrics, when comparing to genomic DNA calls.
Project description:Next-generation sequencing methods suffer from low recovery, uneven coverage, and false mutations. DNA fragmentation by sonication is a major contributor to these problems because it produces randomly sized fragments, PCR amplification bias, and end artifacts. In addition, oligonucleotide-based hybridization capture, a common target enrichment method, has limited efficiency for small genomic regions, contributing to low recovery. This becomes a critical problem in clinical applications, which value cost-effective approaches focused on the sequencing of small gene panels. To address these issues, we developed a targeted genome fragmentation approach based on CRISPR/Cas9 digestion that produces DNA fragments of similar length. These fragments can be enriched by a simple size selection, resulting in targeted enrichment of up to approximately 49,000-fold. Additionally, homogenous length fragments significantly reduce PCR amplification bias and maximize read usability. We combined this novel target enrichment approach with Duplex Sequencing, which uses double-strand molecular tagging to correct for sequencing errors. The approach, termed CRISPR-DS, enables efficient target enrichment of small genomic regions, even coverage, ultra-accurate sequencing, and reduced DNA input. As proof of principle, we applied CRISPR-DS to the sequencing of the exonic regions of TP53 and performed side-by-side comparisons with standard Duplex Sequencing. CRISPR-DS detected previously reported pathogenic TP53 mutations present as low as 0.1% in peritoneal fluid of women with ovarian cancer, while using 10- to 100-fold less DNA than standard Duplex Sequencing. Whether used as standalone enrichment or coupled with high-accuracy sequencing methods, CRISPR-based fragmentation offers a simple solution for fast and efficient small target enrichment.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Next generation targeted resequencing is replacing Sanger sequencing at high pace in routine genetic diagnosis. The need for well validated, high quality enrichment platforms to complement the bench-top next generation sequencing devices is high. RESULTS: We used the WaferGen Smartchip platform to perform highly parallelized PCR based target enrichment for a set of known cancer genes in a well characterized set of cancer cell lines from the NCI60 panel. Optimization of PCR assay design and cycling conditions resulted in a high enrichment efficiency. We provide proof of a high mutation rediscovery rate and have included technical replicates to enable SNP calling validation demonstrating the high reproducibility of our enrichment platform. CONCLUSIONS: Here we present our custom developed quantitative PCR based target enrichment platform. Using highly parallel nanoliter singleplex PCR reactions makes this a flexible and efficient platform. The high mutation validation rate shows this platform's promise as a targeted resequencing method for multi-gene routine sequencing diagnostics.
Project description:To exploit contemporary sequencing technologies for targeted genetic analyses, we developed a hybridization enrichment strategy for DNA capture that uses PCR products as subgenomic traps. We applied this strategy to 115 kilobases of the human genome encompassing 47 genes implicated in cardiovascular disease. Massively parallel sequencing of captured subgenomic libraries interrogated 99.8% of targeted nucleotides >or=20 times ( approximately 40,000-fold enrichment), enabling sensitive and specific detection of sequence variation and copy-number variation.