Project description:PHF8 is a histone demethylase associated with X-linked mental retardation (XLMR). It has been described as a transcriptional coactivator involved in cell cycle progression, but its physiological role is still poorly understood. Here we show that PHF8 controls the expression of genes involved in cell adhesion and cytoskeleton organization such as RhoA, Rac1 and GSK3β. A lack of PHF8 not only results in a cell cycle delay but also in a disorganized actin cytoskeleton and impaired cell adhesion. Our data demonstrate that PHF8 directly regulates the expression of these genes by demethylating H4K20me1 at promoters. Moreover, c-Myc transcription factor interacts with PHF8 and binds to the analyzed promoters, suggesting that c-Myc is involved on PHF8 recruitment to these promoters. Further analysis in the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y and in cortical neurons shows that depletion of PHF8 results in deficient neurite elongation. Overall, our results suggest that the mental retardation phenotype associated with loss of function of PHF8 could be due to abnormal neuronal connections as a result of alterations in cytoskeleton function. HeLa cells were transfected with either control or PHF8 siRNAs. Experiments were performed in biological triplicates. RNA were extracted and sujected to microarray analysis.
Project description:The aim of this study is to study gene expression in Brassica oleracea in shoot tissues of plants grown under contrasting P supplies (see Hammond JP et al., 2003, Plant Physiology, 132, 578-596 for background). Seeds of B. oleracea (var. alboglabra, A12dH) were first washed in 70% (v/v) ethanol/water, rinsed in distilled water and surface sterilised using 50% (v/v) domestic bleach/water. Seeds were rinsed and imbibed for 3 to 5 days in sterile distilled water at 4°C to break dormancy. Following imbibition, B. oleracea seeds were sown in un-vented, polycarbonate culture boxes (Sigma-Aldrich Company Ltd., Dorset UK). Seedlings were grown for 21 days on perforated polycarbonate discs (diameter 91 mm by 5 mm) placed on 75 ml of 0.8% (w/v) agar containing 1% (w/v) sucrose and a basal salt mix. Roots grew into the agar, but shoots remained on the opposite side of the disc. After 21 days, seedlings were transferred, still on polycarbonate discs, to a hydroponics system situated in a Saxcil growth cabinet (16 h daylength, set to 22°C and 80% humidity). Each polycarbonate disc was placed on a light-proof 500 ml beaker over 450 ml of nutrient solution. After 7 days, half the plants were transferred to nutrient solution containing no phosphate and the other half remained on full nutrient solution (control plants). Shoots were harvested 100 h after the withdrawal of P. !Samples were snap frozen in liquid nitrogen. RNA was extracted using the TRIzol extraction method and cleaned through a Qiagen RNeasy column. Experimenter name = Martin Broadley; Experimenter phone = 0115 951 6382; Experimenter fax = 0115 951 6334; Experimenter institute = University of Nottingham; Experimenter address = Plant Sciences Division; Experimenter address = School of Biosciences; Experimenter address = University of Nottingham; Experimenter address = Sutton Bonington; Experimenter address = Loughborough; Experimenter zip/postal_code = LE12 5RD; Experimenter country = UK Experiment Overall Design: 6 samples were used in this experiment
Project description:We identified a new type of histone mark-lysine ß-hydroxybutyrylation (Kbhb). This ketone body derived histone mark (Kbhb) was dramatically induced in livers during starvation. To charactize histopne Kbhb: 1) We mapped genomic distributions of histone Kbhb marks (H3K9bhb, H3K4bhb and H4K8bhb) by ChIP-seq in mouse liver. 2) We examined the response of histone Kbhb mark to starvation by carrying out ChIP-seq experiments for H3K9bhb in both "starved" and "fed" mouse liver. 3) We also examined differentially-expressed genes during starvation by carrying out RNA-seq experiments in both "starved" and "fed" mouse liver. By integrating analyses of ChIP-seq and RNA-seq data, we tried to get a correlation between H3K9bhb mark and gene expression in response to starvation. Sequencing was performed on the HiSeq2000 (Illumina). ChIP-seq for histone Kbhb marks in both "starved (ST)" and "fed (AL)" mouse liver cells The anti-H3K4bhb, -H3K9bhb, and -H4K8bhb antibodies were generated from PTM biolabs. The process for generating antibodies were described similarly in Cell, 2011. 146: p. 1016-1028, Mol Cell, 2015. 58(2): p. 203-15, Nat Chem Biol, 2014. 10(5): p. 365-70, except for using different immunogens.
Project description:Viruses in acute exacerbations of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis Keywords: viral detection BAL from patients with acute exacerbations of IPF and stable IPF were hybridized to a pan-viral cDNA microarray to evaluate the presence of virus during these episodes
Project description:The asexual forms of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum are uniquely adapted for chronic persistence in human red blood cells, continuously evading the immune system using an epigenetically regulated process. However, parasite survival on a population level also requires transmission of sexual parasite forms to subsequent human hosts. Here, we reveal that the essential nuclear gene, P. falciparum histone deacetylase 2 (PfHda2), silences specific subsets of genes involved in antigenic variation or conversion to sexual stages. Two parallel timecourses resulting in a total of 22 samples (11 wildtype, 11 PfHda2 knockdown) were hybridized against a Cy3-labeled reference pool of 3D7 mixed stage parasites on a two-color array.
Project description:Newborn neurons enter an extended maturation stage, during which they acquire excitability characteristics crucial for development of presynaptic and postsynaptic connectivity. In contrast to earlier specification programs, little is known aboutthe regulatory mechanisms that control neuronal maturation. The Pet-1 ETS (E26 transformation-specific) factor is continuously expressed in serotonin (5-HT) neurons and initially acts in postmitotic precursors to control acquisition of 5-HT transmitter identity. Using a combination of RNA sequencing, electrophysiology, and conditional targeting approaches, we determined gene expression patterns in maturing flow-sorted 5-HT neurons and the temporal requirements for Pet-1 in shaping these patterns for functional maturation of mouse 5-HT neurons. We report a profound disruption of postmitotic expression trajectories in Pet-1 / neurons, which prevented postnatal maturation of 5-HT neuron passive and active intrinsic membrane properties, G-protein signaling, and synaptic responses to glutamatergic, lysophosphatidic, and adrenergic agonists. Unexpectedly, conditional targeting revealed a postnatal stage-specific switch in Pet-1 targets from 5-HT synthesis genes to transmitter receptor genes required for afferent modulation of 5-HT neuron excitability. 5-HT1a autoreceptor expression depended transiently on Pet-1, thus revealing an early postnatal sensitive period for control of 5-HT excitability genes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing revealed that Pet-1 regulates 5-HT neuron maturation through direct gene activation and repression. Moreover, Pet-1 directly regulates the 5-HT neuron maturation factor Engrailed 1, which suggests Pet-1 orchestrates maturationthrough secondary postmitotic regulatoryfactors. The early postnatal switch in Pet-1targets uncovers a distinct neonatal stage-specific function for Pet-1, during which it promotes maturation of 5-HT neuron excitability. 5-HT neuron mRNA profiles of E11.5, E15.5, and postnatal (P1-P3) wild type (WT) and Pet-1-/- mice were generated by deep sequencing, in triplicate, using Illumina HiSeq 2500. Myc-tagged Pet-1 ChIP-seq was performed on E12.5 to E14.5 hindbrains and sequencing using NextSeq 500.
Project description:In this study we identify Mettl3, an m6A RNA modification writer, as a critical regulator for terminating naïve pluripotency and a positive maintainer of primed pluripotency in vitro and in vivo. Remarkably, Mettl3 knockout pre-implantation epiblasts and naïve ES cells, entirely lack m6A on coding mRNAs and are viable. Yet, they fail to adequately terminate the naïve pluripotent state, and subsequently undergo aberrant priming and early lineage commitment at the post-implantation stage. A comprehensive functional and genomic analysis involving profiling of m6A, RNA transcription and translation in Mettl3 wild-type and knockout pluripotent and differentiated cells, identified m6A as a critical determinant that destabilizes secondary naïve specific pluripotency genes Esrrb, Klf4 and Nanog, and restrains their transcript stability and translation efficiency. In summary, our findings provide for the first time evidence for a critical role for an mRNA epigenetic modification in early mammalian development in vivo, and identify a mechanism that functionally regulates mouse naïve and primed pluripotency in an opposing manner. m6A-seq was measured from total RNA in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), embroid bodies (EBs) and embronic fibroblasts (MEF). 3 biological replicates are available from BVSC ESC line and EBs, and two biological replicates are available for MEFs. Each sample consist of IP to m6A and control input
Project description:Extensive molecular profiling of leukemias and preleukemic diseases has revealed that distinct clinical entities, like acute myeloid (AML) and T-lymphoblastic leukemia, share the same pathogenetic mutations. It is not well understood how the cell of origin, accompanying mutations, extracellular signals or structural differences in a mutated gene determine the phenotypic identity of the malignant disease. We studied the relationship of different protein domains of the MN1 oncogene and their effect on the leukemic phenotype, building on the ability of MN1 to induce leukemia without accompanying mutations. We found that the most C-terminal domain of MN1 was required to block myeloid differentiation at an early stage, and deletion of an extended C-terminal domain resulted in loss of myeloid identity and cell differentiation along the T-cell lineage in vivo. Megakaryocytic/erythroid lineage differentiation was blocked by the most N-terminal domain. In addition, the N-terminus was required for proliferation and leukemogenesis in vitro and in vivo through upregulation of HoxA9, HoxA10 and Meis2. Our results provide evidence that a single oncogene can modulate cellular identity of leukemic cells based on its active domains. It is therefore likely that different mutations in the same oncogene may impact cell fate decisions and phenotypic appearance of malignant diseases. C57BL/6J bone marrow cells were harvested from mice treated for 4 days with 150 mg 5-fluorouracil/kg and stimulated for 48 hours in DMEM supplemented with 15% FBS, 10 ng/mL hIL6, 6ng/mL mIL3, and 20ng/mL mSCF. The cells were infected with MN1, MN1Δ1, and MN1Δ7 retroviral constructs by cocultivation with irradiated E86 viral producer cells in the presence of 5μg/mL protamine sulfate (Sigma) for 48 hours and then transplanted into lethally irradiated syngeneic recipient mice. 4 weeks after transplantation, MN1, MN1Δ1, and MN1Δ7 leukemia cells and Gr1+/CD11b+ bone marrow cells were FACS-sorted and analyzed by Affymetrix GeneChip Mouse 430 2.0 (43,000 probes) microarray.
Project description:modENCODE_submission_2429 This submission comes from a modENCODE project of Michael Snyder. For full list of modENCODE projects, see http://www.genome.gov/26524648 Project Goal: We are identifying the DNA binding sites for 300 transcription factors in C. elegans. Each transcription factor gene is tagged with the same GFP fusion protein, permitting validation of the gene's correct spatio-temporal expression pattern in transgenic animals. Chromatin immunoprecipitation on each strain is peformed using an anti-GFP antibody, and any bound DNA is deep-sequenced using Solexa GA2 technology. For data usage terms and conditions, please refer to http://www.genome.gov/27528022 and http://www.genome.gov/Pages/Research/ENCODE/ENCODEDataReleasePolicyFinal2008.pdf EXPERIMENT TYPE: CHIP-seq. BIOLOGICAL SOURCE: Strain: OP62(made_by : R Waterston description : This strain's transgene was constructed by Mihail Sarov at the Max Planck Institute for Cell Biology in Tubiginen using Tony Hyman's recombineering pipeline. The resulting plasmid was used for biolistic transformation of an unc-119(ed3) strain. The LIN-11::EGFP fusion protein is expressed in the correct lin-11 spatio-temporal expression pattern. This strain was used for ChIP-seq experiments to map the in vivo binding sites for the LIN-11 transcription factor. tags : GFP::3xFlag mutagen : Bombard outcross : 3 genotype : unc-119(ed3) III; wgIs62 [unc-119(+) lin-11::TY1::EGFP::3xFLAG] official name : OP62 ); Developmental Stage: L2; Genotype: unc-119(ed3) III; wgIs62 [unc-119(+) lin-11::TY1::EGFP::3xFLAG]; Sex: Hermaphrodite; EXPERIMENTAL FACTORS: Developmental Stage L2; Target gene lin-11; Strain OP62(made_by : R Waterston description : This strain's transgene was constructed by Mihail Sarov at the Max Planck Institute for Cell Biology in Tubiginen using Tony Hyman's recombineering pipeline. The resulting plasmid was used for biolistic transformation of an unc-119(ed3) strain. The LIN-11::EGFP fusion protein is expressed in the correct lin-11 spatio-temporal expression pattern. This strain was used for ChIP-seq experiments to map the in vivo binding sites for the LIN-11 transcription factor. tags : GFP::3xFlag mutagen : Bombard outcross : 3 genotype : unc-119(ed3) III; wgIs62 [unc-119(+) lin-11::TY1::EGFP::3xFLAG] official name : OP62 ); temp (temperature) 20 degree celsius Series_type: CHIP-seq
Project description:Background: The aim of this study is to improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the sparing of masticatory muscles in ICU patients with acute quadriplegic myopathy (AQM) by using a unique porcine ICU model, i.e., 5-day longitudinal experiments where animals are sedated, mechanically ventilated and exposed to factors triggering AQM, such as muscle unloading, endotoxin-induced sepsis, and systemic exposure to CS and NMBA. Results: An increased expression was notably observed in atrogin-1, cathepsins, FoxO1a, runx1 and heat-shock proteins genes. A decreased expression in some sarcomeric proteins and myostatin genes was also noticed. Hence, modifications in heat-shock proteins and myostatin genes are in sharp contrast to alterations in the limb muscles and it is postulated that elevated heat-shock proteins and decreased myostatin genes play a protective role in the masticatory muscle in ICU patients with AQM. Conclusions: We have observed a general down-regulation of muscle proteins and myostatin. Genes involved in the UPS system, cathepsins, RUNX1, TBX1, TIMP2 and transcripts of heat-shock proteins were up-regulated. However, we have neither observed a decrease in fiber CSA or force generation, suggesting that the expected atrophic changes have been countered by a protective mechanism and myostatin downregulation. Five female domestic piglets were treated with non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBA), corticosteroids(CS) and sepsis. Five female piglets were untreated.