Project description:BACKGROUND: China, with around 30 unique breeds, has a diverse duck genetic pool. Currently, there is no systematic report which investigates the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationship, and matrilineal genetic structure of these domestic breeds and wild mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). RESULTS: In this study, we sequenced the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region segments in 278 domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domestica) from 19 indigenous breeds/populations and 70 wild mallard samples and analyzed them together with the 101 control region sequences from published sources. Fifty-two samples were then sequenced for a cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene fragment to solidify the pattern emerged from the control region sequences. All domestic duck and wild mallard haplotypes were essentially indistinguishable and were clustered together in the phylogenetic tree. There was no geographic differentiation and breed/population-specific distribution of duck lineages. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that unlike other domesticated farm animals in China such as chicken, cattle, goat, and yak with multiple matrilineal components, the matrilineal pool of Chinese ducks was homogenous.
Project description:This study aimed to isolate, culture, and characterize duck primordial germ cells (PGCs) and to compare these cells with chicken PGCs. We first cultured Muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) circulating PGCs and gonadal PGCs (gPGCs) in the modified serum-containing medium used to amplify chicken PGCs. gPGCs were found to proliferate better in serum-free chemically defined medium than in serum-containing medium. Thereafter, gPGCs were similarly isolated from 2 other duck breeds, the Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos) and the hybrid mule duck (C. moschata × A. platyrhynchos), and amplified for a limited period of time in the chemically defined culture condition, but sufficiently to be characterized and transplanted. Cultured gPGCs of all 3 duck breeds were characterized by Periodic acid-Schiff staining, immunocytochemical staining, and expression analysis of germline-specific and pluripotency genes. Cultured duck gPGCs colonized the gonads after being genetically labeled and injected into recipient embryos. Taken together, these results demonstrate that duck PGCs retain their germline characteristics after being isolated, expanded in vitro, and genetically modified. Further studies are required to establish the optimal conditions for long-term culture of duck PGCs, which may involve supplementing the culture medium with other growth factors or compounds.
Project description:Duck egg lysozyme (DEL) is a widely used model antigen owing to its capacity to bind with differential affinity to anti-chicken egg lysozyme antibodies. However, no structures of DEL have so far been reported, and the situation had been complicated by the presence of multiple isoforms and conflicting reports of primary sequence. Here, the structures of two DEL isoforms from the eggs of the commonly used Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos) are reported. Using structural analyses in combination with mass spectrometry, non-ambiguous DEL primary sequences are reported. Furthermore, the structures and sequences determined here enable rationalization of the binding affinity of DEL for well documented landmark anti-lysozyme antibodies.
Project description:The maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop region is widely used for exploring genetic relationships and for investigating the origin of various animal species. Currently, domestic ducks play an important role in animal protein supply. In this study, partial mtDNA D-loop sequences were obtained from 145 samples belonging to six South-East Asian duck populations and commercial duck population. All these populations were closely related to the mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos), as indicated by their mean overall genetic distance. Sixteen nucleotide substitutions were identified in sequence analyses allowing the distinction of 28 haplotypes. Around 42.76% of the duck sequences were classified as Hap_02, which completely matched with Anas platyrhynchos duck species. The neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree also revealed that South-East Asian duck populations were closely related to Anas platyrhynchos. Network profiles were also traced using the 28 haplotypes. Overall, results showed that those duck populations D-loop haplotypes were shared between several duck breeds from Korea and Bangladesh sub continental regions. Therefore, these results confirmed that South-East Asian domestic duck populations have been domesticated from Anas platyrhynchos duck as the maternal origins.
Project description:H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses continue to be a threat to poultry in many regions of the world. Domestic ducks have been recognized as one of the primary factors in the spread of H5N1 HPAI. In this study we examined the pathogenicity of H5N1 HPAI viruses in different species and breeds of domestic ducks and the effect of route of virus inoculation on the outcome of infection. We determined that the pathogenicity of H5N1 HPAI viruses varies between the two common farmed duck species, with Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) presenting more severe disease than various breeds of Anas platyrhynchos var. domestica ducks including Pekin, Mallard-type, Black Runners, Rouen, and Khaki Campbell ducks. We also found that Pekin and Muscovy ducks inoculated with two H5N1 HPAI viruses of different virulence, given by any one of three routes (intranasal, intracloacal, or intraocular), became infected with the viruses. Regardless of the route of inoculation, the outcome of infection was similar for each species but depended on the virulence of the virus used. Muscovy ducks showed more severe clinical signs and higher mortality than the Pekin ducks. In conclusion, domestic ducks are susceptible to H5N1 HPAI virus infection by different routes of exposure, but the presentation of the disease varied by virus strain and duck species. This information helps support the planning and implementation of H5N1 HPAI surveillance and control measures in countries with large domestic duck populations.
Project description:Skeletogenic heterochronies have gained much attention in comparative developmental biology. The temporal appearance of mineralized individual bones in a species - the species ossification sequence - is an excellent marker in this kind of study. Several publications describe interspecific variation, but only very few detail intraspecific variation. In this study, we describe and analyze the temporal order of ossification of skeletal elements in the zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata, the Japanese quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica, and the White Pekin duck, a domestic race of the mallard Anas platyrhynchos, and explore patterns of intraspecific variation in these events. The overall sequences were found to be conserved. In the duck, variability is present in the relative timing of ossification in the occipital, the basisphenoid and the otic regions of the skull and the phalanges in the postcranium. This variation appears generally in close temporal proximity. Comparison with previously published data shows differences in ossification sequence in the skull, the feet, and the pelvis in the duck, and especially the pelvis in the quail. This clearly documents variability among different breeds.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The availability of the complete chicken (Gallus gallus) genome sequence as well as a large number of chicken probes for fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) and microarray resources facilitate comparative genomic studies between chicken and other bird species. In a previous study, we provided a comprehensive cytogenetic map for the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) and the first analysis of copy number variants (CNVs) in birds. Here, we extend this approach to the Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos), an obvious target for comparative genomic studies due to its agricultural importance and resistance to avian flu.<h4>Results</h4>We provide a detailed molecular cytogenetic map of the duck genome through FISH assignment of 155 chicken clones. We identified one inter- and six intrachromosomal rearrangements between chicken and duck macrochromosomes and demonstrated conserved synteny among all microchromosomes analysed. Array comparative genomic hybridisation revealed 32 CNVs, of which 5 overlap previously designated "hotspot" regions between chicken and turkey.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our results suggest extensive conservation of avian genomes across 90 million years of evolution in both macro- and microchromosomes. The data on CNVs between chicken and duck extends previous analyses in chicken and turkey and supports the hypotheses that avian genomes contain fewer CNVs than mammalian genomes and that genomes of evolutionarily distant species share regions of copy number variation ("CNV hotspots"). Our results will expedite duck genomics, assist marker development and highlight areas of interest for future evolutionary and functional studies.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This study was conducted to identify duck liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (LEAP-2) and demonstrate its antimicrobial activity against various pathogens. METHODS:Tissue samples were collected from 6 to 8-week-old Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus), total RNA was extracted, and cDNA was synthesized. To confirm the duck LEAP-2 transcript expression levels, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was conducted. Two kinds of peptides (a linear peptide and a disulfide-type peptide) were synthesized to compare the antimicrobial activity. Then, antimicrobial activity assay and fluorescence microscopic analysis were conducted to demonstrate duck LEAP-2 bactericidal activity. RESULTS:The duck LEAP-2 peptide sequence showed high identity with those of other avian species (>85%), as well as more than 55% of identity with mammalian sequences. LEAP-2 mRNA was highly expressed in the liver with duodenum next, and then followed by lung, spleen, bursa and jejunum and was the lowest in the muscle. Both of LEAP-2 peptides efficiently killed bacteria, although the disulfide-type LEAP-2 showed more powerful bactericidal activity. Also, gram-positive bacteria was more susceptible to duck LEAP-2 than gram-negative bacteria. Using microscopy, we confirmed that LEAP-2 peptides could kill bacteria by disrupting the bacterial cell envelope. CONCLUSION:Duck LEAP-2 showed its antimicrobial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Disulfide bonds were important for the powerful killing effect by disrupting the bacterial cell envelope. Therefore, duck LEAP-2 can be used for effective antibiotics alternatives.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Lysozyme purified from duck eggs (DEL) has long been used as a model antigen as a counterpoint to the enzyme purified from hen eggs (HEL). However, unlike the single C-type variant found in hen eggs, duck eggs contain multiple isoforms: I, II and III. We recently reported the structures of isoforms I and III from Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos) and unequivocally determined the sequences of all three isoforms by mass spectrometry. Here we present the crystal structure of isoform II (DEL-II). RESULTS:Lysozyme isoform II was purified from isoforms I and III using ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography, then crystallized. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.15 Å resolution and the structure of DEL-II was solved by molecular replacement using the structure of DEL-I as the search model. It contains two molecules in the crystallographic asymmetric unit: both molecules display a canonical C-type lysozyme fold and electron density consistent with the expected sequence. The most significant difference between the two molecules concerns different conformations of a surface loop containing one of the expected amino acid differences between the isoforms. CONCLUSIONS:The structure of DEL-II supports the primary sequence as elucidated by a combination of amino acid sequencing, DNA sequencing and mass spectrometry, with strong electron density confirming it to be an S37G G71R variant of DEL I, and differing from hen egg lysozyme at a total of 21 amino acid positions.