Project description:Backgroud: microRNA (miRNA) is implicated in plant development processes, playing pivotal roles in plant adaptation to environmental stresses. Salicornia europaea, a salt mash euhalophyte, is a good model plant to study salt adaptation mechanisms. It is also attractive in being vegetables, forage and oilseed that can be used for saline land reclamation and biofuel precursor production on marginal lands. However, none of the miRNAs from S. europaea have been identified so far. Results: Deep sequencing was performed to investigate small RNA transcriptome of S. europaea. Two hundred and twelve conserved miRNAs comprising 51 families and 31 novel miRNAs (including 7 miRNA star sequences) belonging to 30 families were identified. Interestingly, about half (13 out of 31) of the novel miRNAs were only detected in salt-treated samples. The expression of 43 conserved and 13 novel miRNAs changed significantly in response to salinity. In addition, 53 conserved miRNAs and 13 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed between shoots and roots. Furthermore, a total of 306 and 195 S. europaea unigenes were predicted to be targets of 41 conserved and 29 novel miRNA families, respectively. These targets encode a wide range of proteins, and genes involved in transcription regulation constitute the largest category. Four of them, which encode laccase, F-box family protein, SAC3/GANP family protein, and nadph-cytochrome P450 oxydoreductase, were validated using 5'-RACE. Conclusions: Our results indicate specific miRNAs are tightly regulated by salinity in shoots and/or roots of S. europaea, which play important roles in salt adaptation of this euhalophyte. The S. europaea salt-responsive miRNAs and miRNAs that target transcription factors, nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat proteins and enzymes involved in lignin biosynthesis as well as carbon and nitrogen metabolism may be applied in genetic engineering of crops with higher stress tolerance, and genetic modification of biofuel crops with higher biomass and regulatable lignin biosynthesis. Overall design: The aim of this study is to investigate the miRNAs transcriptome in S. europaeaand identify salt-responsive miRNAs in this euhalophyte. Six sRNA libraries were constructed from the shoots and roots of S. europaea seedlings treated with 200 mM NaCl for 0, 12 hours and 7 days and were sequenced using Illumina HiSeq 2000.
Project description:Understanding the mechanism of low temperature (LT) adaptation is crucial to the development of cold-tolerant crops. To identify the genes involved in the development of LT tolerance in the crown of hexaploid wheat we examined the global changes in genes expression during cold-treatment using the Affymetrix Wheat Genome Chip. Time-series experiment with 4 genotypes x 8 time-points X 3 biological replicates in random block design; 96 hybridizations
Project description:Cytosine methylation silences transposable elements in plants, vertebrates and fungi, but also regulates gene expression1. Plant methylation is catalyzed by three families of enzymes, each with a preferred sequence context: CG, CHG (H = A, C or T) and CHH, with CHH methylation targeted by the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway2. Arabidopsis thaliana endosperm, a placenta-like tissue that nourishes the embryo, is globally hypomethylated in the CG context while retaining high non-CG methylation3. Global methylation dynamics in seeds of cereal crops that provide the bulk of human nutrition remain unknown. Here we show that rice endosperm DNA is hypomethylated in all sequence contexts. Non-CG methylation is reduced evenly across the genome, while CG hypomethylation is localized. CHH methylation of small transposable elements is increased in embryos, suggesting that endosperm demethylation enhances transposon silencing. Genes preferentially expressed in endosperm, including those coding for major storage proteins and starch synthesizing enzymes, are frequently hypomethylated in endosperm, indicating that DNA methylation is a crucial regulator of rice endosperm biogenesis. Our data demonstrate that genome-wide reshaping of seed DNA methylation is conserved among angiosperms and has a profound effect on gene expression in cereal crops. Keywords: Epigenetics Examination of DNA methylation in rice