Project description:Vibrio cholerae O139 is a recently identified non-O1 V. cholerae strain responsible for outbreaks of epidemic cholera in India, Bangladesh, and Thailand in the past 2 years. Other workers have demonstrated the presence of the cholera toxin genetic element in V. cholerae O139, unlike the situation for other non-O1 V. cholerae strains. We sought to compare further this strain with strains of V. cholerae O1, classical and El Tor biotypes, by classic microbiologic methods, Southern blot analysis for restriction fragment length polymorphisms with probes for iron-regulated genes of V. cholerae O1, and comparisons of outer membrane protein profiles. Our results were similar for V. cholerae O139 and the El Tor biotype of V. cholerae O1, with the exception of the constitutive expression in V. cholerae O139 of OmpS, an outer membrane protein that was maltose inducible in comparison strains of V. cholerae O1.
Project description:We determined the types of cholera toxin (CT) produced by a collection of 185 Vibrio cholerae O1 strains isolated in Bangladesh over the past 45 years. All of the El Tor strains of V. cholerae O1 isolated since 2001 produced CT of the classical biotype, while those isolated before 2001 produced CT of the El Tor biotype.
Project description:A total of 330 clinical Vibrio cholerae O1 serogroups from China dating between 1961 and 2010 were investigated. By phenotypic biotyping and genetic analysis, during the seventh pandemic of V. cholerae O1 in China, the isolates of hybrid biotype (mixed classical phenotypes) were present during the entire1961-2010 period, while El Tor genetic shifts appeared in 1992 and replaced the prototype El Tor from 2002 to 2010.
Project description:Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor biotype strains are responsible for three multiyear epidemics of cholera in China during the seventh ongoing pandemic. The presence of the integrative conjugative element SXT is strongly correlated with resistance to nalidixic acid, tetracycline, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in these strains. Here, we sequenced the conserved genes of the SXT element, including eex, setR, and int, from 59 V. cholerae O1 El Tor strains and extracted and assembled the intact SXT sequences from the 11 genome sequenced strains. These elements had characteristics distinct from those of previously reported integrative conjugative elements (ICEs). They could be clearly divided into two types based on the clustering of conserved genes and gene structures of the elements, showing their possibly independent derivation and evolution. These two types were present before and after 2005, respectively, demonstrating the type substitution that occurred in 2005. Four to six antibiotic-resistant genes were found on the SXT elements, including genes resistant to tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and multiple drugs. In summary, our findings demonstrated the roles of the SXT element in the emergence of multidrug resistance in epidemic O1 El Tor V. cholerae strains in China.
Project description:The 2 biotypes of Vibrio cholerae O1 serogroup strains-classical and El Tor-use glucose in distinct ways. Classical biotype strains perform organic acid-producing fermentation and eventually lose viability due to the self-induced creation of an acidic environment, whereas El Tor biotype strains use an alternative neutral fermentation pathway, which confers them with survival advantages. However, we report that the neutral fermentation pathway has only been recruited in prototype Wave 1 El Tor biotype strains, which have not been isolated since the mid-1990s. Current Wave 2 and Wave 3 atypical El Tor strains contain a single-base deletion in a gene that directs bacteria toward neutral fermentation, resulting in the loss of neutral fermentation and an appearance that is similar to classical biotype strains. Moreover, when sufficient glucose was supplied, Wave 1 El Tor strains maintained their use of acid-producing fermentation, in parallel with neutral fermentation, and thus lost viability in the late stationary phase. The global replacement of Wave 1 El Tor strains by Wave 2 and 3 atypical El Tor strains implies that the acidic fermentation pathway may not be disadvantageous to V. cholerae. The characteristics that we have reported might improve oral rehydration in the treatment of cholera.
Project description:Pandemic V. cholerae strains in the O1 serogroup have 2 biotypes: classical and El Tor. The classical biotype strains of the sixth pandemic, which encode the classical type cholera toxin (CT), have been replaced by El Tor biotype strains of the seventh pandemic. The prototype El Tor strains that produce biotype-specific cholera toxin are being replaced by atypical El Tor variants that harbor classical cholera toxin. Atypical El Tor strains are categorized into 2 groups, Wave 2 and Wave 3 strains, based on genomic variations and the CTX phage that they harbor. Whole-genome analysis of V. cholerae strains in the seventh cholera pandemic has demonstrated gradual changes in the genome of prototype and atypical El Tor strains, indicating that atypical strains arose from the prototype strains by replacing the CTX phages. We examined the molecular mechanisms that effected the emergence of El Tor strains with classical cholera toxin-carrying phage. We isolated an intermediary V. cholerae strain that carried two different CTX phages that encode El Tor and classical cholera toxin, respectively. We show here that the intermediary strain can be converted into various Wave 2 strains and can act as the source of the novel mosaic CTX phages. These results imply that the Wave 2 and Wave 3 strains may have been generated from such intermediary strains in nature. Prototype El Tor strains can become Wave 3 strains by excision of CTX-1 and re-equipping with the new CTX phages. Our data suggest that inter-chromosomal recombination between 2 types of CTX phages is possible when a host bacterial cell is infected by multiple CTX phages. Our study also provides molecular insights into population changes in V. cholerae in the absence of significant changes to the genome but by replacement of the CTX prophage that they harbor.
Project description:Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative waterborne human pathogen and the causative agent of cholera. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of the seventh pandemic O1 biovar El Tor Inaba strain A1552 isolated in 1992. This clinical strain has served as an important model strain for studying cholera pathogenicity traits.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The cholera outbreaks in Thailand during 2007-2010 were exclusively caused by the Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor variant carrying the cholera toxin gene of the classical biotype. We previously isolated a V. cholerae O1 El Tor strain from a patient with diarrhea and designated it MS6. Multilocus sequence-typing analysis revealed that MS6 is most closely related to the U. S. Gulf Coast clone with the exception of two novel housekeeping genes.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>The nucleotide sequence of the genome of MS6 was determined and compared with those of 26 V. cholerae strains isolated from clinical and environmental sources worldwide. We show here that the MS6 isolate is distantly related to the ongoing seventh pandemic V. cholerae O1 El Tor strains. These strains differ with respect to polymorphisms in housekeeping genes, seventh pandemic group-specific markers, CTX phages, two genes encoding predicted transmembrane proteins, the presence of metY (MS6_A0927) or hchA/luxR in a highly conserved region of the V. cholerae O1 serogroup, and a superintegron (SI). We found that V. cholerae species carry either hchA/luxR or metY and that the V. cholerae O1 clade commonly possesses hchA/luxR, except for MS6 and U. S. Gulf Coast strains. These findings illuminate the evolutionary relationships among V. cholerae O1 strains. Moreover, the MS6 SI carries a quinolone-resistance gene cassette, which was closely related with those present in plasmid-borne integrons of other gram-negative bacteria.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>Phylogenetic analysis reveals that MS6 is most closely related to a U. S. Gulf Coast clone, indicating their divergence before that of the El Tor biotype strains from a common V. cholerae O1 ancestor. We propose that MS6 serves as an environmental aquatic reservoir of V. cholerae O1.
Project description:Bacteriophage VP4 is a lytic phage of the Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1, and it is used in phage subtyping of V. cholerae biotype El Tor. Studies of phage infection mechanisms will promote the understanding of the basis of phage subtyping as well as the genetic differences between sensitive and resistant strains. In this study, we investigated the receptor that phage VP4 uses to bind to El Tor strains of V. cholerae and found that it infects strains through adsorbing the O antigen of V. cholerae O1. In some natural isolates that are resistant to VP4 infection, mutations were identified in the wb* cluster (O-antigen gene cluster), which is responsible for the biosynthesis of O antigen. Mutations in the manB, wbeE, and wbeU genes caused failure of adsorption of VP4 to these strains, whereas the observed amino acid residue mutations within wbeW and manC have no effect on VP4 infection. Additionally, although mutations in two resistant strains were found only in manB and wbeW, complementing both genes did not restore sensitivity to VP4 infection, suggesting that other resistance mechanisms may exist. Therefore, the mechanism of VP4 infection may provide a basis for subtyping the phage. Elaborate mutations of the O antigen may imbue V. cholerae strains with resistance to phage infection.
Project description:The complete genome sequence of bacteriophage VPUSM 8 against O1 El Tor Inaba Vibrio cholerae is reported here. The isolated VPUSM 8 has potential use in future phage therapy or as a biocontrol agent for the prevention and treatment of cholera.