Project description:Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 was isolated from stools of a breast-fed infant. Although, this strain is generally considered an adult-type bifidobacterial species, it has also been shown to have pre-clinical efficacy in obesity models. In order to understand the molecular basis of its adaptation to complex carbohydrates and improve its potential functionality, we have analyzed its genome and transcriptome, as well as its metabolic output when growing in galacto-oligosaccharides derived from lactulose (GOS-Lu) as carbon source. B. pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 shows strain-specific genome regions, including a great diversity of sugar metabolic-related genes. A preliminary and exploratory transcriptome analysis suggests candidate over-expression of several genes coding for sugar transporters and permeases; furthermore, five out of seven beta-galactosidases identified in the genome could be activated in response to GOS-Lu exposure. Here, we also propose that a specific gene cluster is involved in controlling the import and hydrolysis of certain di- and tri-saccharides, which seemed to be those primarily taken-up by the bifidobacterial strain. This was discerned from mass spectrometry-based quantification of different saccharide fractions of culture supernatants. Our results confirm that the expression of genes involved in sugar transport and metabolism and in the synthesis of leucine, an amino acid with a key role in glucose and energy homeostasis, was up-regulated by GOS-Lu. This was done using qPCR in addition to the exploratory information derived from the single-replicated RNAseq approach, together with the functional annotation of genes predicted to be encoded in the B. pseudocatenulatum CETC 7765 genome.
Project description:<h4>Background/objectives</h4>The role of intestinal dysbiosis in obesity-associated systemic inflammation via the cross-talk with peripheral tissues is under debate. Our objective was to decipher the mechanisms by which intervention in the gut ecosystem with a specific Bifidobacterium strain reduces systemic inflammation and improves metabolic dysfunction in obese high-fat diet (HFD) fed mice.<h4>Methods</h4>Adult male wild-type C57BL-6 mice were fed either a standard or HFD, supplemented with placebo or Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765, for 14 weeks. Lymphocytes, macrophages and cytokine/chemokine concentrations were quantified in blood, gut, liver and adipose tissue using bead-based multiplex assays. Biochemical parameters in serum were determined by ELISA and enzymatic assays. Histology was assessed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR.<h4>Results</h4>B. pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 reduced obesity-associated systemic inflammation by restoring the balance between regulatory T cells (Tregs) and B lymphocytes and reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines of adaptive (IL-17A) and innate (TNF-?) immunity and endotoxemia. In the gut, the bifidobacterial administration partially restored the HFD-induced alterations in microbiota, reducing abundances of Firmicutes and of LPS-producing Proteobacteria, paralleled to reductions in B cells, macrophages, and cytokines (IL-6, MCP-1, TNF-?, IL-17A), which could contribute to systemic effects. In adipose tissue, bifidobacterial administration reduced B cells whereas in liver the treatment increased Tregs and shifted different cytokines (MCP-1 plus ILP-10 in adipose tissue and INF-? plus IL-1? in liver). In both tissues, the bifidobacteria reduced pro-inflammatory macrophages and, TNF-? and IL-17A concentrations. These effects were accompanied by reductions in body weight gain and in serum cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose and insulin levels and improved oral glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in obese mice.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Here, we provide evidence of the immune cellular mechanisms by which the inflammatory cascade associated with diet-induced obesity is attenuated by the administration of a specific Bifidobacterium strain and that these effects are associated with modulation of gut microbiota structure.
Project description:Two novel phytases have been characterized from Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis. The enzymes belong to a new subclass within the histidine acid phytases, are highly specific for the hydrolysis of phytate, and render myo-inositol triphosphate as the final hydrolysis product. They represent the first phytases characterized from this group of probiotic microorganisms, opening the possibilities for their use in the processing of high-phytate-content foods.
Project description:We report the 2.24-Mb draft genome sequence of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum Bif4, isolated from a fecal sample from a healthy infant. The specific annotations revealed genes predictive of its probiotic attributes.
Project description:We used Affymetrix microarrays to investigate gene expression changes in the liver of wild-type C57BL-6 mice exposed to a high-fat diet that might have been caused by the oral consumption of the probiotic B. pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765. The aim of this work was to determine whether the daily intake (by oral gavage) of the probiotic (P) B. pseudocatenulatum for seven weeks exerted any modulatory effects, at the level of gene expression, in the liver of C57BL-6 male mice exposed to a high-fat diet (HFD). Male mice were randomly assigned to four experimental groups (n= 5 animals per group) as follows: (1) control group, fed a standard diet (SD); (2) obese group, fed a high-fat diet (HFD); (3) a group that received the SD and a daily dose of the probiotic (1×109 CFU B. pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765) (SD+P); and (d) an obese group that was fed the HFD and a daily dose of the probiotic (1×109 CFU B. pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765) (HFD+P). At the end of the experimental procedure total RNA was extracted from the liver to compare differential gene expression between the groups. Liver differential gene expression after 7 weeks of supplementation between: 1) the HFD group and the SD group (effects of the high-fat diet); 2) the HFD+P and the HFD (effects of the probiotic on the consumption of a high-fat diet) and 3) the SD+P group and the SD (direct effects of the probiotic on the liver of animals consuming a normal diet).
Project description:Bifidobacterium species, including Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, are among the dominant microbial populations of the human gastrointestinal tract. They are also major components of many commercial probiotic products. Resident and transient bifidobacteria are thought to have several beneficial health effects. However, our knowledge of how these bacteria interact and communicate with host cells remains poor. This knowledge is essential for scientific support of their purported health benefits and their rational inclusion in functional foods.This work describes the draft genome sequence of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum IPLA 36007, a strain isolated as dominant from the feces of a healthy human. Besides several properties of probiosis, IPLA 36007 exhibited the capability of releasing aglycones from soy isoflavone glycosides. The genome contains 1,851 predicted genes, including 54 genes for tRNAs and fie copies of unique 16S, 23S and 5S rRNA genes. As key attributes of the IPLA 36007 genome we can mention the presence of a lysogenic phage, a cluster encoding type IV fimbriae, and a locus encoding a clustered, regularly interspaced, short, palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas system. Four open reading frames (orfs) encoding ?-glucosidases belonging to the glycosyl hydrolase family 3, which may act on isoflavone glycosides, were encountered. Additionally, one gene was found to code for a glycosyl hydrolase of family 1 that might also have ?-glucosidase activity.The availability of the B. pseudocatenulatum IPLA 36007 genome should allow the enzyme system involved in the release of soy isoflavone aglycones from isoflavone glycosides, and the molecular mechanisms underlying the strain's probiotic properties, to be more easily understood.
Project description:Arabinoxylan hydrolysates (AXH) are the hydrolyzed products of the major components of the dietary fiber arabinoxylan. AXH include diverse oligosaccharides varying in xylose polymerization and side residue modifications with arabinose at the O-2 and/or O-3 position of the xylose unit. Previous studies have reported that AXH exhibit prebiotic properties on gut bifidobacteria; moreover, several adult-associated bifidobacterial species (e.g., <i>Bifidobacterium adolescentis</i> and <i>Bifidobacterium longum</i> subsp. <i>longum</i>) are known to utilize AXH. In this study, we tried to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of AXH utilization by <i>Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum</i>, which is a common bifidobacterial species found in adult feces. We performed transcriptomic analysis of <i>B. pseudocatenulatum</i> YIT 4072<sup>T</sup>, which identified three upregulated gene clusters during AXH utilization. The gene clusters encoded three sets of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and five enzymes belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 43 (GH43). By characterizing the recombinant proteins, we found that three solute-binding proteins of ABC transporters showed either broad or narrow specificity, two arabinofuranosidases hydrolyzed either single- or double-decorated arabinoxylooligosaccharides, and three xylosidases exhibited functionally identical activity. These data collectively suggest that the transporters and glycoside hydrolases, encoded in the three gene clusters, work together to utilize AXH of different sizes and with different side residue modifications. Thus, our study sheds light on the overall picture of how these proteins collaborate for the utilization of AXH in <i>B. pseudocatenulatum</i> and may explain the predominance of this symbiont species in the adult human gut.<b>IMPORTANCE</b> Bifidobacteria commonly reside in the human intestine and possess abundant genes involved in carbohydrate utilization. Arabinoxylan hydrolysates (AXH) are hydrolyzed products of arabinoxylan, one of the most abundant dietary fibers, and they include xylooligosaccharides and those decorated with arabinofuranosyl residues. The molecular mechanism by which <i>B. pseudocatenulatum</i>, a common bifidobacterial species found in adult feces, utilizes structurally and compositionally variable AXH has yet to be extensively investigated. In this study, we identified three gene clusters (encoding five GH43 enzymes and three solute-binding proteins of ABC transporters) that were upregulated in <i>B. pseudocatenulatum</i> YIT 4072<sup>T</sup> during AXH utilization. By investigating their substrate specificities, we revealed how these proteins are involved in the uptake and degradation of AXH. These molecular insights may provide a better understanding of how resident bifidobacteria colonize the colon.
Project description:Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis CECT 7210 is a probiotic strain able to inhibit rotavirus in vitro and protect against viral infection in both cell cultures and mice. Here, we report its complete genome sequence, as deciphered by PacBio single-molecule real-time (SMRT) technology. An analysis of the sequence may provide insights into its functional activity.
Project description:The gut microbiota is altered in liver diseases, and several probiotics have been shown to reduce the degree of liver damage. We hypothesized that oral administration of specific Bifidobacterium strains isolated from healthy guts could attenuate liver injury. Five strains were tested in this study. Acute liver injury was induced by D-galactosamine after pretreating Sprague-Dawley rats with the Bifidobacterium strains, and liver function, liver and ileum histology, plasma cytokines, bacterial translocation and the gut microbiome were assessed. Two strains, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum LI09 and Bifidobacterium catenulatum LI10, conferred liver protection, as well as alleviated the increase in plasma M-CSF, MIP-1? and MCP-1 and bacterial translocation. They also ameliorated ileal mucosal injury and gut flora dysbiosis, especially the enrichment of the opportunistic pathogen Parasutterella and the depletion of the SCFA-producing bacteria Anaerostipes, Coprococcus and Clostridium XI. Negative correlations were found between MIP-1? / MCP-1 and Odoribacter (LI09 group) and MIP-1? / M-CSF and Flavonifractor (LI10 group). Our results indicate that the liver protection effects might be mediated through gut microbiota modification, which thus affect the host immune profile. The desirable characteristics of these two strains may enable them to serve as potential probiotics for the prevention or adjuvant treatment of liver injury.