Project description:Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 was isolated from stools of a breast-fed infant. Although, this strain is generally considered an adult-type bifidobacterial species, it has also been shown to have pre-clinical efficacy in obesity models. In order to understand the molecular basis of its adaptation to complex carbohydrates and improve its potential functionality, we have analyzed its genome and transcriptome, as well as its metabolic output when growing in galacto-oligosaccharides derived from lactulose (GOS-Lu) as carbon source. B. pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 shows strain-specific genome regions, including a great diversity of sugar metabolic-related genes. A preliminary and exploratory transcriptome analysis suggests candidate over-expression of several genes coding for sugar transporters and permeases; furthermore, five out of seven beta-galactosidases identified in the genome could be activated in response to GOS-Lu exposure. Here, we also propose that a specific gene cluster is involved in controlling the import and hydrolysis of certain di- and tri-saccharides, which seemed to be those primarily taken-up by the bifidobacterial strain. This was discerned from mass spectrometry-based quantification of different saccharide fractions of culture supernatants. Our results confirm that the expression of genes involved in sugar transport and metabolism and in the synthesis of leucine, an amino acid with a key role in glucose and energy homeostasis, was up-regulated by GOS-Lu. This was done using qPCR in addition to the exploratory information derived from the single-replicated RNAseq approach, together with the functional annotation of genes predicted to be encoded in the B. pseudocatenulatum CETC 7765 genome.
Project description:Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) are versatile food ingredients that possess prebiotic properties. However, at present there is a lack of precise analytical methods to demonstrate specific GOS consumption by bifidobacteria. To better understand the role of GOS as prebiotics, purified GOS (pGOS) without disaccharides and monosaccharides was prepared and used in bacterial fermentation experiments. Growth curves showed that all bifidobacteria assayed utilized and grew on pGOS preparations. We used a novel mass spectrometry approach involving matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (MALDI-FTICR) to determine the composition of oligosaccharides in GOS syrup preparations. MALDI-FTICR analysis of spent fermentation media demonstrated that there was preferential consumption of selected pGOS species by different bifidobacteria. The approach described here demonstrates that MALDI-FTICR is a rapid-throughput tool for comprehensive profiling of oligosaccharides in GOS mixtures. In addition, the selective consumption of certain GOS species by different bifidobacteria suggests a means for targeting prebiotics to enrich select bifidobacterial species.
Project description:Prebiotic oligosaccharides are widely used as human and animal feed additives for their beneficial effects on the gut microbiota. However, there are limited data to assess the direct effect of such functional foods on the transcriptome of intestinal epithelial cells. The purpose of this study is to describe the differential transcriptomes and cellular pathways of colonic cells directly exposed to galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS). We have examined the differential gene expression of polarized Caco-2 cells treated with GOS or FOS products and their respective mock-treated cells using mRNA sequencing (RNA-seq). A total of 89 significant differentially expressed genes were identified between GOS and mock-treated groups. For FOS treatment, a reduced number of 12 significant genes were observed to be differentially expressed relative to the control group. KEGG and gene ontology functional analysis revealed that genes up-regulated in the presence of GOS were involved in digestion and absorption processes, fatty acids and steroids metabolism, potential antimicrobial proteins, energy-dependent and -independent transmembrane trafficking of solutes and amino acids. Using our data, we have established complementary non-prebiotic modes of action for these frequently used dietary fibers.
Project description:<h4>Background/objectives</h4>The role of intestinal dysbiosis in obesity-associated systemic inflammation via the cross-talk with peripheral tissues is under debate. Our objective was to decipher the mechanisms by which intervention in the gut ecosystem with a specific Bifidobacterium strain reduces systemic inflammation and improves metabolic dysfunction in obese high-fat diet (HFD) fed mice.<h4>Methods</h4>Adult male wild-type C57BL-6 mice were fed either a standard or HFD, supplemented with placebo or Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765, for 14 weeks. Lymphocytes, macrophages and cytokine/chemokine concentrations were quantified in blood, gut, liver and adipose tissue using bead-based multiplex assays. Biochemical parameters in serum were determined by ELISA and enzymatic assays. Histology was assessed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR.<h4>Results</h4>B. pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 reduced obesity-associated systemic inflammation by restoring the balance between regulatory T cells (Tregs) and B lymphocytes and reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines of adaptive (IL-17A) and innate (TNF-?) immunity and endotoxemia. In the gut, the bifidobacterial administration partially restored the HFD-induced alterations in microbiota, reducing abundances of Firmicutes and of LPS-producing Proteobacteria, paralleled to reductions in B cells, macrophages, and cytokines (IL-6, MCP-1, TNF-?, IL-17A), which could contribute to systemic effects. In adipose tissue, bifidobacterial administration reduced B cells whereas in liver the treatment increased Tregs and shifted different cytokines (MCP-1 plus ILP-10 in adipose tissue and INF-? plus IL-1? in liver). In both tissues, the bifidobacteria reduced pro-inflammatory macrophages and, TNF-? and IL-17A concentrations. These effects were accompanied by reductions in body weight gain and in serum cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose and insulin levels and improved oral glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in obese mice.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Here, we provide evidence of the immune cellular mechanisms by which the inflammatory cascade associated with diet-induced obesity is attenuated by the administration of a specific Bifidobacterium strain and that these effects are associated with modulation of gut microbiota structure.
Project description:We used Affymetrix microarrays to investigate gene expression changes in the liver of wild-type C57BL-6 mice exposed to a high-fat diet that might have been caused by the oral consumption of the probiotic B. pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765. The aim of this work was to determine whether the daily intake (by oral gavage) of the probiotic (P) B. pseudocatenulatum for seven weeks exerted any modulatory effects, at the level of gene expression, in the liver of C57BL-6 male mice exposed to a high-fat diet (HFD). Male mice were randomly assigned to four experimental groups (n= 5 animals per group) as follows: (1) control group, fed a standard diet (SD); (2) obese group, fed a high-fat diet (HFD); (3) a group that received the SD and a daily dose of the probiotic (1×109 CFU B. pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765) (SD+P); and (d) an obese group that was fed the HFD and a daily dose of the probiotic (1×109 CFU B. pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765) (HFD+P). At the end of the experimental procedure total RNA was extracted from the liver to compare differential gene expression between the groups. Liver differential gene expression after 7 weeks of supplementation between: 1) the HFD group and the SD group (effects of the high-fat diet); 2) the HFD+P and the HFD (effects of the probiotic on the consumption of a high-fat diet) and 3) the SD+P group and the SD (direct effects of the probiotic on the liver of animals consuming a normal diet).
Project description:Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) shape gut microbiota during infancy by acting as fermentable energy source. Using a semi-continuous colon simulator, effect of an HMO, 2'-fucosyllactose (2'-FL), on composition of the infant microbiota and microbial metabolites was evaluated in comparison to galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) and lactose and control without additional carbon source. Data was analysed according to faecal sample donor feeding type: breast-fed (BF) or formula-fed (FF), and to rate of 2'-FL fermentation: fast or slow. Variation was found between the simulations in the ability to utilise 2'-FL. The predominant phyla regulated by 2'-FL, GOS and lactose were significant increase in Firmicutes, numerical in Actinobacteria, and numerical decrease in Proteobacteria compared to control. Verrucomicrobia increased in FF accounted for Akkermansia, whereas in fast-fermenting simulations Actinobacteria increased with trend for higher Bifidobacterium, and Proteobacteria decrease accounted for Enterobacteriaceae. Short-chain fatty acids and lactic acid with 2'-FL were produced in intermediate levels being between ones generated by the control and GOS or lactose. In 2'-FL fast-fermenting group, acetic acid specifically increased with 2'-FL, whereas lactose and GOS also increased lactic acid. The results highlight specificity of 2'-FL as energy source for only certain microbes over GOS and lactose in the simulated gut model.
Project description:The direct effects of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), including Vivinal® GOS syrup (VGOS) and purified Vivinal® GOS (PGOS), on the epithelial integrity and corresponding interleukin-8 (IL-8/CXCL8) release were examined in a Caco-2 cell model for intestinal barrier dysfunction. To investigate structure-activity relationships, the effects of individual DP fractions of VGOS were evaluated. Moreover, the obtained results with GOS were compared with Caco-2 monolayers incubated with fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and inulin.Caco-2 monolayers were pretreated (24 h) with or without specific oligosaccharides or DP fractions of VGOS (DP2 to DP6) before being exposed for 12 or 24 h to the fungal toxin deoxynivalenol (DON). Transepithelial electrical resistance and lucifer yellow permeability were measured to investigate barrier integrity. A calcium switch assay was used to study the reassembly of tight junction proteins. Release of CXCL8, a typical marker for inflammation, was quantified by ELISA.In comparison with PGOS, FOS and inulin, VGOS showed the most pronounced protective effect on the DON-induced impairment of the monolayer integrity, acceleration of the tight junction reassembly and the subsequent CXCL8 release. DP2 and DP3 in concentrations occurring in VGOS prevented the DON-induced epithelial barrier disruption, which could be related to their high prevalence in VGOS. However, no effects of the separate DP GOS fractions were observed on CXCL8 release.This comparative study demonstrates the direct, microbiota-independent effects of oligosaccharides on the intestinal barrier function and shows the differences between individual galacto- and fructo-oligosaccharides. This microbiota-independent effect of oligosaccharides depends on the oligosaccharide structure, DP length and concentration.
Project description:Oligosaccharides (OS) are commonly added to infant formulas, however, their physiological impact, particularly on adult health programming, is poorly described. In adult animals, OS modify microbiota and stimulate colonic fermentation and enteroendocrine cell (EEC) activity. Since neonatal changes in microbiota and/or EEC density could be long-lasting and EEC-derived peptides do regulate short-term food intake, we hypothesized that neonatal OS consumption could modulate early EECs, with possible consequences for adult eating behavior. Suckling rats were supplemented with fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), beta-galacto-oligosaccharides/inulin (GOS/In) mix, alpha-galacto-oligosaccharides (αGOS) at 3.2 g/kg, or a control solution (CTL) between postnatal day (PND) 5 and 14/15. Pups were either sacrificed at PND14/15 or weaned at PND21 onto standard chow. The effects on both microbiota and EEC were characterized at PND14/15, and eating behavior at adulthood. Very early OS supplementation drastically impacted the intestinal environment, endocrine lineage proliferation/differentiation particularly in the ileum, and the density of GLP-1 cells and production of satiety-related peptides (GLP-1 and PYY) in the neonatal period. However, it failed to induce any significant lasting changes on intestinal microbiota, enteropeptide secretion or eating behavior later in life. Overall, the results did not demonstrate any OS programming effect on satiety peptides secreted by L-cells or on food consumption, an observation which is a reassuring outlook from a human perspective.
Project description:This study investigated the suppression of photoaging by galacto-oligosaccharide (GOS) ingestion following exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To investigate its photoprotective effects, GOS along with collagen tripeptide (CTP) as a positive control was orally administered to hairless mice under UVB exposure for 8 weeks. The water holding capacity, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and wrinkle parameters were measured. Additionally, quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting were used to determine mRNA expression and protein levels, respectively. The GOS or CTP orally-administered group showed a decreased water holding capacity and increased TEWL compared to those of the control group, which was exposed to UVB (CON) only. In addition, the wrinkle area and mean wrinkle length in the GOS and CTP groups significantly decreased. Skin aging-related genes, matrix metalloproteinase, had significantly different expression levels in the CTP and GOS groups. Additionally, the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases and collagen type I gene expression in the CTP and GOS groups significantly increased. Oral administration of GOS and CTP significantly lowered the tissue cytokine (interleukin-6 and -12, and tumor necrosis factor-?) levels. There was a significant difference in UVB-induced phosphorylation of JNK, p38, and ERK between the GOS group and the CON group. Our findings indicate that GOS intake can suppress skin damage caused by UV light and has a UV photoprotective effect.
Project description:Prebiotics are selectively fermented ingredients that result in specific changes in the composition and/or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota, thus conferring benefit(s) upon the host health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a ?(1-4)galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) formulation consisting of 90% pure GOS (GOS90), on the composition and activity of the mouse gut microbiota. Germ-free mice were colonised with microbiota from four pathogen-free wt 129 mice donors (SPF), and stools were collected during a feeding trial in which GOS90 was delivered orally for 14 days. Pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA amplicons showed that Bifidobacterium and specific Lactobacillus, Bacteroides and Clostridiales were more prevalent in GOS90-fed mice after 14 days, although the prebiotic impact on Bifidobacterium varied among individual mice. Prebiotic feeding also resulted in decreased abundance of Bacteroidales, Helicobacter and Clostridium. High-throughput quantitative PCR showed an increased abundance of Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, Bifidobacterium lactis and Bifidobacterium gallicum in the prebiotic-fed mice. Control female mice showed a higher diversity (phylogenetic diversity (PD) = 15.1 ± 3.4 in stools and PD = 13.0 ± 0.6 in intestinal contents) than control males (PD = 7.8 ± 1.6 in stool samples and PD = 9.5 ± 1.0 in intestinal contents). GOS90 did not modify inflammatory biomarkers (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-12, IL-1?, interferon gamma and tumour necrosis factor alpha). Decreased butyrate, acetate and lactate concentrations in stools of prebiotic fed mice suggested an increase in colonic absorption and reduced excretion. Overall, our results demonstrate that GOS90 is capable of modulating the intestinal microbiome resulting in expansion of the probiome (autochtonous commensal intestinal bacteria considered to have a beneficial influence on health).