Project description:Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been a threat to poultry industry in most of the developing countries with a wide variety of avian species being susceptible, coupled with the presence of mobile wild bird reservoirs contributing not only to the vast genomic diversity of this virus but also to the diagnostic failures. NDV of multiple genotypes (I-XI) is known to be prevalent and reported worldwide. However, there is a paucity of information on the circulating genotypes of NDV in India. This study utilized the fusion protein cleavage site (FPCS) sequence to determine the different genotypes of NDV circulating in India. Our results indicate that majority of NDV isolates from southern states of India namely, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka were found to belong to genotype II. However, some of the strains from Tamil Nadu and most from Uttar Pradesh belong to genotype groups VI and VII. Interestingly, three isolates recovered from Tamil Nadu grouped with genotype IV viruses (namely Herts/33) which had not been hitherto reported to GenBank since 1989. This preliminary information points to the existence of multiple genotypes and also the need for efficacy studies with vaccines incorporating multiple genotypes in controlling virulent NDV (vNDV) outbreaks in India.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Rising health spending is associated with high out-of-pocket expenditure (OOPE), catastrophic health spending (CHS), increasing poverty, and impoverishment. Though studies have examined poverty and impoverishment effect of health spending in India, there is limited research on the regional patterns of health spending by type of health centers. This paper tests the hypothesis that the poor people from the poorer states of India pay significantly more for hospitalization in public health centers than those in the richer states of India. METHODS:Data from the Social Consumption of Health Survey (71st round, 2014), carried out by the National Sample Survey (NSS) is used in the analyses. Descriptive statistics, log-linear regression model and tobit model were used to examine the determinants and variations in health spending. RESULTS:Inter-state variations in the utilization of public health services and the OOPE on hospitalization are high in India. States with high levels of poverty make higher use of the public health centers and yet incur high OOPE. In 2014, the mean OOPE per episode of hospitalization in public health centers in India was ₹5688 and ₹4264 for the economically poor households. It was lowest in the economically developed state of Tamil Nadu and highest in the economically poorer state of Bihar. The OOPE per episode of hospitalization in public health centers among the poor in the poorer states was at least twice that in Tamil Nadu. Among the poor using public health centers, the share of direct cost account 24% in Tamil Nadu compared to over 80% in Bihar, Odisha and other poorer states. Adjusting for socio-economic correlates, the cost of hospitalization per episode (CHPE) among the poor using public health centers was 51% lower than for the non-poor using private health centers in India. CONCLUSION:The poor people in the poorer states in India pay significantly more to avail hospitalization in public health centers than those in the developed states. Provision of free medicines, surgery and free diagnostic tests in public health centers may reduce the high OOPE and medical poverty in India.
Project description:We report here the draft genome sequence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli sequence type 648 (ST648) possessing blaNDM-5 from a 55-year-old female in Australia with a history of travel to India. The plasmid-mediated blaNDM-5 was in a genetic context nearly identical to that of the GenBank entry of an IncX3 blaNDM-5 plasmid previously reported from India (Klebsiella pneumoniae MGR-K194).
Project description:Over 20,000 rabies deaths occur annually in India, representing one-third of global human rabies. The Indian state of Tamil Nadu has pioneered a "One Health" committee to address the challenge of rabies in dogs and humans. Currently, rabies control in Tamil Nadu involves postexposure vaccination of humans after dog bites, whereas potential supplemental approaches include canine vaccination and sterilization. We developed a data-driven rabies transmission model fit to human rabies autopsy data and human rabies surveillance data from Tamil Nadu. Integrating local estimates for canine demography and costs, we predicted the impact of canine vaccination and sterilization on human health outcomes and evaluated cost-effectiveness according to the WHO criteria for India, which correspond to thresholds of $1,582 and $4,746 per disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for very cost-effective and cost-effective strategies, respectively. We found that highly feasible strategies focused on stray dogs, vaccinating as few as 7% of dogs annually, could very cost-effectively reduce human rabies deaths by 70% within 5 y, and a modest expansion to vaccinating 13% of stray dogs could cost-effectively reduce human rabies by almost 90%. Through integration over parameter uncertainty, we find that, for a cost-effectiveness threshold above $1,400 per DALY, canine interventions are at least 95% likely to be optimal. If owners are willing to bring dogs to central point campaigns at double the rate that campaign teams can capture strays, expanded annual targets become cost-effective. This case study of cost-effective canine interventions in Tamil Nadu may have applicability to other settings in India and beyond.
Project description:blaNDM has been reported in different Enterobacteriaceae species and on numerous plasmid replicon types (Inc). Plasmid replicon typing, in combination with genomic characteristics of the bacterial host (e.g., sequence typing), is used to infer the spread of antimicrobial resistance determinants between genetically unrelated bacterial hosts. The genetic context of blaNDM is heterogeneous. In this study, we genomically characterized 12 NDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated in Australia between 2012 and 2014: Escherichia coli (n = 6), Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 3), Enterobacter cloacae (n = 2) and Providencia rettgeri (n = 1). We describe their blaNDM genetic contexts within Tn125, providing insights into the acquisition of blaNDM into Enterobacteriaceae. IncFII-type (n = 7) and IncX3 (n = 4) plasmids were the most common plasmid types found. The IncHI1B (n = 1) plasmid was also identified. Five different blaNDM genetic contexts were identified, indicating four particular plasmids with specific blaNDM genetic contexts (NGCs), three of which were IncFII plasmids (FII-A to -C). Of note, the blaNDM genetic context of P. rettgeri was not conjugative. Epidemiological links between our NDM-producing Enterobacteriaceae were established by their acquisition of these five particular plasmid types. The combination of different molecular and genetic characterization methods allowed us to provide insight into the spread of plasmids transmitting blaNDM.
Project description:The malaria vector Anopheles stephensi is found in wide tracts of Asia and the Middle East. The discovery of its presence for the first time in the island of Sri Lanka in 2017, poses a threat of malaria resurgence in a country which had eliminated the disease in 2013. Morphological and genetic characterization showed that the efficient Indian urban vector form An. stephensi sensu stricto or type form, has recently expanded its range to Jaffna and Mannar in northern Sri Lanka that are in proximity to Tamil Nadu state in South India. Comparison of the DNA sequences of the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene in An. stephensi in Jaffna and Mannar in Sri Lanka and Tamil Nadu and Puducherry states in South India showed that a haplotype that is due to a sequence change from valine to methionine in the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 present in the Jaffna and Mannar populations has not been documented so far in Tamil Nadu/Puducherry populations. The Jaffna An. stephensi were closer to Tamil Nadu/Puducherry populations and differed significantly from the Mannar populations. The genetic findings cannot differentiate between separate arrivals of the Jaffna and Mannar An. stephensi from Tamil Nadu or a single arrival and dispersion to the two locations accompanied by micro-evolutionary changes. Anopheles stephensi was observed to undergo preimaginal development in fresh and brackish water domestic wells and over ground cement water storage tanks in the coastal urban environment of Jaffna and Mannar. Anopheles stephensi in Jaffna was resistant to the common insecticides deltamethrin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and Malathion. Its preimaginal development in wells and water tanks was susceptible to predation by the larvivorous guppy fish Poecilia reticulata. The arrival, establishment, and spread of An. stephensi in northern Sri Lanka are analyzed in relation to anthropogenic factors that favor its range expansion. The implications of the findings for global public health challenges posed by malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases are discussed.
Project description:The occurrence of emerging biological contaminants including antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and Faecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB) is still little investigated in developing countries under tropical conditions. In this study, the total bacterial load, the abundance of FIB (E. coli and Enterococcus spp. (ENT)), Pseudomonas spp. and ARGs (blaTEM, blaCTX-M, blaSHV, blaNDM and aadA) were quantified using quantitative PCR in the total DNA extracted from the sediments recovered from hospital outlet pipes (HOP) and the Cauvery River Basin (CRB), Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India. The abundance of bacterial marker genes were 120, 104 and 89 fold higher for the E. coli, Enterococcus spp. and Pseudomonas spp., respectively at HOP when compared with CRB. The ARGs aadA and blaTEM were most frequently detected in higher concentration than other ARGs at all the sampling sites. The ARGs blaSHV and blaNDM were identified in CRB sediments contaminated by hospital and urban wastewaters. The ARGs abundance strongly correlated (r ? 0.36, p < 0.05, n = 45) with total bacterial load and E. coli in the sediments, indicating a common origin and extant source of contamination. Tropical aquatic ecosystems receiving wastewaters can act as reservoir of ARGs, which could potentially be transferred to susceptible bacterial pathogens at these sites.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Suicide rates in India are among the highest in the world, equating to over 200 000 suicides annually. Reports of suicides are a routine feature in major newspapers in India, and reporters may selectively present 'newsworthy' suicide stories. The aim of this paper was to systematically investigate whether mass media reports of suicides reflect the epidemiological data on suicide in a high suicide state in India. DESIGN:We undertook a content analysis study to extract sociodemographic data on suicides reported among nine of the most highly read daily newspapers in the high suicide southern state of Tamil Nadu between June and December 2016. A total of 1258 newspaper articles were retrieved containing reports on 1631 suicides. Two-tailed binomial tests on aggregate frequencies assessed whether the sociodemographic characteristics of suicides in the newspaper articles were different to the population suicide statistics for Tamil Nadu. RESULTS:We identified some statistically significant discrepancies between suicide characteristics in the population and the media. Suicides involving females (p<0.001), those aged under 30 years (p<0.001), separated or widowed males (p<0.001), unmarried females (p<0.001), those using methods with a higher case fatality rate (ie, hanging (p<0.001), jumping off high structures (p<0.001) and coming under vehicles (p<0.001) and those who were students (p<0.001) or working in the agricultural sector (p<0.001) were significantly over-reported relative to their occurrence in the broader population. Suicides involving men (p<0.001), those aged over 30 years and above (p<0.001), those who were married and suicides by poisoning (p<0.001) were significantly under-reported relative to their occurrence in the broader population. CONCLUSIONS:The suicide characteristics in the print media were not entirely representative of suicides in the broader Tamil Nadu population, which may lead the general public to develop misunderstandings about suicide in their state. The discrepancies we identified will inform tailored suicide prevention education for media professionals.
Project description:Dicopuslongipes (Subba Rao) (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Mymaridae) is recorded from India for the first time. New additional distribution records of Mymaridae from the southern Indian states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala are documented.