Project description:We sequenced two metagenomes from upper sediment layers (0 to 5 and 6 to 10?cm) from the Kanawha River, West Virginia. The watershed includes inputs from the forested Appalachian Mountains, surface coal mining, municipal residues, and extensive chemical manufacturing. The dominant bacterial phyla were Proteobacteria, Bacteriodetes, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi Xenobiotic degradation pathways were present.
Project description:Sediment microbial communities are responsible for a majority of the metabolic activity in river and stream ecosystems. Understanding the dynamics in community structure and function across freshwater environments will help us to predict how these ecosystems will change in response to human land-use practices. Here we present a spatiotemporal study of sediments in the Tongue River (Montana, USA), comprising six sites along 134 km of river sampled in both spring and fall for two years. Sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons and shotgun metagenomes revealed that these sediments are the richest (? 65,000 microbial 'species' identified) and most novel (93% of OTUs do not match known microbial diversity) ecosystems analyzed by the Earth Microbiome Project to date, and display more functional diversity than was detected in a recent review of global soil metagenomes. Community structure and functional potential have been significantly altered by anthropogenic drivers, including increased pathogenicity and antibiotic metabolism markers near towns and metabolic signatures of coal and coalbed methane extraction byproducts. The core (OTUs shared across all samples) and the overall microbial community exhibited highly similar structure, and phylogeny was weakly coupled with functional potential. Together, these results suggest that microbial community structure is shaped by environmental drivers and niche filtering, though stochastic assembly processes likely play a role as well. These results indicate that sediment microbial communities are highly complex and sensitive to changes in land use practices.
Project description:The Amazon River runs nearly 6500 km across the South American continent before emptying into the western tropical North Atlantic Ocean. In terms of both volume and watershed area, it is the world's largest riverine system, affecting elemental cycling on a global scale.A quantitative inventory of genes and transcripts benchmarked with internal standards was obtained at five stations in the lower Amazon River during May 2011. At each station, metagenomes and metatranscriptomes were obtained in duplicate for two microbial size fractions (free-living, 0.2 to 2.0 ?m; particle-associated, 2.0 to 297 ?m) using 150 × 150 paired-end Illumina sequencing. Forty eight sample datasets were obtained, averaging 15 × 10(6) potential protein-encoding reads each (730 × 10(6) total). Prokaryotic metagenomes and metatranscriptomes were dominated by members of the phyla Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, Betaproteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Nitrospirae, and Acidobacteria. The actinobacterium SCGC AAA027-L06 reference genome recruited the greatest number of reads overall, with this single bin contributing an average of 50 billion genes and 500 million transcripts per liter of river water. Several dominant taxa were unevenly distributed between the free-living and particle-associated size fractions, such as a particle-associated bias for reads binning to planctomycete Schlesneria paludicola and a free-living bias for actinobacterium SCGC AAA027-L06. Gene expression ratios (transcripts to gene copy ratio) increased downstream from Óbidos to Macapá and Belém, indicating higher per cell activity of Amazon River bacteria and archaea as river water approached the ocean.This inventory of riverine microbial genes and transcripts, benchmarked with internal standards for full quantitation, provides an unparalleled window into microbial taxa and functions in the globally important Amazon River ecosystem.
Project description:Microbial communities mediate the biogeochemical cycles that drive ecosystems, and it is important to understand how these communities are affected by changing environmental conditions, especially in complex coastal zones. As fresh and marine waters mix in estuaries and river plumes, the salinity, temperature, and nutrient gradients that are generated strongly influence bacterioplankton community structure, yet, a parallel change in functional diversity has not been described. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses were conducted on five water samples spanning the salinity gradient of the Columbia River coastal margin, including river, estuary, plume, and ocean, in August 2010. Samples were pre-filtered through 3 ?m filters and collected on 0.2 ?m filters, thus results were focused on changes among free-living microbial communities. Results from metagenomic 16S rRNA sequences showed taxonomically distinct bacterial communities in river, estuary, and coastal ocean. Despite the strong salinity gradient observed over sampling locations (0 to 33), the functional gene profiles in the metagenomes were very similar from river to ocean with an average similarity of 82%. The metatranscriptomes, however, had an average similarity of 31%. Although differences were few among the metagenomes, we observed a change from river to ocean in the abundance of genes encoding for catabolic pathways, osmoregulators, and metal transporters. Additionally, genes specifying both bacterial oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis were abundant and expressed in the estuary and plume. Denitrification genes were found throughout the Columbia River coastal margin, and most highly expressed in the estuary. Across a river to ocean gradient, the free-living microbial community followed three different patterns of diversity: 1) the taxonomy of the community changed strongly with salinity, 2) metabolic potential was highly similar across samples, with few differences in functional gene abundance from river to ocean, and 3) gene expression was highly variable and generally was independent of changes in salinity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Riverine ecosystems are biogeochemical powerhouses driven largely by microbial communities that inhabit water columns and sediments. Because rivers are used extensively for anthropogenic purposes (drinking water, recreation, agriculture, and industry), it is essential to understand how these activities affect the composition of river microbial consortia. Recent studies have shown that river metagenomes vary considerably, suggesting that microbial community data should be included in broad-scale river ecosystem models. But such ecogenomic studies have not been applied on a broad "aquascape" scale, and few if any have applied the newest nanopore technology. RESULTS:We investigated the metagenomes of 11 rivers across 3 continents using MinION nanopore sequencing, a portable platform that could be useful for future global river monitoring. Up to 10 Gb of data per run were generated with average read lengths of 3.4 kb. Diversity and diagnosis of river function potential was accomplished with 0.5-1.0 ? 106 long reads. Our observations for 7 of the 11 rivers conformed to other river-omic findings, and we exposed previously unrecognized microbial biodiversity in the other 4 rivers. CONCLUSIONS:Deeper understanding that emerged is that river microbial consortia and the ecological functions they fulfil did not align with geographic location but instead implicated ecological responses of microbes to urban and other anthropogenic effects, and that changes in taxa manifested over a very short geographic space.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The Amazon River is one of the largest in the world and receives huge amounts of terrestrial organic matter (TeOM) from the surrounding rainforest. Despite this TeOM is typically recalcitrant (i.e. resistant to degradation), only a small fraction of it reaches the ocean, pointing to a substantial TeOM degradation by the river microbiome. Yet, microbial genes involved in TeOM degradation in the Amazon River were barely known. Here, we examined the Amazon River microbiome by analysing 106 metagenomes from 30 sampling points distributed along the river. RESULTS:We constructed the Amazon River basin Microbial non-redundant Gene Catalogue (AMnrGC) that includes ~ 3.7 million non-redundant genes, affiliating mostly to bacteria. We found that the Amazon River microbiome contains a substantial gene-novelty compared to other relevant known environments (rivers and rainforest soil). Genes encoding for proteins potentially involved in lignin degradation pathways were correlated to tripartite tricarboxylates transporters and hemicellulose degradation machinery, pointing to a possible priming effect. Based on this, we propose a model on how the degradation of recalcitrant TeOM could be modulated by labile compounds in the Amazon River waters. Our results also suggest changes of the microbial community and its genomic potential along the river course. CONCLUSIONS:Our work contributes to expand significantly our comprehension of the world's largest river microbiome and its potential metabolism related to TeOM degradation. Furthermore, the produced gene catalogue (AMnrGC) represents an important resource for future research in tropical rivers. Video abstract.
Project description:A survey and analytical assessment of the results of fundamental works on studying blood metagenome (set of all non-human DNA) is carried out. All works on determining bacterial DNA concentration in the whole blood of healthy people are reviewed. Detailed comparison of characteristics of 16S rRNA test (hereinafter 16S-test) and whole metagenome sequencing test (hereinafter WMS-test) is carried out and published in Supplement S1. One of main goals of this review is to identify the drawbacks and mistakes which the studied works contain, particularly to emphasize the crucial importance of determining total concentration of bacterial DNA for comparing patients' metagenomes with those of healthy people as well as for comparing patients' metagenomes with each other. Controlling the level and composition of contamination is equally important. The absence of high-quality contamination control at each step (or at certain steps) of the research significantly reduces the reliability of achieved results. The given review is the first attempt to analyze and systematize the results of blood metagenome studies, whose number has increased considerably in the last few years. The review has been carried out as part of preparation for implementing a project on complex studying metagenomes of whole blood and skin biopsies of psoriatic patients.
Project description:The objective of this study is to understand the functional and metabolic potential of the microbial communities along the Apatlaco River and highlight activities related to bioremediation and its relationship with the Apatlaco's pollutants, to enhance future design of more accurate bioremediation processes. Water samples were collected at four sampling sites along the Apatlaco River (S1-S4) and a whole metagenome shotgun sequencing was performed to survey and understand the microbial metabolic functions with potential for bioremediation. A HMMER search was used to detect sequence homologs related to polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polystyrene biodegradation, along with bacterial metal tolerance in Apatlaco River metagenomes. Our results suggest that pollution is a selective pressure which enriches microorganisms at polluted sites, displaying metabolic capacities to tolerate and transform the contamination. According to KEGG annotation, all sites along the river have bacteria with genes related to xenobiotic biodegradation. In particular, functions such as environmental processing, xenobiotic biodegradation and glycan biosynthesis are over-represented in polluted samples, in comparison to those in the clean water site. This suggests a functional specialization in the communities that inhabit each perturbated point. Our results can contribute to the determination of the partition in a metabolic niche among different Apatlaco River prokaryotic communities, that help to contend with and understand the effect of anthropogenic contamination.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The Amazon River is by far the world's largest in terms of volume and area, generating a fluvial export that accounts for about a fifth of riverine input into the world's oceans. Marine microbial communities of the Western Tropical North Atlantic Ocean are strongly affected by the terrestrial materials carried by the Amazon plume, including dissolved (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) and inorganic nutrients, with impacts on primary productivity and carbon sequestration. RESULTS: We inventoried genes and transcripts at six stations in the Amazon River plume during June 2010. At each station, internal standard-spiked metagenomes, non-selective metatranscriptomes, and poly(A)-selective metatranscriptomes were obtained in duplicate for two discrete size fractions (0.2 to 2.0 ?m and 2.0 to 156 ?m) using 150 × 150 paired-end Illumina sequencing. Following quality control, the dataset contained 360 million reads of approximately 200 bp average size from Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya, and viruses. Bacterial metagenomes and metatranscriptomes were dominated by Synechococcus, Prochlorococcus, SAR11, SAR116, and SAR86, with high contributions from SAR324 and Verrucomicrobia at some stations. Diatoms, green picophytoplankton, dinoflagellates, haptophytes, and copepods dominated the eukaryotic genes and transcripts. Gene expression ratios differed by station, size fraction, and microbial group, with transcription levels varying over three orders of magnitude across taxa and environments. CONCLUSIONS: This first comprehensive inventory of microbial genes and transcripts, benchmarked with internal standards for full quantitation, is generating novel insights into biogeochemical processes of the Amazon plume and improving prediction of climate change impacts on the marine biosphere.
Project description:The streamflow of major global rivers changes under the influences of climate change and human activities and varies greatly in different regions. The Yellow River has undergone a dramatic shift during the last six decades. Its streamflow gradually dwindled away and even dried-up severely in the late 20th century, but in recent years it has recovered and remains stable. Comprehensive understanding of the river streamflow change and its driving forces promotes effective water resource management within this complex human-natural system. Here, we develop a runoff identity attribution approach to analyze 61 years of streamflow observations from the Yellow River. We find that between the 1950s and the 1980s, human water consumption contributed more than 90% to streamflow reduction, but from the 1970s onwards, land cover change became the major factor to decrease streamflow. Since 2000, government management schemes have prevented streamflow from declining further and guarantee its stability. Based on the analysis framework we propose, persistent droughts, which are related to abrupt streamflow abatement, may be the most uncontrollable factor in the future. A more resilient management system should be therefore built to grapple with the expected increased frequency of such extreme climate events in the future.