Project description:How alternative splicing (AS) is regulated in plants has not yet been elucidated. Previously, we have shown that the nuclear cap-binding protein complex (AtCBC) is involved in AS in Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we show that both subunits of AtCBC (AtCBP20 and AtCBP80) interact with SERRATE (AtSE), a protein involved in the microRNA biogenesis pathway. Moreover, using a high-resolution reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction AS system we have found that AtSE influences AS in a similar way to the cap-binding complex (CBC), preferentially affecting selection of 5' splice site of first introns. The AtSE protein acts in cooperation with AtCBC: many changes observed in the mutant lacking the correct SERRATE activity were common to those observed in the cbp mutants. Interestingly, significant changes in AS of some genes were also observed in other mutants of plant microRNA biogenesis pathway, hyl1-2 and dcl1-7, but a majority of them did not correspond to the changes observed in the se-1 mutant. Thus, the role of SERRATE in AS regulation is distinct from that of HYL1 and DCL1, and is similar to the regulation of AS in which CBC is involved.
Project description:We recently characterized a novel heme biogenesis pathway required for heme c(i)' covalent binding to cytochrome b6 in Chlamydomonas named system IV or CCB (cofactor assembly, complex C (b6f), subunit B (PetB)). To find out whether this CCB pathway also operates in higher plants and extend the knowledge of the c-type cytochrome biogenesis, we studied Arabidopsis insertion mutants in the orthologs of the CCB genes. The ccb1, ccb2, and ccb4 mutants show a phenotype characterized by a deficiency in the accumulation of the subunits of the cytochrome b6f complex and lack covalent heme binding to cytochrome b6. These mutants were functionally complemented with the corresponding wild type cDNAs. Using fluorescent protein reporters, we demonstrated that the CCB1, CCB2, CCB3, and CCB4 proteins are targeted to the chloroplast compartment of Arabidopsis. We have extended our study to the YGGT family, to which CCB3 belongs, by studying insertion mutants of two additional members of this family for which no mutants were previously characterized, and we showed that they are not functionally involved in the CCB system. Thus, we demonstrate the ubiquity of the CCB proteins in chloroplast heme c(i)' binding.
Project description:Independent Component Analysis (ICA) has been introduced as one of the useful tools for gene-functional discovery in animals. However, this approach has been poorly utilized in the plant sciences. In the present study, we have exploited ICA combined with pathway enrichment analysis to address the statistical challenges associated with genome-wide analysis in plant system. To generate an Arabidopsis metabolic platform, we collected 4,373 Affy-metrix ATH1 microarray datasets. Out of the 3,232 metabolic genes and transcription factors, 99.47% of these genes were identified in at least one component, indicating the coverage of most of the metabolic pathways by the components. During the metabolic pathway enrichment analysis, we found components that indicate an independent regulation between the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathways. We also utilized this analysis tool to investigate some transcription factors involved in secondary cell wall biogenesis. This approach has identified remarkably more transcription factors compared to previously reported analysis tools. A website providing user-friendly searching and downloading of the entire dataset analyzed by ICA is available at http://kimjy.gnu.ac.kr/ICA.files/slide0002.htm . ICA combined with pathway enrichment analysis might provide a powerful approach for the extraction of the components responsible for a biological process of interest in plant systems.
Project description:Cytochrome b5 (CB5) proteins are small heme-binding proteins, that influence cytochrome P450 activity. While only one CB5 isoform is found in mammals, higher plants have several isoforms of these proteins. The roles of the many CB5 isoforms in plants remain unknown. We hypothesized that CB5 proteins support the cytochrome P450 enzymes of plant specialized metabolism and found CB5C from Arabidopsis thaliana to co-express with glucosinolate biosynthetic genes. We characterized the glucosinolate profiles of 2 T-DNA insertion mutants of CB5C, and found that long-chained aliphatic glucosinolates were reduced in one of the mutant lines - a phenotype that was exaggerated upon methyl-jasmonate treatment. These results support the hypothesis, that CB5C influences glucosinolate biosynthesis, however, the mode of action remains unknown. Furthermore, the mutants differed in their biomass response to methyl jasmonate treatment. Thereby, our results highlight the varying effects of T-DNA insertion sites, as the 2 analyzed alleles show different phenotypes.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Plant growth is a complex process involving cell division and elongation. Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyls undergo a 100-fold length increase mainly by cell elongation. Cell enlargement implicates significant changes in the composition and structure of the cell wall. In order to understand cell wall biogenesis during cell elongation, mRNA profiling was made on half- (active elongation) and fully-grown (after growth arrest) etiolated hypocotyls. RESULTS: Transcriptomic analysis was focused on two sets of genes. The first set of 856 genes named cell wall genes (CWGs) included genes known to be involved in cell wall biogenesis. A significant proportion of them has detectable levels of transcripts (55.5%), suggesting that these processes are important throughout hypocotyl elongation and after growth arrest. Genes encoding proteins involved in substrate generation or in synthesis of polysaccharides, and extracellular proteins were found to have high transcript levels. A second set of 2927 genes labeled secretory pathway genes (SPGs) was studied to search for new genes encoding secreted proteins possibly involved in wall expansion. Based on transcript level, 433 genes were selected. Genes not known to be involved in cell elongation were found to have high levels of transcripts. Encoded proteins were proteases, protease inhibitors, proteins with interacting domains, and proteins involved in lipid metabolism. In addition, 125 of them encoded proteins with yet unknown function. Finally, comparison with results of a cell wall proteomic study on the same material revealed that 48 out of the 137 identified proteins were products of the genes having high or moderate level of transcripts. About 15% of the genes encoding proteins identified by proteomics showed levels of transcripts below background. CONCLUSION: Members of known multigenic families involved in cell wall biogenesis, and new genes that might participate in cell elongation were identified. Significant differences were shown in the expression of such genes in half- and fully-grown hypocotyls. No clear correlation was found between the abundance of transcripts (transcriptomic data) and the presence of the proteins (proteomic data) demonstrating (i) the importance of post-transcriptional events for the regulation of genes during cell elongation and (ii) that transcriptomic and proteomic data are complementary.
Project description:In Arabidopsis thaliana, functionally diverse small RNA (smRNA) pathways bring about decreased RNA accumulation of target genes via several different mechanisms. Cytological experiments have suggested that the processing of microRNAs (miRNAs) and heterochromatic small interfering RNAs (hc-siRNAs) occurs within a specific nuclear domain that can present Cajal Body (CB) characteristics. It is unclear whether single or multiple smRNA-related domains are found within the same CB and how specialization of the smRNA pathways is determined within this specific sub-compartment. To ascertain whether nuclear smRNA centers are spatially related, we localized key proteins required for siRNA or miRNA biogenesis by immunofluorescence analysis. The intranuclear distribution of the proteins revealed that hc-siRNA, miRNA and trans-acting siRNA (ta-siRNA) pathway proteins accumulate and colocalize within a sub-nuclear structure in the nucleolar periphery. Furthermore, colocalization of miRNA- and siRNA-pathway members with CB markers, and reduced wild-type localization patterns in CB mutants indicates that proper nuclear localization of these proteins requires CB integrity. We hypothesize that these nuclear domains could be important for RNA silencing and may partially explain the functional redundancies and interactions among components of the same protein family. The CB may be the place in the nucleus where Dicer-generated smRNA precursors are processed and assigned to a specific pathway, and where storage, recycling or assembly of RNA interference components takes place.
Project description:Hints from animals point to the existence of two novel small RNA (sRNA) species surrounding the transcription start sites (TSSs) and the termini of the genes, respectively. In this study, we performed a comprehensive search for the two sRNA species named promoter-associated sRNAs (PASRs) and terminus-associated sRNAs (TASRs) in Arabidopsis. By using sRNA sequencing data from wild type plants and several mutants related to the sRNA biogenesis, Argonaute (AGO) 1- and AGO4-associated sRNA sequencing data, double-stranded RNA sequencing (dsRNA-seq) data, and DNA methylation profiling data, the biogenesis and action pathways of the PASRs and the TASRs were investigated. PASR and TASR peaks were identified on hundreds of the protein-coding genes. Deep analysis uncovered that some of the sRNA peaks were covered by dsRNA-seq reads, and these peaks were significantly repressed in specific mutants. Besides, certain PASRs and TASRs were preferentially recruited by AGO4, and site-specific DNA methylation signals encompassing the genomic loci of these sRNAs were also detected. Accordingly, we proposed a model that certain PASRs and TASRs were generated through a specific Pol IV-, RDR-, DCL-dependent pathway, and they were associated with AGO4 to perform site-specific DNA methylation on their host genes. The above results indicate the existence of PASRs and TASRs in plants. The proposed biogenesis pathway and action mode of the PASRs and TASRs could facilitate us to perform in-depth functional studies on these novel sRNA species.
Project description:Plants have to coordinate eukaryotic ribosomes (cytoribosomes) and prokaryotic ribosomes (plastoribosomes and mitoribosomes) production to balance cellular protein synthesis in response to environmental variations. We identified 429 genes encoding potential ribosomal proteins (RP) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Because cytoribosome proteins are encoded by small nuclear gene families, plastid RP by nuclear and plastid genes and mitochondrial RP by nuclear and mitochondrial genes, several transcriptional pathways were attempted to control ribosome amounts. Examining two independent genomic expression datasets, we found two groups of RP genes showing very different and specific expression patterns in response to environmental stress. The first group represents the nuclear genes coding for plastid RP whereas the second group is composed of a subset of cytoribosome genes coding for RP isoforms. By contrast, the other cytoribosome genes and mitochondrial RP genes show less constraint in their response to stress conditions. The two subsets of cytoribosome genes code for different RP isoforms. During stress, the response of the intensively regulated subset leads to dramatic variation in ribosome diversity. Most of RP genes have same promoter structure with two motifs at conserved positions. The stress-response of the nuclear genes coding plastid RP is related with the absence of an interstitial telomere motif known as telo box in their promoters. We proposed a model for the "ribosome code" that influences the ribosome biogenesis by three main transcriptional pathways. The first pathway controls the basal program of cytoribosome and mitoribosome biogenesis. The second pathway involves a subset of cytoRP genes that are co-regulated under stress condition. The third independent pathway is devoted to the control of plastoribosome biosynthesis by regulating both nuclear and plastid genes.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA BINDING (DRB) protein family consists of five members, DRB1 to DRB5. The biogenesis of two developmentally important small RNA (sRNA) species, the microRNAs (miRNAs) and trans-acting small interfering RNAs (tasiRNAs) by DICER-LIKE (DCL) endonucleases requires the assistance of DRB1 and DRB4 respectively. The importance of miRNA-directed target gene expression in plant development is exemplified by the phenotypic consequence of loss of DRB1 activity (drb1 plants). PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report that the developmental phenotype of the drb235 triple mutant plant is the result of deregulated miRNA biogenesis in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) region. The expression of DRB2, DRB3 and DRB5 in wild-type seedlings is restricted to the SAM region. Small RNA sequencing of the corresponding tissue of drb235 plants revealed altered miRNA accumulation. Approximately half of the miRNAs detected remained at levels equivalent to those of wild-type plants. However, the accumulation of the remaining miRNAs was either elevated or reduced in the triple mutant. Examination of different single and multiple drb mutants revealed a clear association between the loss of DRB2 activity and altered accumulation for both the elevated and reduced miRNA classes. Furthermore, we show that the constitutive over-expression of DRB2 outside of its wild-type expression domain can compensate for the loss of DRB1 activity in drb1 plants. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that in the SAM region, DRB2 is both antagonistic and synergistic to the role of DRB1 in miRNA biogenesis, adding an additional layer of gene regulatory complexity in this developmentally important tissue.