Project description:Sister chromatid cohesion is mediated by cohesin, but the process of cohesion establishment during S-phase is still enigmatic. In mammalian cells, cohesin binding to chromatin is dynamic in G1, but becomes stabilized during S-phase. Whether the regulation of cohesin stability is integral to the process of cohesion establishment is unknown. Here, we provide evidence that fission yeast cohesin also displays dynamic behavior. Cohesin association with G1 chromosomes requires continued activity of the cohesin loader Mis4/Ssl3, suggesting that repeated loading cycles maintain cohesin binding. Cohesin instability in G1 depends on wpl1, the fission yeast ortholog of mammalian Wapl, suggestive of a conserved mechanism that controls cohesin stability on chromosomes. wpl1 is nonessential, indicating that a change in wpl1-dependent cohesin dynamics is dispensable for cohesion establishment. Instead, we find that cohesin stability increases at the time of S-phase in a reaction that can be uncoupled from DNA replication. Hence, cohesin stabilization might be a pre-requisite for cohesion establishment rather than its consequence.
Project description:MCM proteins are required for the proper regulation of DNA replication. We cloned fission yeast mcm7(+) and showed it is essential for viability; spores lacking mcm7(+) begin S phase later than wild-type cells and arrest with an apparent 2C DNA content. We isolated a novel temperature-sensitive allele, mcm7-98, and also characterized two temperature-sensitive alleles of the fission yeast homolog of MCM10, cdc23(+). mcm7-98 and both cdc23ts alleles arrest with damaged chromosomes and an S phase delay. We find that mcm7-98 is synthetically lethal with the other mcmts mutants but does not interact genetically with either cdc23ts allele. However, cdc23-M36 interacts with mcm4ts. Unlike other mcm mutants or cdc23, mcm7-98 is synthetically lethal with checkpoint mutants Deltacds1, Deltachk1, or Deltarad3, suggesting chromosomal defects even at permissive temperature. Mcm7p is a nuclear protein throughout the cell cycle, and its localization is dependent on the other MCM proteins. Our data suggest that the Mcm3p-Mcm5p dimer interacts with the Mcm4p-Mcm6p-Mcm7p core complex through Mcm7p.
Project description:The structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) protein encoded by the fission yeast rad18 gene is involved in several DNA repair processes and has an essential function in DNA replication and mitotic control. It has a heterodimeric partner SMC protein, Spr18, with which it forms the core of a multiprotein complex. We have now isolated the human orthologues of rad18 and spr18 and designated them hSMC6 and hSMC5. Both proteins are about 1100 amino acids in length and are 27-28% identical to their fission yeast orthologues, with much greater identity within their N- and C-terminal globular domains. The hSMC6 and hSMC5 proteins interact to form a tight complex analogous to the yeast Rad18/Spr18 heterodimer. In proliferating human cells the proteins are bound to both chromatin and the nucleoskeleton. In addition, we have detected a phosphorylated form of hSMC6 that localizes to interchromatin granule clusters. Both the total level of hSMC6 and its phosphorylated form remain constant through the cell cycle. Both hSMC5 and hSMC6 proteins are expressed at extremely high levels in the testis and associate with the sex chromosomes in the late stages of meiotic prophase, suggesting a possible role for these proteins in meiosis.
Project description:In most organisms homologous recombination is vital for the proper segregation of chromosomes during meiosis, the formation of haploid sex cells from diploid precursors. This review compares meiotic recombination and chromosome segregation in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and the distantly related budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two especially tractable microorganisms. Certain features, such as the occurrence of DNA breaks associated with recombination, appear similar, suggesting that these features may be common in eukaryotes. Other features, such as the role of these breaks and the ability of chromosomes to segregate faithfully in the absence of recombination, appear different, suggesting multiple solutions to the problems faced in meiosis.
Project description:Ubiquitination plays a role in virtually every cellular signaling pathway ranging from cell cycle control to DNA damage response to endocytosis and gene regulation. The bulk of our knowledge of the ubiquitination system is centered on modification of specific substrate proteins and the enzymatic cascade of ubiquitination. Our understanding of the regulation of the reversal of these modifications (deubiquitination) lags significantly behind. We recently reported a multifaceted study of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe DUBs including characterization of their binding partners, in vitro enzymatic activity and subcellular localization. (1) Over half of the 20 fission yeast DUBs have a stable protein partner and some of those partners regulate the localization and/or activity of their cognate DUB. As a next step in understanding how DUBs might otherwise be regulated, we investigated the phosphostatus of the entire fission yeast DUB family using LC-MS/MS, and here we discuss the possible implications of phosphoregulation.
Project description:Over the course of mitochondrial evolution, the majority of genes required for its function have been transferred and integrated into nuclear chromosomes. Ongoing transfer of mitochondrial DNA to the nucleus has been detected, but its functional significance has not been fully elucidated. Here by Genome Conformation Capture, we identify DNA-DNA interactions between the mitochondrial and nuclear chromosomes (mt-nDNA interactions) that vary in strength and number between the G1, G2 and M phases of the fission yeast cell cycle. Mt-nDNA interactions captured in mitotic anaphase were associated with nuclear genes required for the regulation of cell growth and energy availability. Furthermore, mt-nDNA interactions captured in the G1 phase involved high efficiency, early firing origins of DNA replication. Collectively, these results suggest functional roles for the ongoing transfer of regions of the mitochondrial genome to the nucleus.
Project description:Most organisms use crossovers (chiasmata) to maintain physical connections between homologous chromosomes that ensure their proper segregation at the first meiotic division. The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe has a residual ability to segregate homologous chromosomes in the absence of meiotic recombination (achiasmate segregation). Using cytologically tagged chromosomes, we established a role for the microtubule motor dynein in meiotic chromosome segregation. Dhc1, the motor subunit of dynein, is required for chromosome segregation in both the presence and the absence of recombination. Dlc1, a member of the Tctex-1 dynein light-chain family, preferentially affects the segregation of achiasmate chromosomes. Dlc1 is the first identified protein, outside of Drosophila, that preferentially affects achiasmate chromosome segregation. We discuss possible roles of the dynein motor in this process.
Project description:Polyadenylation of pre-mRNAs, a critical step in eukaryotic gene expression, is mediated by cis elements collectively called the polyadenylation signal. Genome-wide analysis of such polyadenylation signals was missing in fission yeast, even though it is an important model organism. We demonstrate that the canonical AATAAA motif is the most frequent and functional polyadenylation signal in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Using analysis of RNA-Seq data sets from cells grown under various physiological conditions, we identify 3' UTRs for nearly 90% of the yeast genes. Heterogeneity of cleavage sites is common, as is alternative polyadenylation within and between conditions. We validated the computationally identified sequence elements likely to promote polyadenylation by functional assays, including qRT-PCR and 3'RACE analysis. The biological importance of the AATAAA motif is underlined by functional analysis of the genes containing it. Furthermore, it has been shown that convergent genes require trans elements, like cohesin for efficient transcription termination. Here we show that convergent genes lacking cohesin (on chromosome 2) are generally associated with longer overlapping mRNA transcripts. Our bioinformatic and experimental genome-wide results are summarized and can be accessed and customized in a user-friendly database Pomb(A).