Project description:FabR ChIP-chip on Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344 using anti-Myc antibody against strain with chromosomally 9Myc-tagged FabR (IP samples) and wildtype strain (mock IP samples) Overall design: IP sample (using anti-Myc antibody against Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344 strain encoding chromosomally 9Myc-tagged FabR) and control mock IP sample (using anti-Myc antibody against Salmonella Typhimurium SL1344 wildtype strain) were labeled with Cy5 and hybridized against a common genomic DNA reference, labeled with Cy3, on 2 S. Typhimurium LT2 whole genome tiling arrays
Project description:As part of a longitudinal study of antimicrobial resistance among salmonellae isolated from swine, we studied 484 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (including serovar Typhimurium var. Copenhagen) isolates. We found two common pentaresistant phenotypes. The first was resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (the AmCmStSuTe phenotype; 36.2% of all isolates), mainly of the definitive type 104 (DT104) phage type (180 of 187 isolates). The second was resistance to ampicillin, kanamycin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline (the AmKmStSuTe phenotype; 44.6% of all isolates), most commonly of the DT193 phage type (77 of 165 isolates), which represents an unusual resistance pattern for DT193 isolates. We analyzed 64 representative isolates by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, which revealed DNA fingerprint similarities that correlated with both resistance patterns and phage types. To investigate the genetic basis for resistance among DT193 isolates, we characterized three AmKmStSuTe pentaresistant strains and one hexaresistant strain, which also expressed resistance to gentamicin (Gm phenotype), all of which had similar DNA fingerprints and all of which were collected during the same sampling. We found that the genes encoding the pentaresistance pattern were different from those from isolates of the DT104 phage type. We also found that all strains encoded all of their resistance genes on plasmids, unlike the chromosomally encoded genes of DT104 isolates, which could be transferred to Escherichia coli via conjugation, but that the plasmid compositions varied among the isolates. Two strains (strains UT08 and UT12) had a single, identical plasmid carrying bla(TEM) (which encodes ampicillin resistance), aphA1-Iab (which encodes kanamycin resistance), strA and strB (which encode streptomycin resistance), class B tetA (which encodes tetracycline resistance), and an unidentified sulfamethoxazole resistance allele. The third pentaresistant strain (strain UT20) was capable of transferring by conjugation two distinct resistance patterns, AmKmStSuTe and KmStSuTe, but the genes were carried on plasmids with slightly different restriction patterns (differing by a single band of 15 kb). The hexaresistant strain (strain UT30) had the same plasmid as strains UT08 and UT12, but it also carried a second plasmid that conferred the AmKmStSuGm phenotype. The second plasmid harbored the gentamicin resistance methylase (grm), which has not previously been reported in food-borne pathogenic bacteria. It also carried the sul1 gene for sulfamethoxazole resistance and a 1-kb class I integron bearing aadA for streptomycin resistance. We also characterized isolates of the DT104 phage type. We found a number of isolates that expressed resistance only to streptomycin and sulfamethoxazole (the StSu phenotype; 8.3% of serovar Typhimurium var. Copenhagen strains) but that had AFLP DNA fingerprints similar or identical to those of strains with genes encoding the typical AmCmStSuTe pentaresistance phenotype of DT104. These atypical StSu DT104 isolates were predominantly cultured from environmental samples and were found to carry only one class I integron of 1.0 kb, in contrast to the typical two integrons (InC and InD) of 1.0 and 1.2 kb, respectively, of the pentaresistant DT104 isolates. Our findings show the widespread existence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella strains and the diversity of multidrug resistance among epidemiologically related strains. The presence of resistance genes on conjugative plasmids and duplicate genes on multiple plasmids could have implications for the spread of resistance factors and for the stability of multidrug resistance among Salmonella serovar Typhimurium isolates.
Project description:In enteric bacteria, DNA supercoiling is highly responsive to environmental conditions. Host specific features of environment serve as cues for the expression of genes required for colonization of host niches via changing supercoiling . It has been shown that substitution at position 87 of GyrA of Salmonella enterica str. SL1344 influences global supercoiling and results in an altered transcriptome with increased expression of stress response pathways . Aminocoumarin antibiotics, such as novobiocin, can be used to relax supercoiling and alter the expression of supercoiling-sensitive genes. Meanwhile, Salmonella enterica demonstrates a significant resistance to this antibiotic and relatively small variability of supercoiling in response to the growth phase, osmotic pressure, and novobiocin treatment. Here we present for the first time transcriptome data of Salmonella enterica subsp. Enterica serovar Typhimurium str. 14028S grown in the presence of novobiocin. These data will help identify genes involved in novobiocin resistance and adaptation processes associated with torsion perturbations in S. enterica. Cleaned FASTQ files for the RNA-seq libraries are deposited in the NCBI Sequence Read Archive (SRA, Identifier: SRP239815) and have been assigned BioProject accession PRJNA599397.
Project description:Microbial horizontal gene transfer is a continuous process that shapes bacterial genomic adaptation to the environment and the composition of concurrent microbial ecology. This includes the potential impact of synthetic antibiotic utilization in farm animal production on overall antibiotic resistance issues; however, the mechanisms behind the evolution of microbial communities are not fully understood. We explored potential mechanisms by experimentally examining the relatedness of phylogenetic inference between multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates and pathogenic Salmonella Typhimurium strains based on genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) comparisons. Antibiotic-resistant S Typhimurium isolates in a simulated farm environment barely lost their resistance, whereas sensitive S Typhimurium isolates in soils gradually acquired higher tetracycline resistance under antibiotic pressure and manipulated differential expression of antibiotic-resistant genes. The expeditious development of antibiotic resistance and the ensuing genetic alterations in antimicrobial resistance genes in S Typhimurium warrant effective actions to control the dissemination of Salmonella antibiotic resistance.IMPORTANCE Antibiotic resistance is attributed to the misuse or overuse of antibiotics in agriculture, and antibiotic resistance genes can also be transferred to bacteria under environmental stress. In this study, we report a unidirectional alteration in antibiotic resistance from susceptibility to increased resistance. Highly sensitive Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates from organic farm systems quickly acquired tetracycline resistance under antibiotic pressure in simulated farm soil environments within 2 weeks, with expression of antibiotic resistance-related genes that was significantly upregulated. Conversely, originally resistant S Typhimurium isolates from conventional farm systems lost little of their resistance when transferred to environments without antibiotic pressure. Additionally, multidrug-resistant S Typhimurium isolates genetically shared relevancy with pathogenic S Typhimurium isolates, whereas susceptible isolates clustered with nonpathogenic strains. These results provide detailed discussion and explanation about the genetic alterations and simultaneous acquisition of antibiotic resistance in S Typhimurium in agricultural environments.
Project description:Genomic subtractive hybridization was performed between Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 and DT104 to search for novel Salmonella serovar Typhimurium DT104-specific sequences. The subtraction resulted mainly in the isolation of DNA fragments with sequence similarity to phages. Two fragments identified were associated with possible virulence factors. One fragment was identical to irsA of Salmonella serovar Typhimurium ATCC 14028, which is suggested to be involved in macrophage survival. The other fragment was homologous to HldD, an Escherichia coli O157:H7 lipopolysaccharide assembly-related protein. Five selected DNA fragments-irsA, the HldD homologue, and three fragments with sequence similarity to prophages-were tested for their presence in 17 Salmonella serovar Typhimurium DT104 isolates and 27 non-DT104 isolates by PCR. All five selected DNA fragments were Salmonella serovar Typhimurium DT104 specific among the serovar Typhimurium isolates tested. These DNA fragments can be useful for better detection and typing of Salmonella serovar Typhimurium DT104.
Project description:Salmonella enterica is a leading cause of enterocolitis for humans and animals. S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium infects a broad range of hosts. To facilitate genomic comparisons among isolates from different sources, we present the complete genome sequences of 10 S Typhimurium strains, 5 each isolated from human and bovine sources.
Project description:Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a pathogenic bacterium that has been a major concern for food and public safety. Phages infecting S. Typhimurium may prove to be useful therapeutics against this harmful bacterium. Here, we announce the complete genome of S. Typhimurium T4-like myophage Maynard and describe its features.
Project description:Bifidobacterium thermophilum RBL67 (RBL67), a human fecal isolate and health promoting candidate shows antagonistic and protective effects against Salmonella and Listeria spec. in vitro. However, the underlying mechanisms fostering these effects remain unknown. In this study, the interactions of RBL67 and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium N-15 (N-15) were explored by global transcriptional analysis.Growth experiments were performed in a complex nutritive medium with controlled pH of 6.0 and suitable for balanced growth of both RBL67 and N-15. RBL67 growth was slightly enhanced in presence of N-15. Conversely, N-15 showed reduced growth in the presence of RBL67. Transcriptional analyses revealed higher expression of stress genes and amino acid related function in RBL67 in co-culture with N-15 when compared to mono-culture. Repression of the PhoP regulator was observed in N-15 in presence of RBL67. Further, RBL67 activated virulence genes located on the Salmonella pathogenicity islands 1 and 2. Flagellar genes, however, were repressed by RBL67. Sequential expression of flagellar, SPI 1 and fimbrial genes is essential for Salmonella infection. Our data revealed that RBL67 triggers expression of SPI 1 and fimbrial determinants prematurely, potentially leading to redundant energy expenditure. In the competitive environment of the gut such energy expenditure could lead to enhanced clearing of Salmonella.Our study provides first insights into probiotic-pathogen interactions on global transcriptional level and suggests that deregulation of virulence gene expression might be an additional protective mechanism of probiotica against infections of the host.
Project description:Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a foodborne pathogen that causes gastroenteritis. Due to increases in antibiotic resistance, bacteriophage therapy may be an alternative method for preventing Salmonella foodborne infections. We report here the complete genome sequence of a T5-like phage, Seabear, which was isolated against S. Typhimurium.
Project description:Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is one of approximately 2,500 distinct serovars of the genus Salmonella but is exceptional in its wide distribution in the environment, livestock, and wild animals. S Typhimurium causes a large proportion of nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infections, accounting for a quarter of infections, second only to S. enterica serovar Enteritidis in incidence. S Typhimurium was once considered the archetypal broad-host-range Salmonella serovar due to its wide distribution in livestock and wild animals, and much of what we know of the interaction of Salmonella with the host comes from research using a small number of laboratory strains of the serovar (LT2, SL1344, and ATCC 14028). But it has become clear that these strains do not reflect the genotypic or phenotypic diversity of S Typhimurium. Here, we review the epidemiological record of S Typhimurium and studies of the host-pathogen interactions of diverse strains of S Typhimurium. We present the concept of distinct pathovariants of S Typhimurium that exhibit diversity of host range, distribution in the environment, pathogenicity, and risk to food safety. We review recent evidence from whole-genome sequencing that has revealed the extent of genomic diversity of S Typhimurium pathovariants, the genomic basis of differences in the level of risk to human and animal health, and the molecular epidemiology of prominent strains. An improved understanding of the impact of genome variation of bacterial pathogens on pathogen-host and pathogen-environment interactions has the potential to improve quantitative risk assessment and reveal how new pathogens evolve.