Project description:Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola causes bacterial spot on Brassicaceae worldwide, and for the last 10 years severe outbreaks have been reported in the Loire Valley, France. P. syringae pv. maculicola resembles P. syringae pv. tomato in that it is also pathogenic for tomato and causes the same types of symptoms. We used a collection of 106 strains of P. syringae to characterize the relationships between P. syringae pv. maculicola and related pathovars, paying special attention to P. syringae pv. tomato. Phylogenetic analysis of gyrB and rpoD gene sequences showed that P. syringae pv. maculicola, which causes diseases in Brassicaceae, forms six genetic lineages within genomospecies 3 of P. syringae strains as defined by L. Gardan et al. (Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49[Pt 2]:469-478, 1999), whereas P. syringae pv. tomato forms two distinct genetic lineages. A multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) conducted with eight minisatellite loci confirmed the genetic structure obtained with rpoD and gyrB sequence analyses. These results provide promising tools for fine-scale epidemiological studies on diseases caused by P. syringae pv. maculicola and P. syringae pv. tomato. The two pathovars had distinct host ranges; only P. syringae pv. maculicola strains were pathogenic for Brassicaceae. A subpopulation of P. syringae pv. maculicola strains that are pathogenic for Pto-expressing tomato plants were shown to lack avrPto1 and avrPtoB or to contain a disrupted avrPtoB homolog. Taking phylogenetic and pathological features into account, our data suggest that the DC3000 strain belongs to P. syringae pv. maculicola. This study shows that P. syringae pv. maculicola and P. syringae pv. tomato appear multiclonal, as they did not diverge from a single common ancestral group within the ancestral P. syringae genomospecies 3, and suggests that pathovar specificity within P. syringae may be due to independent genetic events.
Project description:The Arabidopsis PAD4 gene previously was found to be required for expression of multiple defense responses including camalexin synthesis and PR-1 gene expression in response to infection by the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola. This report describes the isolation of PAD4. The predicted PAD4 protein sequence displays similarity to triacyl glycerol lipases and other esterases. The PAD4 transcript was found to accumulate after P. syringae infection or treatment with salicylic acid (SA). PAD4 transcript levels were very low in infected pad4 mutants. Treatment with SA induced expression of PAD4 mRNA in pad4-1, pad4-3, and pad4-4 plants but not in pad4-2 plants. Induction of PAD4 expression by P. syringae was independent of the regulatory factor NPR1 but induction by SA was NPR1-dependent. Taken together with the previous observation that pad4 mutants have a defect in accumulation of SA upon pathogen infection, these results suggest that PAD4 participates in a positive regulatory loop that increases SA levels, thereby activating SA-dependent defense responses.
Project description:Successful pathogenesis requires a number of coordinated processes whose genetic bases remain to be fully characterized. We utilized a high-throughput, liquid media-based assay to screen transposon disruptants of the phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola ES4326 to identify genes required for virulence on Arabidopsis. Many genes identified through this screen were involved in processes such as type III secretion, periplasmic glucan biosynthesis, flagellar motility, and amino acid biosynthesis. A small set of genes did not fall into any of these functional groups, and their disruption resulted in context-specific effects on in planta bacterial growth.
Project description:Identification of AvrRpt2-mediated differential gene expression in Arabidopsis Four-week-old leaves of Arabidopsis Col-0 plant were infiltrated with Pseudomonas syringae pv. Maculicola carring effector AvrRpt2 at OD0.01. Samples were collected at 0 or 6 hours after infiltration. Each time point contains three biological replicates.
Project description:Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola is a natural pathogen of members of the Brassicaceae plant family. Using a transposon-based mutagenesis strategy in Pseudomonas syringaepv. maculicola M2 (PsmM2), we conducted a genetic screen to identify mutants that were capable of growing in M9 medium supplemented with a crude extract from the leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. A mutant containing a transposon insertion in the hrpZ gene (PsmMut8) was unable to infect adult plants from Arabidopsis thaliana or Brassica oleracea, suggesting a loss of pathogenicity. The promotorless cat reporter present in the gene trap was expressed if PsmMut8 was grown in minimal medium (M9) supplemented with the leaf extract but not if grown in normal rich medium (KB). We conducted phylogenetic analysis using hrpAZB genes, showing the classical 5-clade distribution, and nucleotide diversity analysis, showing the putative position for selective pressure in this operon. Our results indicate that the hrpAZB operon from Pseudomonas syringaepv. maculicola M2 is necessary for its pathogenicity and that its diversity would be under host-mediated diversifying selection.
Project description:Segregation of partial resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola (Psm) ES4326 was studied in the recombinant inbred population created from accessions (ecotypes) Columbia (Col-4), the more susceptible parent, and Landsberg (Ler-0). Plants were spray inoculated with lux-transformed bacteria in experiments to measure susceptibility. The amount of disease produced on a range of Col × Ler lines by spray inoculation was highly correlated with that produced by pressure infiltration of bacteria into the apoplast. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis identified four loci that contributed to partial resistance: QRpsJIC-1.1, QRpsJIC-2.1, QRpsJIC-3.1 and QRpsJIC-5.1 on chromosomes 1, 2, 3 and 5, respectively. QRpsJIC-3.1, located 8.45?cM from the top of the consensus genetic map of chromosome 3, had a large, approximately additive effect on partial resistance, explaining 50% of the genetic variation in this population. Fine mapping narrowed the region within which this QTL was located to 62 genes. A list of candidate genes included several major classes of resistance gene.
Project description:Identification of differential gene expression during RPS2-mediated effector-triggered immunity in Arabidopsis Four-week-old leaves of Arabidopsis Col-0 wild type and rps2 mutant plant were infiltrated with Pseudomonas syringae pv. Maculicola carring effector AvrRpt2 at OD 0.01. Samples were collected at 0, 6 and 10 hours after infiltration for WT plants and at 0 and 10 hours after infiltration for rps2 plants. Three biological replicates were performed per genotype per time point.
Project description:Type-III secreted effectors (T3Es) play critical roles during bacterial pathogenesis in plants. Plant recognition of certain T3Es can trigger defence, often accompanied by macroscopic cell death, termed the hypersensitive response (HR). Economically important species of kiwifruit are susceptible to Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa), the causal agent of kiwifruit bacterial canker. Although Psa is non-pathogenic in Arabidopsis thaliana, we observed that a T3E, HopZ5 that is unique to a global outbreak clade of Psa, triggers HR and defence in Arabidopsis accession Ct-1. Ws-2 and Col-0 accessions are unable to produce an HR in response to Pseudomonas-delivered HopZ5. While Ws-2 is susceptible to virulent bacterial strain Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 carrying HopZ5, Col-0 is resistant despite the lack of an HR. We show that HopZ5, like other members of the YopJ superfamily of acetyltransferases that it belongs to, autoacetylates lysine residues. Through comparisons to other family members, we identified an acetyltransferase catalytic activity and demonstrate its requirement for triggering defence in Arabidopsis and Nicotiana species. Collectively, data herein indicate that HopZ5 is a plasma membrane-localized acetyltransferase with autoacetylation activity required for avirulence.
Project description:Dimorphism at the Resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola 1 (RPM1) locus is well documented in natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana and has been portrayed as a long-term balanced polymorphism. The haplotype from resistant plants contains the RPM1 gene, which enables these plants to recognize at least two structurally unrelated bacterial effector proteins (AvrB and AvrRpm1) from bacterial crop pathogens. A complete deletion of the RPM1 coding sequence has been interpreted as a single event resulting in susceptibility in these individuals. Consequently, the ability to revert to resistance or for alternative R-gene specificities to evolve at this locus has also been lost in these individuals. Our survey of variation at the RPM1 locus in a large species-wide sample of A. thaliana has revealed four new loss-of-function alleles that contain most of the intervening sequence of the RPM1 open reading frame. Multiple loss-of-function alleles may have originated due to the reported intrinsic cost to plants expressing the RPM1 protein. The frequency and geographic distribution of rpm1 alleles observed in our survey indicate the parallel origin and maintenance of these loss-of-function mutations and reveal a more complex history of natural selection at this locus than previously thought.
Project description:Background:Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a type of plant defense response that provides a long-lasting resistance to broad-spectrum pathogens in uninfected distal tissues following an initial localized infection. However, little information is available at present on the biological basis of SAR at the molecular level, especially in uninfected distal leaves. Methods:In the present work, we used two SAR-inducing pathogens, avirulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola ES4326 harboring avrRpm1 (Psm avrRpm1) and virulent P. syringae pv. maculicola ES4326 (Psm ES4326), to induce SAR in Arabidopsis ecotype Col-0. A metabolomics approach based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) was used to identify SAR-related metabolites in infected local leaves, and in uninfected distal leaves. Results:Differentially accumulated metabolites were distinguished by statistical analyses. The results showed that both the primary metabolism and the secondary metabolism were significantly altered in infected local leaves and in uninfected distal leaves, including phenolic compounds, amino acids, nucleotides, organic acids, and many other metabolites. Conclusions:The content of amino acids and phenolic compounds increased in uninfected distal leaves, suggesting their contribution to the establishment of SAR. In addition, 2'-hydroxy-4, 4', 6'-trimethoxychalcone, phenylalanine, and p-coumaric acid were identified as potential components which may play important roles both in basic resistance and in SAR. This work provides a reference for understanding of the metabolic mechanism associated with SAR in plants, which will be useful for further investigation of the molecular basis of the systemic immunity.