Project description:Embryonic stem cells differentiated into embryoid bodies. Their expression pattern will be compared to that of the same cells grown in regular growth conditions. A study of the differential gene expression of these two populations should reveal genes whose expression is necessary for the maintenance of the stem cell phenotype. Keywords: other Overall design: this experiment include 2 samples and 12 replicates
Project description:Embryonic stem cells differentiated into embryoid bodies. Their expression pattern will be compared to that of the same cells grown in regular growth conditions. A study of the differential gene expression of these two populations should reveal genes whose expression is necessary for the maintenance of the stem cell phenotype. Experiment Overall Design: this experiment include 2 samples and 12 replicates
Project description:In this study we present data to support the role for Cdk2ap2 in regulating self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) under permissive conditions, and cell survival during differentiation of the mESCs into terminally differentiated cell types. To understand the function of Cdk2ap2 during early development, we generated mESCs with homozygous disruption of the endogenous Cdk2ap2 locus (Cdk2ap2(tr/tr)). The Cdk2ap2(tr/tr) mESCs, when grown in a complete growth medium containing leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), showed an early differentiation phenotype characterized by flattened colonies and a distinct intercellular boundary. We also observed downregulation of Nanog and upregulation in markers of mesoderm and endoderm differentiation, including Brachyury (T), Afp, and S100a, when compared to Wt mESCs. Cdk2ap2(tr/tr) mESCs were able to form embryoid bodies (EBs); however, those EBs were unhealthy and had an increased level of apoptosis. Furthermore, Cdk2ap2(tr/tr) mESCs were unable to form teratomas in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. Cdk2ap2 under normal conditions has a biphasic expression, suggesting regulatory roles in early-versus-late stem cell differentiation. These data begin to add to our understanding of how Cdk2ap2 may be involved in the regulation of self-renewal of stem cells during early embryogenesis.
Project description:In order to compare the gene expression profiles of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) lines and their differentiated progeny and to monitor feeder contaminations, we have examined gene expression in seven hESC lines and human fibroblast feeder cells using Illumina bead arrays that contain probes for 24,131 transcript probes.A total of 48 different samples (including duplicates) grown in multiple laboratories under different conditions were analyzed and pairwise comparisons were performed in all groups. Hierarchical clustering showed that blinded duplicates were correctly identified as the closest related samples. hESC lines clustered together irrespective of the laboratory in which they were maintained. hESCs could be readily distinguished from embryoid bodies (EB) differentiated from them and the karyotypically abnormal hESC line BG01V. The embryonal carcinoma (EC) line NTera2 is a useful model for evaluating characteristics of hESCs. Expression of subsets of individual genes was validated by comparing with published databases, MPSS (Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing) libraries, and parallel analysis by microarray and RT-PCR.we show that Illumina's bead array platform is a reliable, reproducible and robust method for developing base global profiles of cells and identifying similarities and differences in large number of samples.
Project description:The role of striatin interacting protein 2 (Strip2) in differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is still under debate. Strip2-silenced murine (KD) ESCs were differentiated for 4, 8, 12, and 16 days. We show that Strip2 is distributed in the perinucleus or nuclei of wild-type (WT) undifferentiated ESCs, but is localized in high-density nuclear bodies in differentiated cells. CellNet analysis of microarray gene expression data for the KD and scrambled control (SCR) embryoid bodies (EBs), as well as immunostainings of key pluripotent factors, demonstrated that differentiation of KD ESCs is repressed. This occurs even in 16-day-old EBs, which possessed a high tumorigenic potential. Correlated with very high expression levels of epigenetic regulator genes, Hat1 and Dnmt3, enzymatic activities of the histone acetyltransferase type B (Hat1) and DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase 3 beta (Dnmt3b) were higher in differentiated 16-day-old KD EBs than in SCR or WT EBs. The expression levels of let-7, 290, and 302 microRNA families were opposed in KD ESCs, while KD EBs had levels comparable to WT and SCR ESCs during differentiation. Strip2 is critical for the regular differentiation of ESCs. Moreover, Strip2 deficient ESCs showed a dysregulation of epigenetic regulators and microRNAs regulating pluripotency.
Project description:We propose a new methodology to enhance the vascular differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) by encapsulation in a bioactive hydrogel. hESCs were encapsulated in a dextran-based hydrogel with or without immobilized regulatory factors: a tethered RGD peptide and microencapsulated VEGF(165). The fraction of cells expressing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor KDR/Flk-1, a vascular marker, increased up to 20-fold, as compared to spontaneously differentiated embryoid bodies (EBs). The percentage of encapsulated cells in hydrogels with regulatory factors expressing ectodermal markers including nestin or endodermal markers including alpha-fetoprotein decreased 2- or 3-fold, respectively, as compared to EBs. When the cells were removed from these networks and cultured in media conditions conducive for further vascular differentiation, the number of vascular cells was higher than the number obtained through EBs, using the same media conditions. Functionalized dextran-based hydrogels could thus enable derivation of vascular cells in large quantities, particularly endothelial cells, for potential application in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.
Project description:Cells of the human embryonic stem (hES) cell line H9, when cultured in the form of embryoid bodies, give rise to cells with markers of the keratinocyte of stratified squamous epithelia. Keratinocytes also form in nodules produced in scid mice by injected H9 cells; the hES-derived keratinocytes could be recovered in culture, where their colonies underwent a peculiar form of fragmentation. Whether formed from embryoid bodies or in nodules, hES-derived keratinocytes differed from postnatal keratinocytes in their much lower proliferative potential in culture; isolated single keratinocytes could not be expanded into mass cultures. Although their growth was not improved by transduction with the hTERT gene, these keratinocytes were immortalized by transduction with the E6E7 genes of HPV16. Clonally derived lines isolated from E6E7-transduced keratinocytes continued to express markers of the keratinocyte lineage, but the frequency with which they terminally differentiated was reduced compared with keratinocytes cultured from postnatal human epidermis. If other hES-derived somatic cell types also prove to be restricted in growth potential, not identical to the corresponding postnatal cell types, and to require immortalization for clonal isolation and expansion, these properties will have to be considered in planning their therapeutic use.
Project description:Embryonic stem cells need to maintain genomic integrity so that they can retain the ability to differentiate into multiple cell types without propagating DNA errors. Previous studies have suggested that mechanisms of genome surveillance, including DNA repair, are superior in mouse embryonic stem cells compared with various differentiated murine cells. Using single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) we found that human embryonic stem cells (BG01, I6) have more efficient repair of different types of DNA damage (generated from H2O2, UV-C, ionizing radiation, or psoralen) than human primary fibroblasts (WI-38, hs27) and, with the exception of UV-C damage, HeLa cells. Microarray gene expression analysis showed that mRNA levels of several DNA repair genes are elevated in human embryonic stem cells compared with their differentiated forms (embryoid bodies). These data suggest that genomic maintenance pathways are enhanced in human embryonic stem cells, relative to differentiated human cells.
Project description:Hypoxic microenvironment plays an important role in determining stem cell fates. However, it is controversial to which direction between self-renewal and differentiation the hypoxia drives the stem cells. Here, we investigated whether a short exposure to hypoxia (termed 'hypoxic-priming') efficiently directed and promoted mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) to differentiate into vascular-lineage. During spontaneous differentiation of embryoid bodies (EBs), hypoxic region was observed inside EB spheroids even under normoxic conditions. Indeed, hypoxia-primed EBs more efficiently differentiated into cells of vascular-lineage, than normoxic EBs did. We found that hypoxia suppressed Oct4 expression via direct binding of HIF-1 to reverse hypoxia-responsive elements (rHREs) in the Oct4 promoter. Furthermore, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was highly upregulated in hypoxia-primed EBs, which differentiated towards endothelial cells in the absence of exogenous VEGF. Interestingly, this differentiation was abolished by the HIF-1 or VEGF blocking. In vivo transplantation of hypoxia-primed EBs into mice ischemic limb elicited enhanced vessel differentiation. Collectively, our findings identify that hypoxia enhanced ESC differentiation by HIF-1-mediated inverse regulation of Oct4 and VEGF, which is a novel pathway to promote vascular-lineage differentiation.
Project description:Spontaneous neural differentiation of embryonic stem cells is induced by Noggin-mediated inhibition of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) signaling. RhoA is a guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) that regulates cytoskeletal dynamics and gene expression, both of which control stem cell fate. We found that disruption of Syx, a gene encoding a RhoA-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor, accelerated retinoic acid-induced neural differentiation in murine embryonic stem cells aggregated into embryoid bodies. Cells from Syx(+/+) and Syx(-/-) embryoid bodies had different abundances of proteins implicated in stem cell pluripotency. The differentiation-promoting proteins Noggin and RAR? (a retinoic acid receptor) were more abundant in cells of Syx(-/-) embryoid bodies, whereas the differentiation-suppressing proteins SIRT1 (a protein deacetylase) and the phosphorylated form of SMAD1 (the active form of this transcription factor) were more abundant in cells of Syx(+/+) embryoid bodies. These differences were blocked by the overexpression of constitutively active RhoA, indicating that the abundance of these proteins was maintained, at least in part, by RhoA activity. The peripheral stress fibers in cells from Syx(-/-) embryoid bodies were thinner than those in Syx(+/+) cells. Furthermore, less Noggin and fewer vesicles containing Rab3d, a GTPase that mediates Noggin trafficking, were detected in cells from Syx(-/-) embryoid bodies, which could result from increased Noggin exocytosis. These results suggested that, in addition to inhibiting Noggin transcription, RhoA activity in wild-type murine embryonic stem cells also prevented neural differentiation by limiting Noggin secretion.