Project description:This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series: GSE11095: Dose response of carbon monoxide treatment of M. tuberculosis GSE11096: Role of M. tuberculosis dosS and dosT in CO sensing Refer to individual Series
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of M. tuberculosis growing in log phase treated with various concentrations of carbon monoxide versus untreated controls Keywords: Dose response Two condition experiment, CO treated cells at 2000, 200 and 20 ppm versus untreated controls. Biological replicates: 2 replicates per dose, 1 array per replicate
Project description:Morphogenetic switching between the replicating and nonreplicating states of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is regulated by oxygen, nitric oxide, and carbon monoxide levels. The mechanisms by which M. tuberculosis senses these diatomic gases remain poorly understood. In this study, we have examined whether virulence factor SenX3 plays any role in oxygen sensing.In this study, we demonstrate that the virulence factor SenX3 is a heme protein that acts as a three-way sensor with three levels of activity. The oxidation of SenX3 heme by oxygen leads to the activation of its kinase activity, whereas the deoxy-ferrous state confers a moderate kinase activity. The binding of nitric oxide and carbon monoxide inhibits kinase activity. Consistent with these biochemical properties, the SenX3 mutant of M. tuberculosis is capable of attaining a nonreplicating persistent state in response to hypoxic stress, but its regrowth on the restoration of ambient oxygen levels is significantly attenuated compared with the wild-type and the complemented mutant strains. Furthermore, the presence of signaling concentrations of nitric oxide and carbon monoxide was able to inhibit the regrowth of M. tuberculosis in response to ambient oxygen levels.Evidence presented in this study delineates a plausible mechanism explaining the oxygen-induced reactivation of tuberculosis diseases in humans after many years of latent infection. Furthermore, this study implicates nitric oxide and carbon monoxide in the inhibition of mycobacterial growth from the nonreplicating state.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of M. tuberculosis growing in log phase treated with various concentrations of carbon monoxide versus untreated controls Keywords: Dose response Overall design: Two condition experiment, CO treated cells at 2000, 200 and 20 ppm versus untreated controls. Biological replicates: 2 replicates per dose, 1 array per replicate
Project description:Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the pathogen that causes tuberculosis, has evolved sophisticated mechanisms for evading assault by the human host. This review focuses on M. tuberculosis regulatory metalloproteins that are sensitive to exogenous stresses attributed to changes in the levels of gaseous molecules (i.e., molecular oxygen, carbon monoxide and nitric oxide) to elicit an intracellular response. In particular, we highlight recent developments on the subfamily of Whi proteins, redox sensing WhiB-like proteins that contain iron-sulfur clusters, sigma factors and their cognate anti-sigma factors of which some are zinc-regulated, and the dormancy survival regulon DosS/DosT-DosR heme sensory system. Mounting experimental evidence suggests that these systems contribute to a highly complex and interrelated regulatory network that controls M. tuberculosis biology. This review concludes with a discussion of strategies that M. tuberculosis has developed to maintain redox homeostasis, including mechanisms to regulate endogenous nitric oxide and carbon monoxide levels.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of M. tuberculosis dosR and dosS mutants and wild type growing in log phase treated with carbon monoxide or nitric oxide versus untreated controls Keywords: Genetic modification Two condition experiment, DETANO treated cells at 100 uM or CO treated cells at 20000 ppm versus untreated controls for various M. tuberculosis mutants. Biological replicates: 2 replicates per dose, 1 array per replicate
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of M. tuberculosis dosR and dosS mutants and wild type growing in log phase treated with carbon monoxide or nitric oxide versus untreated controls Keywords: Genetic modification Overall design: Two condition experiment, DETANO treated cells at 100 uM or CO treated cells at 20000 ppm versus untreated controls for various M. tuberculosis mutants. Biological replicates: 2 replicates per dose, 1 array per replicate
Project description:UNLABELLED:Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, remains a devastating human infectious disease, causing two million deaths annually. We previously demonstrated that M. tuberculosis induces an enzyme, heme oxygenase (HO1), that produces carbon monoxide (CO) gas and that M. tuberculosis adapts its transcriptome during CO exposure. We now demonstrate that M. tuberculosis carries a novel resistance gene to combat CO toxicity. We screened an M. tuberculosis transposon library for CO-susceptible mutants and found that disruption of Rv1829 (carbon monoxide resistance, Cor) leads to marked CO sensitivity. Heterologous expression of Cor in Escherichia coli rescued it from CO toxicity. Importantly, the virulence of the cor mutant is attenuated in a mouse model of tuberculosis. Thus, Cor is necessary and sufficient to protect bacteria from host-derived CO. Taken together, this represents the first report of a role for HO1-derived CO in controlling infection of an intracellular pathogen and the first identification of a CO resistance gene in a pathogenic organism. IMPORTANCE:Macrophages produce a variety of antimicrobial molecules, including nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and acid (H+), that serve to kill engulfed bacteria. In addition to these molecules, human and mouse macrophages also produce carbon monoxide (CO) gas by the heme oxygenase (HO1) enzyme. We observed that, in contrast to other bacteria, mycobacteria are resistant to CO, suggesting that this might be an evolutionary adaptation of mycobacteria for survival within macrophages. We screened a panel of ~2,500 M. tuberculosis mutants to determine which genes are required for survival of M. tuberculosis in the presence of CO. Within this panel, we identified one such gene, cor, that specifically confers CO resistance. Importantly, we found that the ability of M. tuberculosis cells carrying a mutated copy of this gene to cause tuberculosis in a mouse disease model is significantly attenuated. This indicates that CO resistance is essential for mycobacterial survival in vivo.
Project description:BACKGROUND:It is unknown whether immunosuppression influences the physiologic state of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vivo. We evaluated the impact of host immunity by comparing M. tuberculosis and human gene transcription in sputum between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and uninfected patients with tuberculosis. METHODS:We collected sputum specimens before treatment from Gambians and Ugandans with pulmonary tuberculosis, revealed by positive results of acid-fast bacillus smears. We quantified expression of 2179 M. tuberculosis genes and 234 human immune genes via quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. We summarized genes from key functional categories with significantly increased or decreased expression. RESULTS:A total of 24 of 65 patients with tuberculosis were HIV infected. M. tuberculosis DosR regulon genes were less highly expressed among HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis than among HIV-uninfected patients with tuberculosis (Gambia, P < .0001; Uganda, P = .037). In profiling of human genes from the same sputa, HIV-infected patients had 3.4-fold lower expression of IFNG (P = .005), 4.9-fold higher expression of ARG1 (P = .0006), and 3.4-fold higher expression of IL10 (P = .0002) than in HIV-uninfected patients with tuberculosis. CONCLUSIONS:M. tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients had lower expression of the DosR regulon, a critical metabolic and immunomodulatory switch induced by NO, carbon monoxide, and hypoxia. Our human data suggest that decreased DosR expression may result from alternative pathway activation of macrophages, with consequent decreased NO expression and/or by poor granuloma formation with consequent decreased hypoxic stress.
Project description:Mycobacterium tuberculosis has 10 universal stress proteins, whose function is unknown. However, proteomic and transcriptomic analyses have shown that a number of usp genes are significantly upregulated under hypoxic conditions and in response to nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, as well as during M. tuberculosis infection of macrophage cell lines. Six of these USPs are part of the DosR regulon and this, along with their expression pattern and the phenotypes of usp mutants in other bacterial species, suggests a potential role in the persistence and/or intracellular survival of Mtb. Knock-out mutants of individual usp genes encoding the USPs Rv1996, Rv2005c, Rv2026c and Rv2028c were generated and their growth and survival under hypoxic and other stress conditions examined. Although the majority of usp genes are highly induced in hypoxic conditions, mutation did not affect the long term survival of Mtb under these conditions, or in response to a range of stress conditions chosen to represent the environmental onslaughts experienced by the bacillus during an infection, nor during infection of mouse and human - derived macrophage cell lines. The possibility remains that these USPs are functionally redundant in Mtb.