Project description:High soil carbonate limits crop performance especially in semiarid or arid climates. To understand how plants adapt to such soils, we explored natural variation in tolerance to soil carbonate in small local populations (demes) of Arabidopsis thaliana growing on soils differing in carbonate content. Reciprocal field-based transplants on soils with elevated carbonate (+C) and without carbonate (-C) over several years revealed that demes native to (+C) soils showed higher fitness than those native to (-C) soils when both were grown together on carbonate-rich soil. This supports the role of soil carbonate as a driving factor for local adaptation. Analyses of contrasting demes revealed key mechanisms associated with these fitness differences. Under controlled conditions, plants from the tolerant deme A1(+C) native to (+C) soil were more resistant to both elevated carbonate and iron deficiency than plants from the sensitive T6(-C) deme native to (-C) soil. Resistance of A1(+C) to elevated carbonate was associated with higher root extrusion of both protons and coumarin-type phenolics. Tolerant A1(+C) also had better Ca-exclusion than sensitive T6(-C) . We conclude that Arabidopsis demes are locally adapted in their native habitat to soils with moderately elevated carbonate. This adaptation is associated with both enhanced iron acquisition and calcium exclusion.
Project description:Expansins are cell wall loosening agents, known for their endogenous function in cell wall extensibility. The Arabidopsis expansin-like A2 (EXLA2) gene was identified by its down-regulation in response to infection by the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea, and by the reduced susceptibility of an exla2 mutant to the same pathogen. The exla2 mutant was equally susceptible to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, but was more resistant to the necrotrophic fungus Alternaria brassicicola, when compared with the wild-type or with transgenic, ectopic EXLA2-overexpressing lines. The exla2 mutants also enhanced tolerance to the phytoprostane-A1 . This suggests that the absence or down-regulation of EXLA2 leads to increased resistance to B.?cinerea in a CORONATINE INSENSITIVE 1 (COI1)-dependent manner, and this down-regulation can be achieved by phytoprostane-A1 treatment. EXLA2 is induced significantly by salinity and cold, and by the exogenous application of abscisic acid. The exla2 mutant also showed hypersensitivity towards increased salt and cold, and this hypersensitivity required a functional abscisic acid pathway. The differential temporal expression of EXLA2 and the phenotypes in transgenic plants with altered expression of EXLA2 indicate that plant cell wall structure is an important player during Arabidopsis developmental stages. Our results indicate that EXLA2 appears to be important in response to various biotic and abiotic stresses, particularly in the pathogenesis of necrotrophic pathogens and in the tolerance to abiotic stress.
Project description:This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series:; GSE10719: Response of Arabidopsis cell culture to phytoprostane A1; GSE10732: Identification of TGA-regulated genes in response to phytoprostane A1 and OPDA Experiment Overall Design: Refer to individual Series
Project description:Background:There is little information on the effect of nutrient solutions composition on Arabidopsis growth. Therefore, we compared growth performance of Arabidopsis thaliana (Col-0) grown on the most commonly used nutrient solutions in deep water culture: Hoagland and Arnon, Murashige and Skoog, Tocquin, Hermans, and Conn. In addition to these nutrient solution composition experiments, we established Arabidopsis growth response curves for nutrient solution concentration and salt stress (NaCl). Results:Arabidopsis rosette fresh and dry weight showed an approximate linear decline with NaCl dose in deep water culture, i.e. 9% reduction relative to control per unit of electrical conductivity (EC in dS m-1, for scale comprehension 1 dS m-1 equals?~?10 mM NaCl). The Tocquin, ½Hoagland and Conn nutrient solutions had equal and optimal growth performance. Optimal nutrient solution concentration for Tocquin and Hoagland was 0.8 to 0.9 dS m-1. Close to the EC of ½Hoagland (1.1 dS m-1), which is frequently used in Arabidopsis research. Conn solution showed optimal growth at much higher EC (2 dS m-1) indicating that it is a balanced nutrient solution that matches the needs of Arabidopsis. Full Murashige and Skoog solution (5.9 dS m-1) was lethal and diluted solutions (EC of 1.6 and 1.1 dS m-1) caused stress symptoms and severe growth retardation at later developmental stages. Conclusions:Arabidopsis thaliana (Col-0) plants grown in deep water culture showed a sixfold growth difference when commonly used nutrient solutions were compared. Murashige and Skoog solution should not be used as nutrient solution in deep water culture. Conn, Tocquin and ½Hoagland are balanced nutrient solutions which result in optimal Arabidopsis growth in hydroponic systems.
Project description:Myo-insositol (MI) is a crucial substance in the growth and developmental processes in plants. It is commonly added to the culture medium to promote adventitious shoot development. In our previous work, MI was found in influencing Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. In this report, a high-throughput RNA sequencing technique (RNA-Seq) was used to investigate differently expressed genes in one-month-old Arabidopsis seedling grown on MI free or MI supplemented culture medium. The results showed that 21,288 and 21,299 genes were detected with and without MI treatment, respectively. The detected genes included 184 new genes that were not annotated in the Arabidopsis thaliana reference genome. Additionally, 183 differentially expressed genes were identified (DEGs, FDR ?0.05, log2 FC?1), including 93 up-regulated genes and 90 down-regulated genes. The DEGs were involved in multiple pathways, such as cell wall biosynthesis, biotic and abiotic stress response, chromosome modification, and substrate transportation. Some significantly differently expressed genes provided us with valuable information for exploring the functions of exogenous MI. RNA-Seq results showed that exogenous MI could alter gene expression and signaling transduction in plant cells. These results provided a systematic understanding of the functions of exogenous MI in detail and provided a foundation for future studies.
Project description:Arabidopsis thaliana is a widely used model plant for plant biology research. Under traditional agar-plate culture system (TPG, traditional plant-growing), both plant shoots and roots are exposed to illumination, and roots are grown in sucrose-added medium. This is not a natural environment for the roots and may cause artifact responses. We have developed an improved agar-plate culture system (IPG, improved plant-growing) where shoots are illuminated but roots are grown in darkness without sucrose addition. Compared to TPG, IPG produced plants with significantly less total root length, lateral root length and root hair density, although their primary roots were longer. Root gravitropism, PIN2 (an auxin efflux carrier) abundance, H? efflux or Ca²? influx in root apexes, were weaker in IPG-grown roots than those in TPG-grown roots. We conclude that IPG offers a more natural way to study the root growth and response of Arabidopsis thaliana.
Project description:We identified loci responsible for natural variation in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) responses to a bacterial pathogen virulence factor, HopAM1. HopAM1 is a type III effector protein secreted by the virulent Pseudomonas syringae strain Pto DC3000. Delivery of HopAM1 from disarmed Pseudomonas strains leads to local cell death, meristem chlorosis, or both, with varying intensities in different Arabidopsis accessions. These phenotypes are not associated with differences in bacterial growth restriction. We treated the two phenotypes as quantitative traits to identify host loci controlling responses to HopAM1. Genome-wide association (GWA) of 64 Arabidopsis accessions identified independent variants highly correlated with response to each phenotype. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in a recombinant inbred population between Bur-0 and Col-0 accessions revealed genetic linkage to regions distinct from the top GWA hits. Two major QTL associated with HopAM1-induced cell death were also associated with HopAM1-induced chlorosis. HopAM1-induced changes in Arabidopsis gene expression showed that rapid HopAM1-dependent cell death in Bur-0 is correlated with effector-triggered immune responses. Studies of the effect of mutations in known plant immune system genes showed, surprisingly, that both cell death and chlorosis phenotypes are enhanced by loss of EDS1, a regulatory hub in the plant immune-signaling network. Our results reveal complex genetic architecture for response to this particular type III virulence effector, in contrast to the typical monogenic control of cell death and disease resistance triggered by most type III effectors.
Project description:Arabinogalactan proteins are abundant cell-surface proteoglycans in plants and are involved in many cellular processes including somatic embryogenesis, cell-cell interactions, and cell elongation. We reported a glucuronosyltransferase encoded by Arabidopsis AtGlcAT14A, which catalyzes an addition of glucuronic acid residues to ?-1,3- and ?-1,6-linked galactans of arabinogalactan (Knoch et al. 2013). The knockout mutant of this gene resulted in the enhanced growth rate of hypocotyls and roots of seedlings, suggesting an involvement of AtGlcAT14A in cell elongation. AtGlcAt14A belongs to the family GT14 in the Carbohydrate Active Enzyme database (CAZy; www.cazy.org), in which a total of 11 proteins, including AtGLCAT14A, are classified from Arabidopsis thaliana. In this paper, we report the enzyme activities for the rest of the Arabidopsis GT14 isoforms, analyzed in the same way as for AtGlcAT14A. Evidently, two other Arabidopsis GT14 isoforms, At5g15050 and At2g37585, also possess the glucuronosyltransferase activity adding glucuronic acid residues to ?-1,3- and ?-1,6-linked galactans. Therefore, we named At5g15050 and At2g37585 as AtGlcAT14B and AtGlcAT14C, respectively.
Project description:Plants interact with a wide variety of fungi in a mutualistic, parasitic or neutral way. The associations formed depend on the exchange of nutrients and signalling molecules between the partners. This includes a diverse set of protein classes involved in defence, nutrient uptake or establishing a symbiotic relationship. Here, we have analysed the secretomes of the mutualistic, root-endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica and Arabidopsis thaliana when cultivated alone or in a co-culture. More than one hundred proteins were identified as differentially secreted, including proteins associated with growth, development, abiotic and biotic stress response and mucilage. While some of the proteins have been associated before to be involved in plant-microbial interaction, other proteins are newly described in this context. One plant protein found in the co-culture is PLAT1 (Polycystin, Lipoxygenase, Alpha-toxin and Triacylglycerol lipase). PLAT1 has not been associated with plant-fungal-interaction and is known to play a role in abiotic stress responses. In colonised roots PLAT1 shows an altered gene expression in a stage specific manner and plat1 knock-out plants are colonised stronger. It co-localises with Brassicaceae-specific endoplasmic reticulum bodies (ER-bodies) which are involved in the formation of the defence compound scopolin. We observed degraded ER-bodies in infected Arabidopsis roots and a change in the scopolin level in response to the presence of the fungus.
Project description:We have implemented an integrated Systems Biology approach to analyze overall transcriptomic reprogramming and systems level defense responses in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana during an insect (Brevicoryne brassicae) and a bacterial (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000) attack. The main aim of this study was to identify the attacker-specific and general defense response signatures in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana while attacked by phloem feeding aphids or pathogenic bacteria. Defense responses and networks, unique and specific for aphid or Pseudomonas stresses were identified. Our analysis revealed a probable link between biotic stress and microRNAs in Arabidopsis and thus opened up a new direction to conduct large-scale targeted experiments to explore detailed regulatory links among them. The presented results provide a first comprehensive understanding of Arabidopsis - B. brassicae and Arabidopsis - P. syringae interactions at a systems biology level. Arabidopsis thaliana (ecotype Colombia-0) seeds were sown into 6-cm-diameter pots filled with a sterile soil mix (1.0 part soil and 0.5 part horticultural perlite). Plants were kept in growth chambers VM-CM-6tsch VB 1514 (VM-CM-6tch Industrietechnik GmbH, Germany) with a 16/8 h (light/dark) photoperiod at 22/18 M-BM-0C, 40/70% relative humidity, and 70/0 mmol m-2 s-1 light intensity. The Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 culture was grown overnight in 10 ml of Kings B solution supplemented with antibiotics rifampicin (50 M-NM-<g mlM-bM-^HM-^R1) and kanamycin (25 M-NM-<g mlM-bM-^HM-^R1). Overnight culture was washed once in 10 mM MgCl2 and final cell densities were adjusted to approximately 0.20 at 600 nm (approximately 1.5 M-CM-^W 108 cfu mlM-bM-^HM-^R1) in 10 mM MgCl2. Plants were mock-challenged with 10 mM MgCl2 or inoculated with DC3000 strain, 3-4 leaves were infiltrated on the abaxial surface with a needleless 1-ml syringe.Whole rosettes were cut at the hypocotyls and harvested from Pseudomonas infested and mock-infected plants after 72 hours treatment. 4 biological replicates were prepared from each treatment, each containing rosettes from 15 individual plants. Differences in transcriptional responses were measured by comparing genes expression of Pseudomonas infected plants against mock-infected control plants.